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MARINE  CORPS  VALUES  AND  LEADERSHIP 


USER'S  GUIDE 


FOR 


DISCUSSION  LEADERS 


(USER'S  GUIDE  TO  MARINE  CORPS  VALUES) 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 


MARINE  CORPS  VALUES  AND  LEADERSHIP 

USER'S  GUIDE 
FOR 

DISCUSSION  LEADERS 


(USER'S  GUIDE  TO  MARINE  CORPS  VALUES) 


DIRECTOR  MARINE  CORPS  RESEARCH  CENTER 
ATTN  COLLECTION  MANAGEMENT  (C40RCL) 
MCCOC 

2040  BROADWAY  ST 
QUANTICOVA  22134-5107 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 
Chapter  Page 

TABLE  OF  CONTENTS   i 

FOREWORD   iii 

INTRODUCTION   iv 

1  DISCUSSION  LEADING  TECHNIQUES   1-1 

2  MARINE  CORPS  CORE  VALUES   2-1 

3  CORE  VALUES   3-1 

4  CORE  VALUES:      PROFESSIONALISM  AND  ETHICS   4-1 

5  ETHICAL  LEADERSHIP   5-1 

6  RIGHT  -VS-  WRONG   6-1 

7  MENTORING   7-1 

8  SUBSTANCE  ABUSE   8-1 

9  SEXUAL  HARASSMENT   9-1 

10  EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY   10-1 

11  FRATERNIZATION   11-1 

12  CUSTOMS  AND  COURTESIES   12-1 

13  USMC  COUNSELING  PROGRAM   13-1 

14  PROFESSION  OF  ARMS   14-1 

15  FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP   15-1 

16  PHILOSOPHY  OF  LEADERSHIP   16-1 

17  LEADERSHIP  ROLES   17-1 


i 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

18  LEADER  STYLES   18-1 

19  LEADER  AND  FOLLOWER   19-1 

2  0     DEVELOPING  SUBORDINATE  LEADERS   2  0-1 

21  COMBAT  LEADERSHIP   21-1 

22  PROFILES  IN  COURAGE   22-1 

2  3     LEADERSHIP  TRAINING   23-1 

24     DISCUSSING  FAMILY  READINESS   24-1 

DEFINITIONS   A-l 


ii 


FOREWORD 


"...A  sound  body  is  good;  a  sound  mind  is  better;  but  a  strong  and  clean  character  is 
better  than  either." 

Theodore  Roosevelt 
Address  at  Groton,  Mass.,  24  May  1904 

The  United  States  Marine  Corps  is  the  world's  premier  fighting  force.    More  than  220 
years  of  success  and  tradition  have  helped  carve  a  place  for  Marines  in  the  hearts  of  Americans. 
We  epitomize  that  which  is  good  about  our  nation  and  personify  the  ideals  upon  which  it  was 
founded.  Generation  after  generation  of  American  men  and  women  have  given  special  meaning  to 
the  title  United  States  Marine. 

The  Nation  expects  more  of  the  Marine  Corps  than  just  success  on  the  field  of  battle. 
America  requires  its  Marines  to  represent  her  around  the  globe  as  a  symbol  of  the  might,  resolve, 
and  compassion  of  our  great  country.  Feared  by  enemies,  respected  by  allies,  and  loved  by  the 
American  people,  Marines  are  a  "special  breed."  This  reputation  was  gained  through  and  is 
maintained  in  a  set  of  enduring  core  values  that  form  the  bedrock  and  heart  of  our  character. 

Ensuring  that  today's  Marines  uphold  the  legacy  of  those  who  have  gone  before  begins  at 
the  recruit  depots  and  Officer  Candidates'  School.  Here  we  undertake  the  transformation  of 
young  Americans  into  Marines,  and  ultimately  into  contributing  citizens  in  our  communities  in  a 
unique  and  indelible  way. 

From  our  earliest  days  as  Marines,  we  are  taught  that  the  Marine  Corps  is  a  special  team  — 
a  family.  Just  as  the  family  should  play  a  major  role  in  the  upbringing  of  children,  the  Marine 
Corps  embraces  this  noble  responsibility  in  the  "upbringing"  of  Marines  in  the  Marine  family. 

Part  of  belonging  to  the  Marine  team  and  family  involves  incorporating  the  values  of  that 
team  into  the  daily  lives  of  each  of  its  members.  We  all  understand,  and  must  subscribe  to,  our 
Corps  values:  honor,  courage,  commitment.  There  are  other  values  which  we  honor  as  defenders 
of  the  constitution:  the  ideals  of  democracy,  fairness,  faith,  and  freedom.  These  values  and  the 
basic  concept  of  right  and  wrong,  are  cornerstones  in  building  Marines.  These  basic  values  are 
the  "anchor  points"  of  many  of  the  lessons  contained  in  this  guidebook. 

This  discussion  guide  also  contains  numerous  lessons  on  leadership.  Leaders  at  all  levels 
are  charged  with  instilling  the  lessons  of  our  heritage  and  inculcating  and  reinforcing  the  values 
that  define  our  unique  character.  Just  as  our  values  set  us  apart,  our  leadership  is  at  the  heart  of 
why  Marines  enjoy  a  reputation  that  is  unparalleled  among  those  practicing  the  profession  of 
arms. 

This  publication  is  a  tool  to  assist  leaders  in  instilling  and  sustaining  the  lessons  of  values 
and  leadership.  I  charge  leaders  from  the  fire  team  leader  to  the  force  commander  to  use  these 
lessons  in  their  efforts  to  ensure  that  today's  and  tomorrow's  Marines  continue  to  reflect  the  very 
best  of  the  legacy  of  yesterday's  Marines. 

R.  R.  BLACKMAN,  JR. 
President,  Marine  Corps  University 

iii 


INTRODUCTION 


The  User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values  is  to  be  used  as  a  tool  to  help  ensure  that  the 
values  of  the  Corps  continue  to  be  reinforced  and  sustained  in  all  Marines  after  being  formally 
instilled  in  entry  level  training.  This  document  is  a  compendium  of  discussion  guides  developed 
and  used  by  Marine  Corps  formal  schools.  The  guides  are  part  of  the  formal  inculcation  of  values 
in  young  Marines,  enlisted  and  officer,  during  the  entry  level  training  process.  This  guide  is 
designed  to  be  used  as  a  departure  point  for  discussing  the  topics  as  a  continuation  of  the  process 
of  sustaining  values  within  the  Marine  Corps. 

The  User's  Guide  also  serves  as  a  resource  for  leaders  to  understand  the  "talk"  and  the 
"walk"  expected  of  them  as  leaders.  New  graduates  of  the  Recruit  Depots  and  The  Basic  School 
have  been  exposed  to  these  lessons  and  expect  to  arrive  at  their  first  duty  assignments  and  MOS 
schools  to  find  these  principles  and  standards  exhibited  in  the  Marines  they  encounter.  Leaders 
must  remember  that  as  long  as  there  is  but  one  Marine  junior  to  them,  they  are  honor  bound  to 
uphold  the  customs  and  traditions  of  the  Corps  and  to  always  "walk  the  walk  and  talk  the  talk." 
We  are  the  "parents"  and  "older  siblings"  of  the  future  leaders  of  the  Marine  Corps.  America  is 
depending  on  us  to  ensure  the  Marines  of  tomorrow  are  ready  and  worthy  of  the  challenges  of  this 
obligation. 

Teaching,  reinforcement,  and  sustainment  of  these  lessons  can  take  place  in  the  field, 
garrison,  or  formal  school  setting.  Instructional  methodology  and  media  may  vary  depending  on 
the  environment  and  location  of  the  instruction.  However,  environment  should  not  be  considered 
an  obstacle  to  the  conduct  or  quality  of  the  instruction.  This  guide  has  been  developed  as  a 
generic,  universal  training  tool  that  is  applicable  to  all  Marines  regardless  of  grade.  Discussion 
leaders  should  include  personal  experiences  that  contribute  to  the  development  of  the  particular 
value  or  leadership  lesson  being  discussed. 

The  Marine  Corps  University  (MCU)  is  interested  in  your  thoughts  on  this  publication. 
You  are  encouraged  to  contribute  to  this  evolutionary  and  living  process  for  instilling  values  in 
Marines.  Every  Marine  is  part  of  the  process.  Therefore,  if  you  have  developed  successful 
discussion  guides,  lessons,  or  you  would  like  to  provide  input  into  existing  guides,  the  point  of 
contact  at  MCU  is  the  Director,  Operations  and  Policy,  DSN  278-2260/5050,  commercial  (703) 
784-2260/5050,  fax  -5916.  You  may  also  visit  the  Marine  Corps  University  Homepage  on  the 
World  Wide  Web  at  http://WWW-MCU.MOG.USMC.MIL 


iv 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 


DISCUSSION  LEADING  TECHNIQUES 


1.  Introduction .     During  any  period  of  instruction,    it  is 
important  that  you,   as  the  instructor,   gain  the  attention  of  your 
students  and  provide  a  sense  of  enthusiasm  and  a  desire  to  learn. 
If  you  use  slides  or  other  media,   describe  how  this  media  will 
help  to  gain  student's  attention.     Use  an  attention  gainer  that 
is  related  to  your  class.     Once  you  have  gained  their  attention 
you  must  sell  your  lesson.     Tell  your  students  why  it  is 
important  for  them  to  listen  to  your  lesson.     The  instructor  must 
impress  upon  the  students  their  need  to  know  the  material.  If 
the  instructor  can  generate  in  each  student  a  sense  of  personal 
involvement  with  the  material,   mastery  of  the  subject  matter  will 
be  made  easier.     Generate  interest  in  your  group  by  being 
enthusiastic  about  your  topic.     This  will  stimulate  and  motivate 
the  students . 

2.  Overview .     The  purpose  of  this  instruction  is  to  explain  how 
to  lead  a  guided  discussion. 

3.  References .     Not  applicable. 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.  Know  when  to  use  a  guided  discussion  as  stated  in  this 
lecture . 

b.  Know  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  using  the  guided 
discussion  as  a  training  technique. 

c.  Know  the  tasks  of  the  discussion  leader  prior  to  and 
during  the  discussion. 

6.  Methods /Media .   The  following  points  outline  how  to  conduct  a 
guided  discussion: 

a.     What  is  a  guided  discussion?     To  have  a  guided  discussion 
you  need: 


1-1 


(1)  A  leader.     This  person  controls  the  discussion  and 
makes  sure  all  group  members  become  active  Participants. 

(2)  A  desired  outcome  or  goal.     This  can  be  a  solution 
to  a  problem,   covering  a  topic,   or  something  else. 

(3)  A  structure.     Certain  points  need  to  be  covered. 
Sometimes  they  need  to  be  covered  in  a  certain  order  or  sequence. 
The  leader  controls  the  structure. 

b.     When  do  you  use  a  guided  discussion? 

(1)  If  you  are  instructing  a  small  group   (up  to  20)  all 
at  once,  you  can  use  guided  discussions  often.     Sometimes  guided 
discussions  take  more  preparation,   patience,   and  mental  quickness 
on  your  part  than  other  kinds  of  instruction.     But  it  can  make 
your  job  of  teaching  much  easier.     Below  are  some  steps  to  follow 
to  make  sure  your  Marines  learn.     Guided  Discussions  help  you  do 
every  one  of  them  and  all  at  the  same  time. 

(a)  Allow  practice.     Practice  may  be  the  most 
important  part  of  learning.     In  guided  discussions,    the  members 
are  always  practicing  by  repeating  and  thinking  about  what  they 
know  and  learning  from  experiences  of  others. 

(b)  Determine  Marine's  strengths  and  weaknesses. 
When  you  conduct  good  guided  discussions,  you  know  whether  your 
Marines  are  studying  and  whether  they  know  what  they  are  supposed 
to  know;   and  you  know  it  now! 

(c)  Involve  all  discussion  group  members  actively. 
In  guided  discussions,   everyone  participates  and  that  means  more 
than  saying  "Yes"  or  "No,"  or  agreeing  or  disagreeing. 

(d)  Motivate  your  Marines.     Part  of  being 
motivated  is  feeling  part  of  the  situation.     When  your  group 
members  participate,    the  instruction  relates  to  them.     It  is 
automatically  part  of  their  life. 

(2)  The  principal  two  factors  you  face  in  conducting 
guided  discussions  are  time  and  group  size.     It  usually  takes 
longer  to  conduct  a  discussion  of  a  subject  than  to  lecture  about 
it.     Also,   guided  discussions  work  best  with  small  groups. 

(3)  When  should  you  choose  guided  discussions? 
Consider  this  example:     Imagine  if  you  were  assigned  to  give  a 


1-2 


class  on  "Survival  at  Sea"  and  your  student  group  included 
members  of  a  Marine  amphibious  assault  team,   a  Navy  submarine 
crew  member,   and  a  Navy  fighter  pilot.     All  these  individuals  are 
concerned  with  survival  in  the  ocean  because  they  deploy  aboard 
ships .     How  would  you  train  them?     It  depends  on  the  purpose  of 
the  instruction. 

(a)  Example  1:     If  the  purpose  of  the  instruction 
is  simply  to  identify  and  describe  essential  survival  items,  a 
lecture  and  demonstration  of  the  articles  might  be  sufficient. 

(b)  Example  2:     If  the  purpose  is  to  have  the 
feeling  of  being  on  a  raft  for  two  days,    then  experience  might  be 
best . 

(c)  Example  3:     If  the  purpose  is  to  discuss  the 
mental  preparation  for  coping  with  different  situations,  the 
guided  discussion  might  be  best. 

(4)  In  each  of  the  examples,   we  used  the  word  might. 
That's  because  there  is  another  thing  you  need  to  think  about. 
Guided  discussions  are  dependent  on  the  group  members.  What 
experiences  do  the  members  bring  to  the  group?     In  the  previous 
example,    the  members  could  probably  go  on  talking  forever.  They 
have  experiences  similar  to  the  topic,    like  living  in  the  water, 
being  alone,   and  so  on.     But  what  if  the  group  were  made  up  of 
recruits?     Perhaps  a  lecture  would  be  better  because  this  group 
may  have  little  or  no  experience  on  the  subject. 

(5)  Some  groups  will   "teach"   themselves;   others  may 
have  very  little  to  say;   still  other  groups  may  require  a  mixture 
of  discussion  and  lecture  by  the  discussion  leader,    though  the 
lecture  would  be  disguised  as  simply  input  from  the  discussion 
leader.     As  a  resource  person,    the  discussion  leader  must  be 
prepared  to  stimulate  discussion,    to  provide  direction,   and  to 
get  the  most  out  of  the  time  being  spent.     Without  the  discussion 
leader's  expertise  and  guidance,   a  group  can  flounder  and  end  up 
in  just  another  bull  session. 

c.     What  are  the  advantages  of  guided  discussions? 

( 1 )  Groups  usually  have  more  resources  than 
individuals .     Varying  backgrounds  and  experiences,   ensure  new  or 
different  approaches. 

( 2 )  Group  members  are  motivated  by  the  presence  of 
others .     It's  natural  that  a  Marine  wants  to  look  good  in  front 


1-3 


of  a  group.     A  desire  to  impress  the  group  motivates  each  group 
member . 

( 3 )  Group  members  may  feel  a  stronger  commitment  and 
esprit  de  corps.     When  your  Marines  solve  their  own  problems  or 
contribute  to  the  unit's  success,   they  tend  to  be  more  motivated 
to  accomplish  the  tasks. 

( 4 )  Participation  leads  to  increased  understanding. 
New  ideas,   thoughts,   opinions,   or  approaches  will  increase  each 
Marine's  knowledge  and  skill  level.     Informed  Marines  do  better 
than  those  wearing  blinders. 

( 5 )  Members  acquire  or  improve  communication  skills 
useful  in  other  situations.     By  discussing  any  issue,  problems, 
requirements,   or  plan,  you  gain  more  information,  new  insights 
and  knowledge,   and  an  increased  ability  to  analyze  the  situation 
and  formulate  a  course  of  action. 

( 6 )  Members  teach  each  other  by  discussing  their 
experiences .     The  real  learning  experience  comes  from  listening 
and  participating  as  a  group  member. 

d.  What  are  the  disadvantages  of  guided  discussions? 

(1)  More  time  consuming  than  other  methods.     Any  time 
you  open  a  subject  up  for  discussion  by  your  Marines  it  will  take 
time . 

( 2 )  Discussion  can  suppress  convictions .     I f  you 
express  your  feelings  on  a  subject  first  and  then  ask 
subordinates  to  give  their  opinions  or  views,  you  will  probably 
get  your  opinions  and  views  right  back.     The  leaders'  opinions 
and  group  pressure  may  suppress  opinions. 

(3)  Discussion  may  substitute  talk  for  action.  Talking 
about  "How  to  solve  a  problem"  is  not  enough.     You  must  be 
prepared  to  take  action  based  on  the  group's  impact.     Don't  say 
you  will  do  something  or  change  something  unless  you  truly  can. 
Marines  want  action,   not  talk. 

e.  Tasks  of  the  Discussion  Leader  prior  to  the  discussion. 

(1)     Select  appropriate  subject.     Commanders  select 
subjects  to  be  taught  based  on  the  needs  of  their  Marines,  such 
as  discipline,    ethics,   why  the  292  antenna  was  put  up  wrong,  why 


1-4 


the  maintenance  on  the  MRC110  is  unsat .  The  subject  can  be 
selected  in  advance  or  on  the  spot. 


(2)  Select  appropriate  training  objectives.  Decide 
what  there  is  about  the  subject  you  want  your  Marines  to  master. 

( 3 )  Acquire  knowledge  and  understanding  of  the  subject 
matter .     General  D.M.   Shoup,    22nd  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps, 
stated:    "To  lack  intelligence  is  to  be  in  the  ring  blindfolded. " 
It  is  tough  to  guide  a  discussion  if  you  do  not  have  a  basic 
understanding  of  the  facts  relating  to  the  topic.     As  the 
discussion  leader,    the  learning  experiences  end  result  is 
dependent  upon  your  knowledge  and  skill.     If  the  group  cannot 
answer  a  question  you  must  be  able  to  do  so  or  to  find  the 
answer . 

(4)  Research  backgrounds  of  group  members.  Basically, 
this  means  know  your  Marines.     Another  point  to  consider  is  that, 
based  on  experiences  and  assignments,    certain  Marines  will  be 
more  knowledgeable  on  certain  aspects  of  your  subject  than 
others.   If  you  learn  about  your  Marines'   backgrounds,   you  may  be 
able  to  get  slow  starters  involved  by  relating  questions  to  their 
personal  experiences.     For  example,   what  elements  of  military 
strategy,    like  weather,    terrain,   and  so  on,   are  also  factors  in 
other  aspects  of  life?     When  you  think  about  your  group,  also 
think  about  their  personalities  and  how  well  they  express 
themselves  verbally. 

( 5 )  Prepare  a  discussion  leader's  outline. 

(a)  This  is  simply  a  working  guide  with  built-in 
flexibility.     List  your  purpose,    learning  objectives,  possible 
questions,   and  a  direction.     Mental  outlines  can  work  but  writing 
your  thoughts  down  will  help  you  keep  your  thoughts  straight. 
Annex  B  is  a  sample  discussion  leader's  outline. 

(b)  Along  with  each  point  you  intend  to  cover, 
write  down  how  you  intend  to  cover  it.     Are  there  some  points  you 
can  cover  best  by  using  a  slide  presentation?     Showing  a  short 
film?     Will  you  need  to  hand  out  written  materials?     Have  the 
group  members  refer  to  a  text?     Will  you  summarize  or  write  main 
points  on  a  transparency?     On  the  chalkboard?     How  about  a  sand 
table  or  just  a  diagram  drawn  in  the  dirt?     Consider  every  part 
of  your  discussion  beforehand.     The  use  of  questions  as  a  means 
of  directing  and  stimulating  discussion  is  one  of  the  most 
effective  techniques  used  by  the  discussion  leader. 


(c)     You  also  need  to  decide  how  long  to  spend  on 
each  point.     Allow  enough  time  for  yourself  and  for  the  members 
to  talk.     It  is  important  to  let  the  group  express  themselves, 
and  this  often  takes  not  only  time  but  patience.     Also  allow  time 
for  prompting  individuals  or  for  helping  them  if  they  start 
stumbling.     Your  assistant  discussion  leader  can  usually  assist 
you  in  "watching"   the  time  schedule. 

(6)  Prepare  extra  material.     Parts  of  discussions  often 
go  quicker  than  expected.     When  this  happens,   you'll  need  to 
expand  other  parts  of  the  discussion.     If  you  have  a  lively 
group,    space  can  be  filled  simply  by  allowing  more  discussion. 
But  you  will  also  want  to  have  extra  material  ready.  For 
example,    if  you  have  one  case  study  planned,   have  one  in  reserve 
too.  Also,    there  is  usually  at  least  one  point  in  any  topic  that 
"you  wish  there  was  more  time  to  go  into."     Be  ready.     You  may 
have  the  time! 

( 7 )  Check  materials  and  facilities  to  be  used. 

(a)  If  in  a  classroom,   check  lighting,    seats  and 
equipment.   If  in  the  field,   check  for  poison  ivy,    snakes,  and 
security.   For  a  balanced  discussion,   you'll  find  that  a  balanced 
seating  arrangement  will  be  necessary.     Some  individuals  will  be 
quick  in  their  delivery;   others,    slow  and  deliberate.     Some  will 
speak  a  lot;   others,   only  when  prompted.     To  create  a  balance, 
spread  these  different  types  evenly  throughout  the  group. 
Sometimes  even  the  most  passive  people  Will  become  active  when 
caught  in  a  crossfire  of  discussion. 

(b)  Before  you  begin  the  discussion,    set  up  any 
equipment  or  aids  you  plan  to  use.     Also,   arrange  the  seating. 
Round  tables  are  preferable,   but  often  not  available.     So  you 
will  probably  need  to  place  desks  in  a  circle  or  elliptical 
arrangement.     The  ellipse  is  probably  best  if  you  have  a  slide  or 
film  presentation  within  the  discussion.     In  the  field  just  have 
your  Marines  find  a  nice  "soft  piece  of  terrain"   to  sit  on. 

(c)  When  preparing  and  leading  discussions,    it  is 
desirable  to  have  an  assistant  if  possible.     This  individual 
could  be  your  XO,    SNCO,    or  anyone  you  choose.     The  assistant 
discussion  leader  can  help  guide  the  discussion,   operate  training 
aids,   or  give  summaries --anything  you  direct. 


1-6 


f.     Tasks  of  the  Discussion  Leader  during  the  discussion. 

(1)  Set  the  stage.     Tell  your  Marines  what  you  are 
going  to  discuss.     State  the  purpose  of  the  discussion  the 
objective     and  the  major  points  to  be  covered.     Also  explain  any 
media  that  will  be  used  and  any  instructions  you  want  understood 
before  you  start. 

Example :      "Today  we'll  be  talking  about  the  importance 
of  being  a  leader.     Based  on  the  handouts  I  gave  you  and  on  any 
personal  experience  you  may  have,   we  will  first  look  at  people  we 
might  call  leaders.     And  some  we  might  not  call  leaders.     Then  we 
will  try  to  pick  out  characteristics,   or  traits,    that  make  these 
individuals  leaders.     We  will  also  try  and  define  leadership. 
Finally,   we  will  see  a  film  of  four  people  talking  or  working 
with  others.     After  the  film  we  will  decide  whether  or  not  they 
are  leaders  based  on  our  definition." 

( 2 )  Start  the  discussion. 

(a)  A  transition  statement  is  a  good  way  to  get 
started  on  the  move  from  one  point  to  the  next.     Your  transitions 
will  usually  be  a  question,   or  end  in  a  question. 

Examples :      "Who  can  start  by  describing  a  person 
they  think  is  a  leader?"      (If  no  one  responds,   you  might  consider 
calling  on  one  of  the  more  confident  looking  members.) 

"Lit .   Smith,   could  you  start  by 
describing  a  person  you  think  is  a  leader?" 

or 

"Let's  start  by  describing  someone  and 
see  if  we  think  he's  a  leader."      (Then  you  mention  someone  to  get 
the  discussion  going.) 

(b)  In  a  guided  discussion,   you  have  the  added 
advantage  of  being  able  to  use  the  students '   words  as 
transitions.   For  example,   after  the  introduction,   a  Marine  might 
ask,    "When  you  say  leader,   do  you  mean  someone  who's  in  a 
leadership  billet?"     You  could  say,    "That's  a  good  question. 
Have  all  the  Marines  you  have  known  in  leadership  billets  been 
leaders? " 

(c)  Other  ideas  are  to  show  a  film  or  use  a  case 
study  to  get  them  involved. 


1-7 


(d)     Remember,   the  way  you  start  the  discussion  is 
key  to  its  success.     Ensure  you  create  a  relaxed  atmosphere  and 
obtain  their  trust  at  the  beginning. 

( 3 )     Control  the  flow  of  discussion. 

(a)  The  term  discussion  leader  implies  the  leader 
has  a  predetermined  plan  and  guides  the  discussion  towards  the 
objective.     It  is  your  duty  as  the  discussion  leader  to  keep  your 
Marines  on  the  subject. 

(b)  Sometimes  you  may  have  to  cut  off  discussion 
of  a  particular  point  to  keep  the  discussion  moving  ahead.  Here 
the  trick  is  not  to  interrupt  too  much.     Do  this  by  waiting  for 
an  individual  to  reach  the  end  of  his  thought.     Then  use  positive 
statements  to  cut  off  the  discussion. 

Examples :     "That's  an  interesting  point.     I'd  like 
to  come  back  to  that  later  if  there's  time." 

"That's  exactly  what  we  want  to  get  at.  Now, 
Captain  Jones  has  proposed  two  characteristics  of  leaders; 
sincerity  and  perseverance.     Can  anyone  think  of  others?  How 
about  the  leadership  traits?    What  do  you  think  Lieutenant 
Walker? " 

In  both  cases,  you  have  taken  back  control. 
Also,   in  the  second  case,  you  are  politely  telling  Captain  Jones, 
"That's  enough  on  that  part  of  the  discussion." 

( 4 )     Control  group  participation. 

(a)     In  a  group  discussion  everyone  should  be 
involved  and  be  adding  to  the  discussion.     It  is  your  job  to 
control  the  over-talkative  Marine  and  involve  the  quiet  ones. 
The  proper  use  of  questions  will  help  the  discussion  leader 
control  participation.     There  are  three  types  of  questions 
available  to  the  discussion  leader.     Two  types,   Direct  and 
Overhead,   can  be  done  in  advance  and  incorporated  into  the 
discussion  leader  outline.     The  third,   Redirect ,   is  a  spontaneous 
type  question. 

[1]     Direct .     Can  be  used  to  involve  the 
Marines  who  are  not  taking  part.     Such  as:      "LCpl  Brown,   why  do 
you  think  a  leader  must  set  the  example?" 


1-8 


[2]     Overhead .     Used  to  address  the  entire 
group.     Such  as:      "Can  someone  give  us  an  example  of  courage?" 


[3]     Redirect .     A  question  directed  at  the 
discussion  leader  but  returned  to  the  group  as  an  overhead 
question,   or  to  an  individual  as  a  direct  question.     Such  as,  if 
you  are  asked  to  state  the  most  important  leadership  trait  by  a 
participant,   rather  than  answer  the  question  yourself  you  say, 
"That's  a  very  good  question,    let's  discuss  it.     Is  there  one 
trait  that  is  most  important?"      (overhead  question-redirecting 
original  question) . 

(b)  You  want  everyone  to  talk.     But  you  don't  want 
any  one  person  to  talk  too  much.     To  get  quiet  individuals  to  say 
more  than  "Yes"   or   "No",    ask  questions  that  require  responses  of 
more  than  one  word.     Be  careful  not  to  intimidate  this  kind  of 
person,    though.     Start  him/her  off  with  easy  questions  that 
require  short  answers  and  progress  during  the  discussion  to 
questions  that  require  longer  answers.     For  example,   go  from 
"Which  of  the  qualities  of  leadership  do  you  think  are  most 
important?"    (which  requires  a  single  word  responses  to  "Here's  a 
leader.     What  makes  her  a  leader?"    (which  requires  a  much  longer 
explanation) .     Remember:     The  question  often  determines  how  long 
the  response  will  be. 

(c)  Watch  group  members'    "body  language"   for  tell- 
tale signs  of  agreement  and  disagreement.     By  watching  them  you 
can  better  determine  who  to  ask  what  question  to  or  who  to  voice 
an  opinion  on  someone  else's  response. 

( 5 )  Interject  appropriate  material  from  prior 
discussions .     Points  made  in  previous  leadership  training  which 
apply  to  the  current  discussion  topic  should  be  pointed  out  and 
"tied  in. " 

(6)  Accomplish  the  Training  Objectives.     The  leader 
decides  what  he  wants  his  Marines  to  learn  and  calls  them 
training  objectives.     If  the  Marines  learn,   you  accomplish  your 
mission.     If  they  don't  learn  it  all,    then  you  must  spend  more 
time  with  the  discussion  or  reevaluate  your  methodology. 

( 7 )  Summarize  and  end  the  discussion. 

(a)     A  good  discussion  leader  will  utilize, 
synthesize  and  summarize  comments  made  by  the  group.  Everything 
discussed  should  be  periodically  summarized.     If  possible  have  a 
chalkboard,   overhead  projector,   or  easel  close  at  hand,  write 


1-9 


down   (or  have  your  assistant)   all  important  points  or  statements 
as  they  occur;   this  will  aid  the  discussion  and  aid  in 
summarizing  the  main  points  later.     Also,   help  group  members 
shorten  long  answers  by  summarizing  them,  but  do  not  change  the 
statement ' s  meaning . 

(b)  Summarize  at  the  end  of  each  main  point.  If 
the  points  have  been  made  clear,   this  will  usually  only  require 
your  repeating  those  points.     Again,   only  use  the  terminology 
supplied  or  agreed  on  by  the  group.     Otherwise,  you  might  be 
asked  questions  like,    "What  did  you  say  that  meant?"     or  "That's 
not  what  we  said,  was  it?" 

(c)  Finally,   summarize  the  entire  discussion. 
Once  again,   restate  the  objective     the  purpose  of  the  discussion. 
This  time,   though,  you  expand  the  statement  to  include  any 
solution  or  conclusion  that  the  group  has  reached.     For  example, 
"So  we've  decided  today  that  a  person  who  is  a  leader  is  one  who 
knows  his  job,  who  knows  himself /herself ,   and  who  takes  care  of 
his  people . " 

g.     Common  mistakes  made  by  Discussion  Leaders. 

(1)  Failing  to  be  prepared.     This  is  the  most  common 
error  that  discussion  leaders  make.     They  often  think  they  can 
"wing  it"  and  fail  to  organize,   plan,   and  research  the  topic 
sufficiently.     A  leader  must  know  his/her  subject.     Guiding  a 
good  discussion  is  not  an  easy  task,   and  the  quality  of  the 
learning  experience  is  heavily  dependent  upon  your  ability  to  do 
your  duty  as  a  discussion  leader. 

(2)  Becoming  the  "duty  expert."     This  means  talking  too 
much  and  providing  all  the  answers.     If  you  want  your  Marines  to 
discuss  a  subject,   keep  quiet  and  let  them  discuss  it.     The  "duty 
expert"  can  suppress  their  responses  and  ruin  the  effectiveness 
of  the  group  discussion.     It  can  become  a  "selling  of  the  boss's 
point  of  view"  vice  a  group  learning  experience  or  decision 
process.     Avoid  preaching,   moralizing,   and  lecturing. 

(3)  Answering  questions  from  the  group.     This  overlaps 
with  being  the  "duty  expert."     If  the  discussion  leader  solves 
the  group's  problems,    it  really  is  not  a  discussion.     Force  your 
Marines  to  help  solve  each  other's  problems  or,   as  a  team,  solve 
their  own.     Sometimes  the  discussion  leader  needs  to  answer  when 
you  are  the  "duty  expert, "  are  asked  for  your  opinion,   or  need  to 
answer  a  question  to  get  the  discussion  on  track  or  clear  up  a 
point . 


1-10 


(4)  Failing  to  use  interim  summaries.     The  purpose  of 
any  summary  is  to  reemphasize  main  points  already  covered.  If 
you  cover  more  than  one  main  point  or  if  the  discussion  lasts 
more  than  an  hour,    the  interim  summary  will  help  transition  from 
one  main  point  to  another,   plus  review  what  has  been  covered. 

(5)  Failing  to  accomplish  training  objectives.  The 
training  objective's  were  your  objectives  because  you  want  your 
Marines  to  learn  something  in  particular.     If  your  Marines  do  not 
learn,    then  you  fail  to  accomplish  your  objective. 

(6)  Allowing  side  conversations.     In  any  training 
evolution,   you  want  the  full  attention  of  your  Marines.     This  is 
particularly  true  with  discussion  group  learning  situations.  Side 
conversations  are  distracting  to  other  group  members  and  prevent 
the  personnel  involved  in  these  side  conversations  from  keeping 
up  with  the   "actual"  discussion  flow.     Only  one  person  should 
talk  at  a  time,   after  all  we  can  only  effectively  listen  to  one 
at  a  time.     Ways  to  regain  attention  are: 

(a)  Direct  a  question  to  one  of  the  Marines  in  the 
side  conversation,  or 

(b)  Ask  the  side  group  to  contribute  their  ideas 
to  the  entire  group. 

( 7 )  Allowing  group  members  to  work  on  other  material. 
This  can  have  the  same  effect  as  side  conversations. 

(8)  Allowing  an  argument  to  develop.     Marines  tend  to 
get  excited  about  some  topics  which  can  lead  to  arguments. 
Remember  you  are  the  leader.     Use  questions  to  get  viewpoints  of 
other  Marines.     This  should  stop  the  argument,   and  also  get  a 
majority  viewpoint.     For  example:      "What  do  you  think  about  what 
Corporal  Smith  and  Corporal  Jones  were  talking  about?" 

(9)  Losing  track  of  the  discussion's  flow.  This 
usually  happens  if  the  discussion  leader  is  studying  notes  or  the 
lesson  outline  and  not  listening  to  the  discussion.     The  only 
solution  is  to  know  your  subject,   and  pay  attention  at  all  times. 

7.     Questions  and  Answers    (time  as  required) 

a.  Ask  for  any  questions  from  the  group. 

b.  If  the  class  does  not  ask  questions  ask  some  of  your  own. 


1-11 


8 .  Summary 

In  summary  remember : 

a.  Use  the  guided  discussion  when: 

(1)  The  group  is  small. 

(2)  The  topic  lends  itself  to  being  discussed  rather 
than  demonstrated  or  experienced. 

(3)  Your  Marines  will  be  able  to  effectively  discuss 

the  topic. 

b.  The  tasks  of  the  discussion  leader  prior  to  the 
discussion  are: 

(1)  Select  the  subject. 

(2)  Select  the  training  objectives. 

(3)  Acquire  knowledge  of  the  subject. 

(4)  Research  background  of  group  members. 

(5)  Prepare  discussion  outline. 

(6)  Prepare  extra  material. 

(7)  Check  materials  and  facilities. 

c.  The  tasks  of  the  discussion  leader  during  the  discussion 

are : 

(1)  Set  the  stage. 

(2)  Start  the  discussion. 

(3)  Control  the  flow  of  the  discussion. 

(4)  Control  group  participation. 

(5)  Interject  appropriate  material  from  prior 
discussions . 

(6)  Accomplish  the  training  objectives. 


1-12 


(7)     Summarize  and  end  the  discussion. 

d.     Following  your  leadership  discussions  your  Marines 
should  leave  each  period  with  the  feeling  that  something  has  been 
learned,   reviewed,   or  accomplished.     A  key  element  in 
accomplishing  this  goal  is  the  manner  in  which  the  discussion 
leader  approaches  his/her  duties. 

9 .  Appendices 


a . 

Appendix 

A. 

Discussion  Techniques  Outline. 

b. 

Appendix 

B. 

Sample  Discussion  Leader's  Outline 

c 

Appendix 

C  . 

Leadership  Discussion  Critique. 

d. 

Appendix 

D. 

Discussion  Techniques. 

1-13 


APPENDIX  A 
DISCUSSION  LEADING  TECHNIQUES 

DISCUSSION  TECHNIQUES  OUTLINE 

1.  Purpose .     To  instruct  the  student  on  how  to  lead  a  guided 
discussion . 

a.  Know  when  to  use  a  guided  discussion  as  stated  in  this 
lecture . 

b.  Know  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  using  the  guided 
discussion  as  a  training  technique. 

c.  Know  the  tasks  of  the  discussion  leader  prior  to  and 
during  the  discussion. 

2 .  Definition  of  a  Guided  Discussion 

a.  A  guided  discussion  is  a  training  session  where  a 
designated  discussion  leader  guides  up  to  20  participants  in  a 
discussion  of  a  given  subject.     The  discussion  leader  has  both  a 
predetermined  plan  for  the  overall  flow  of  the  discussion  and  a 
set  of  Training  Objectives  that  he  wants  the  group  to  learn. 

b.  A  guided  discussion  is  not: 

( 1 )  A  lecture 

( 2 )  A  meeting 

( 3 )  A  rap  session 

3 .  Advantages /Disadvantages  of  a  Guided  Discussion 
a .  Advantages 

(1)  Groups  have  more  resources  than  individuals  have. 

(2)  Group  members  are  normally  motivated  by  the  presence 
of  others . 

(3)  Group  members  may  feel  a  stronger  commitment  and 
esprit  de  corps  when  they  participate  in  a  discussion. 


1-14 


!  (4)     Participation  leads  to  increased  understanding. 

(5)  Members  acquire  or  improve  communication  skills 
useful  in  other  situations. 

(6)  Members  teach  each  other  by  discussing  their 
experiences . 

b.  Disadvantages 

(1)  More  time-consuming  than  other  methods. 

(2)  Discussion  can  suppress  convictions. 

(3)  Discussion  may  substitute  talk  for  action. 
4 .     Tasks  of  the  discussion  leader 

a.     Prior  to  the  discussion 

(1)  Select  appropriate  subject. 

(2)  Select  appropriate  training  objectives. 

(3)  Acquire  a  thorough  knowledge  and  understanding  of 
the  subject  matter. 

(4)  Research  backgrounds  of  group  members. 

(5)  Prepare  a  Discussion  Leader's  Outline. 

(a)  A  working  guide  with  built  in  flexibility. 

(b)  Lists  purpose  and  training  objectives. 

(c)  Questions  to  be  asked  or  statements  to  be  made. 

(d)  Aids  and  other  supporting  materials  to  be  used, 
(e)     A  general  time  plan  to  organize  period. 

(6)  Prepare  extra  discussion  material. 

(7)  Check  the  material  and  facilities  that  will  be  used, 
b.     During  the  discussion 

> 

1-15 


(1) 


Set  the  stage. 


(2) 


Start  the  discussion. 


(a)     Realize  that  the  quality  of  the  learning  is 
heavily  dependent  upon  him/herself. 


(c)     Work  hard  to  obtain  trust  from  group  members 
and  establish  good  rapport,   avoid  "preaching"  and  "moralizing." 


(a)  Use  direct,   overhead,    and  redirect  questions 
to  keep  the  discussion  on  track. 

(b)  Use  a  time  plan  to  ensure  required  points  and 
training  objectives  are  covered. 


(a)  Allow  others  to  express  their  opinions,   but  do 
not  let  any  one  member  monopolize  the  discussion. 

(b)  Use  knowledge  of  group  members  and  effective 
use  of  questions  to  ensure  all  members  participate. 

(c)  Watch  the  group  members'    "body  language"  for 
Signs  on  agreement  or  disagreement  and  call  on  them  as 
appropriate  for  comments . 

(5)      Interject  appropriate  material  from  prior 
discussions . 

(a)  Reinforce  learning  points  by  relating  them  to 
information  from  previous  discussions . 

(b)  Tie  the  discussion  into  how  the  subject  fits 
into  the  larger  picture   (e.g.,   how  values  affect  morale, 
discipline,   motivation,  etc.). 


(b)     Create  a  relaxed  atmosphere. 


(3) 


Control  the  flow  of  the  discussion. 


(4)     Control  group  participation. 


(6)     Accomplish  the  training  objectives. 


1-16 


(a)  Ensure  the  main  points  are  clarified  and 
understood  by  the  group  members  through  the  "haze"   of  discussion. 

(b)  Ensure  the  major  points  are 
covered/ emphas  i  z  ed . 

(7)      Summarize  and  end  the  discussion. 

(a)  Listen  to  what  each  group  member  has  to  say 
and  try  and  tie  their  points  together  using  interim  summaries . 

(b)  Recognize  the  points  on  which  the  group  agrees 

or  disagrees . 

(c)  Recognize  the  contributions  from  the  group 

members . 

(d)  End  the  discussion  on  a  positive  note. 
5 .     Common  mistakes  of  a  Discussion  Leader 

a.  Failing  to  be  prepared. 

b.  Becoming  the  "duty  expert." 

c.  Answering  questions  from  the  group. 

d.  Failing  to  use  interim  summaries. 

e.  Failing  to  accomplish  the  training  objectives. 

f.  Allowing  side  conversations. 

g.  Allowing  group  members  to  work  on  other  material. 

h.  Allowing  an  argument  to  develop. 

i.  Losing  track  of  the  discussion  flow. 


1-17 


APPENDIX  B 


DISCUSSION  LEADING  TECHNIQUES 

SAMPLE  DISCUSSION  LEADER'S  OUTLINE 

(Note:     This  is  a  sample  outline  intended  to  serve  as  a  general 
guide  for  the  student  when  he/she  is  assigned  to  prepare  and  lead 
a  leadership  discussion.     There  are  no  charts  Provided.) 

TIME  SUBJECT  REMARKS 


0000 


INTRODUCTION 


I  will  be  acting  as  the  Discussion 
Leader  for  this  Leadership 
Conference  and  will  be  my  assistant. 
Our  general  subject  for  discussion 
is  as  displayed  on  the  chart. 
(Review  ground  rules  as  appropriate, 
such  as  smoking,  drinking 
coffee/sodas,  etc.) 

Although  many  of  you  have  different 
MOS's,   there  is  a  common  goal  that 
applies  to  all  of  vou,   regardless  of 
your  particular  technical  specialty. 
That  goal  is  to  be  the  most  effective 
leader  that  vou  can  be  to  the 
Marines  that  will  be  in  your  charge. 
Therefore,   the  purpose  of  this 
discussion  is  to  examine  some  of  the 
necessary  preparations  for  assuming 
these  responsibilities  of  leadership 
in  the  field. 


As st . have 
charts  set 
up,  with 
chart  #1 
discussion 
title. 


Emphasize 
this  point 


Key  Points  for  this  Period 

(1)  The  three  elements  of  leadership 

(2)  Specific  ways  that  each  of  us 
may  use  in  broadening  and 
improving  those  three  elements 

of  leadership  to  prepare  ourselves 


Asst. :  display 
chart  #2 
discussion 
overview 


1-18 


to  be  an  effective  Marine  Corps 
leader . 


d.     Training  Objectives.     The  student, 
upon  completion  of  this  period  of 
instruction,   and  when  provided  with 
a  list  of  alternatives  will  be  able 
to  select  the  one  which  correctly 
identifies : 

(1)  The  three  elements  of  leadership 
that  a  Marine  leader  should  have 
knowledge  of  when  he  is  analyzing 
a  use  able  concept  of  leadership. 

(2)  The  relationships  between  the 
three  elements  of  leadership. 

(3)  The  most  important  step  which  a 
Marine  leader  must  take  to  improve 
his  knowledge  of  the  three  elements 
of  leadership. 

0005     2.  DISCUSSION 

a.  Self 

(1)     What  do  we  need  to  know  about 
ourselves  as  leaders? 

(a)     Our  strengths  &  weaknesses. 


[1] 

Ability  to  communicate  with 
Subordinates  and  seniors 

[2] 

Our  leadership  style 

[3] 

Our  values 

[4] 

Our  traits 

[5] 

Our  knowledge  of  the  situation 

(2)     Do  we  need  to  recognize  our  strengths 
and  weaknesses?  Yes. 


As st : flip 
to  chart 
#3  showing 
the  TO ' s . 
Is  the  asst 
going  to 
discuss  the 
TO '  s? 


Asst : f lip 
to  chart 
#4  showing 
the  factors 
of  leader- 
ship . 


1-19 


(3)     How  can  we  determine  our  strengths  and 
weaknesses? 

(a)  Self -analysis   (can  we  truly  keep  this 
analysis  objective?) 

(b)  Feedback  from  others 

[1]     Superiors   (only  at  fitness  report 
time? ) 

[2]     Peers   (how  do  we  get  this  feedback?) 

0015  b.  Troops 

(1)  What  are  some  of  the  things  we  need  to  know 
about  the  troops? 

(a)  Background 

(b)  Experience 

(c)  Education 

(d)  Capabilities  and  limitations 

(e)  Personal  goals 

(f)  Personality  traits  -strengths  and 
weaknesses 

(g)  Morale,    spirit,   and  soul 

(2)  How  do  we  acquire  and  continuously  improve 
on  this  necessary  information? 

(a)  SRB's 

(b)  Observation 

(c)  Interviews-initial  and  periodic 

(d)  Inspections 


1-20 


(3)     Would  it  be  a  good  idea  to  keep  a  written 
record  of  this  info  for  ourselves?  Why? 
Where?      (Platoon  Leader's  Notebook) 

INTERIM  SUMMARY   (Briefly  summarize  main  discussion 
(points . ) 

0030  c.  Situation 

(1)  What  do  we  need  to  know  about  the  situation? 

(a)  Leaders  knowledge  in  the  area 

(b)  Troops  knowledge  in  the  area 

(c)  Degree  of  urgency  required 

(d)  Leaders  attitude  and  opinion  of  his  troops 

(e)  Troops  attitude  and  opinion  of  their 
leader 

(2)  How  do  we  improve  in  each  of  these  areas? 
0045  3.  SUMMARY 

a.     Three  elements  of  leadership  are: 

(1)  Self 

(2)  Troops 

(3)  Situation 

b.  These  three  areas  are  interrelated  and  dynamic. 

c.  You  must  always  seek  ways  to  improve  your 
knowledge  in  all  three  elements  of  leadership. 

CLOSING  STATEMENT 

The  preceding  discussion  indicates  that  acquiring  a 
knowledge  about  the  three  elements  of  leadership 
contributes  to  an  understanding  of  the  leadership 
process,   yet,   not  one  of  them  is  sufficient  to  explain 
the  phenomenon  completely.     In  short,    leadership  is  a 


1-21 


dynamic  activity  wherein  the  leader  always  operates  in 
a  leader / follower  relationship.     Followers  are  not  mere 
automatons  carrying  out  the  leader's  desires  to  the 
best  of  their  abilities.     They  are  human  beings  with 
motives  and  goals  of  their  own,   strong  attachments  to 
their  fellow  group  members,   and  attitudes  towards  their 
leaders  and  group's  goals  that  may  add  or  detract  from 
goal  accomplishment.     The  leader  must  recognize  the 
existence  of  these  individual  and  group  factors  and  how 
they  affect  his  ability  to  influence  his  troops. 

0050  END  DISCUSSION 


1-22 


APPENDIX  C 
DISCUSSION  LEADING  TECHNIQUES 

LEADERSHIP  DISCUSSION  CRITIQUE 
(Check  the  appropriate  box  for  each  statement  below. ) 


YES 

Classroom  facilities  were  appropriate- 
The  discussion  started  on  time- 
Leader  established  ground  rules  for  the  discussion- 
Leader  reviewed  main  points  of  prior  discussion 

period- 
Leader  presented  an  effective  introduction  to  the 

objective (s)    of  the  discussion  period- 
Questions  were  well  planned,   properly  asked, 

and  provoked  discussion- 
Leader  encouraged  all  members  to  participate- 
Leader  redirected  the  discussion  when  it  tended 

to  get  off  the  topic- 
Leader  made  interim  summaries  at  appropriate  points- 
Leader  included  divergent  viewpoints  in  summaries  as 

appropriate- 
Leader  participated  directly  only  to  the  extent 

necessary  for  guidance  and  control  and  to 

provide  expertise  not  brought  out  by  the  group- 
Training  aids  and  supplemental  materials  were 

appropriate  and  handled  correctly- 
Objectives  of  the  discussion  were  accomplished- 
Leader  made  a  final  summary  and   (if  necessary) 

announced  details  of  the  next  meeting- 
The  discussion  closed  on  time- 

DISCUSSION  LEADER:  MONITOR: 

(Use  reverse  side  for  comments) 

DATE /TIME: 


1-23 


APPENDIX  D 


Discussion  Leading  Techniques 

Discussion  Techniques 

1.     Iintroduction .   This  section  contains  information  on  how  to 
guide  a  discussion.     The  Discussion  Leader's  function  is  to  lead 
and  guide  the  discussion  not  direct  it.     It  is  not  a  "by  the 
numbers"   lecture,   but  a  more  subtle  approach  to  leadership 
training.     Understanding  the  discussion  group  process  is  a 
valuable  tool  which  will  benefit  you  throughout  your  Marine  Corps 
career,  whether  in  a  command  or  staff  billet.     All  of  us  at  one 
time  or  another  are  either  a  participant  or  a  leader  involved  in 
problem  solving  meetings/discussions,   and  these  discussions  are 
quite  similar  to  the  leadership  training  technique  we  are 
discussing  here.     All  are  oriented  towards  an  objective  or 
solution,   involve  group  discussion,   and  have  a  leader.  For 
example,    a  company  commander  may  hold  a  meeting  with  his/her 
platoon  commanders  to  discuss  how  to  best  approach  getting  the 
unit  ready  for  a  Commanding  General's  inspection.     During  the 
discussion  the  platoon  commanders  will  present  their  ideas  and 
the  commander  can  formulate  his  plan  of  action.     By  using  the 
discussion  method  the  commander  can  cover  in  an  organized  fashion 
(using  an  agenda  outline)   many  ideas,   problems,   and  solutions, 
and  ensure  his/her  subordinate  unit  leaders  are  knowledgeable  on 
the  subject. 

2  .     The  crroup  and  the  discussion  leader. 

a.     Each  member  is  an  individual  and  brings  to  class  many 
different  factors  which  influence  the  initial  total  group  makeup. 
Each  person  is  influenced  by  numerous  sets  of  forces  which  have  a 
bearing  on  his  behavior  in  the  group.     Although  they  are 
invisible  forces  they  nevertheless  manifest  themselves  throughout 
the  week,    some  becoming  apparent  immediately,    some  hidden  behind 
a  thin  veil  of  camouflage,   some  only  being  revealed  by  nonverbal 
language.   Some  of  the  factors  found  in  groups  are  listed  below: 

(1)     Theories,   assumptions,   values,   beliefs,  prejudices, 
attitudes  about  self,    others,    things,   groups,   organizations,  and 
cultures.     These  serve  as  a  point  of  departure  for  each  person's 

behavior . 


1-24 


(2)  Loyalties  to  other  outside  reference  groups,  i.e., 
his/her  family,   profession,    religion,   political  affiliation,  etc. 

(3)  A  repertoire  of  behavior  skills  which  permit  or 
prevent  him/her  from  doing  what  he/she  really  wants  to  do 
(diagnostic  skills,    listening  skills,  etc.). 

(4)  Feelings:     sick,    sad,   depressed,   unhappy,  angry, 
frustrated,   suspicious,  etc. 

b.  At  the  beginning  of  a  group  learning  experience,  people 
know  very  little  about  each  other.     This  ambiguous,  uncertain 
atmosphere  often  creates  uneasiness,   discomfort  and  confusion. 

c.  The  burden  is  upon  the  discussion  leader  to  eliminate  the 
above  negative  conditions  and  create  a  relaxed  atmosphere  where 
trust,   acceptance,   respect  and  all  the  positive  things  necessary 
to  facilitate  group  learning  and  sharing  becomes  a  reality.  The 
discussion  leader's  personality  and  technique  are  of  utmost 
importance  in  accomplishing  that. 

d.  There  is  no  tool  more  important  than  the  discussion 
leader's  attitudes;   attitude  towards  others,  towards 

himself /herself ,   and  towards  the  group  as  well  as  individuals  in 
the  group,    the  quality  of  the  relationship  with  each  member  of 
the  group  is  of  utmost  importance. 

e.  We  should  not  consider  the  use  of  group  discussion  unless 
we  believe  that  its  effect  will  in  some  way  be  better  than  a 
lecture  in  which  he  alone  contributes  to  the  group.  Several 
additional  factors  need  to  be  considered  in  which  the  discussion 
leader  must  believe: 

( 1 )     Group  members  have  something  to  contribute. 

For  some  this  contribution  may  be  a  new  idea;  for 
others,   an  idea  borrowed  from  someone  else;    for  others, 
a  fact  or  observation  picked  up  from  reading;    for  still 
others,   an  expression  of  feelings,   a  report  of  their 
experiences,    or  an  evaluation  of  the  discussion.  Much 
of  the  value  is  in  questions  asked.     The  effective 
discussion  leader  considers  all  of  these  to  be 
important . 


1-25 


( 2 )     Each  individual  is  unique 


The  effective  discussion  leader  understands  each 
person  is  different  from  everyone  else.     Consequently,   he/she  has 
the  potential  for  making  some  unique,   fascinating,  enlightening, 
educational,  meaningful  contributions     one  that  no  one  else  could 
possibly  make  because  no  one  else  is  quite  like  him/her. 

( 3 )   The  group  exists  for  the  achievement  of  the 
members'  goals. 

(a)  The  discussion  leader  sees  the  group  as  the 
vehicle  for  the  achievement  of  the  goals  of  all  its  members, 
including  himself /herself  and  its  purpose  for  being  there.  "What 
are  the  leadership  needs  of  each  person?"  is  a  question  that  must 
continuously  be  asked  by  the  good  discussion  leader. 

(b)  To  hold  values  such  as  those  mentioned  above 
means  the  discussion  leader  needs  to  feel  secure  himself /herself . 
He/she  needs  to  be  an  experienced  leader,   to  have  "been  there 
before"  with  a  wealth  of  experience,   and  be  able  to  share  and 
communicate  them. 

(c)  He/she  must  be  secure  enough  to  tolerate 
others  having  opinions  different  from  his/her  own.     In  a  very 
real  sense,   he/she  must  respect  his/her  own  uniqueness,  otherwise 
how  can  he  respect  the  uniqueness  of  others?     A  strong  desire  to 
pattern  others  in  our  own  image  is  usually  rooted  in  a  deep  sense 
of  insecurity,    inferiority  and  powerlessness .     The  mark  of  a  good 
leader  with  considerable  inner  strength  and  security  lends  itself 
to  the  willingness  for  others  to  be  themselves,   to  have  their  own 
thoughts  and  to  see  the  world  as  an  individual. 

f.     Among  many  other  things,    the  discussion  leader  must  also: 

(1)  Function  as  an  expert  and  project  himself /herself  as 
a  person. 

(2)  Be  an  outsider  who  brings  in  skill  and  knowledge  and 
at  the  same  time,   be  an  insider  who  can  participate  meaningfully. 

(3)  Work  hard  to  obtain  trust  from  group  members. 

(4)  Understand  the  private  world  of  others  and  be  able 
to  communicate  some  of  that  understanding. 


1-26 


(5)  Have  a  positive,   warm,   accepting  regard  (attitude) 
for  others  and  feel  that  regard  unconditionally. 

(6)  Realize  that  the  quality  of  the  learning  is  heavily 
dependent  upon  himself /herself .      "There  are  no  bad  groups,  only 
bad  discussion  leaders." 

(7)  Vary  his/her  roles  depending  on  the  group. 

(8)  Avoid  adopting  the  member  role  which  will  prevent 
him/her  from  providing  guidance  demanded  by  his/her  trainer  role. 

(9)  Be  aggressive,   protective,   and  supportive  at  the 
appropriate  time. 

(10)  Accept  feedback  openly. 

(11)  Be  alert  for  mannerisms  which  may  reveal  some 
emotional  feeling  on  the  part  of  a  group  member,   whether  silent, 
animated,   or  otherwise   (e.g.,    expressions,    foot  tap  pings,  etc.). 

(12)  The  discussion  leader  must  also  realize  the 
difficulties  found  in  the  group  process  such  as: 

(a)  Members  accept  the  group  leader  but  have  low 
trust  in  each  other  due  to  fear  of  rejection  by  peers  (but  the 
authority  figure  is  trusted. ) 

(b)  Members  have  problem  with  authority  figures 
the  discussion  leader  has  not  Inspired  them  out  of  their 
lethargy . 

g.     A  favorable  climate  is  of  tremendous  importance  for 
learning  since  the  process  of  learning  is  greatly  affected  by  the 
situation.     Confronted  with  an  idea  that  is  at  variance  with  an 
old  idea,   a  person  must  reorganize  all  of  the  attitudes,  values, 
and  concepts  that  have  become  intimately  related  to  the  old  idea. 
Mark  Twain  stated  that   "Education  is  unlearning  that  which  we 
have  learned, " --not  a  simple  process  by  any  means.     To  do  this  a 
person  must  feel  it  is  safe  for  him/her  to  express  those 
attitudes,   values  and  concepts  that  he/she  will  not  be  criticized 
or  ridiculed  if  he  expresses  opposition  to  the  new  idea, 
discusses  his  doubts  or  defends  the  old  idea.     Thus,    there  must 
be  an  accepting,   non-evaluative  climate  in  the  learning 
situation.     The  earlier  this  climate  is  set,    the  better  for  all 
concerned . 


1-27 


h.  Many  of  the  techniques  listed  for  good  counseling  are 
applicable  to  good  discussion  leading;   other  things  to  consider 
are  listed  below: 

(1)  Eliminate  useless  formalities  such  as  raising  hands 
for  permission  to  speak  or  standing. 

(2)  Listen  to  what  each  has  to  say. 

(3)  Set  aside  your  own  evaluation  of  ideas  offered. 
(Have  faith  in  the  group.) 

(4)  Avoid  preaching,    teaching,   or  moralizing. 

(5)  Avoid  pushing  people  into  participation  before  they 
feel  like  it. 

i.  The  discussion  leader  is  a  resource--if  not,   there  would 
be  no  reason  for  him  to  be  there.     This  refers  to  special  skills, 
insights  or  information  he  might  possess  that  others  do  not  have. 
Group  members  look  to  the  discussion  leader  as  being  a  resource 
though  it  may  never  be  said  and  is  usually  a  tacit  agreement  by 
all  concerned. 

It  is  easy,  however,   to  overlook  the  fact  that  every 
group  member  is  also  potentially  a  resource.     One  of  the 
difficult  problems  for  a  discussion  leader  is  to  avoid  becoming 
the  group's  only  resource  or  the  "duty  expert."     Most  members  are 
willing  to  let  the  leader  do  the  work  and  to  sit  back  and  listen; 
this  is  especially  true  in  learning  situations;  traditionally, 
teachers  teach  and  students  learn.     It  is  often  overlooked  that 
teachers  can  learn  from  the  student   (who  can  teach) .     This  is  one 
of  the  many  advantages  of  the  group  discussion;   it  provides  an 
opportunity  for  problems  to  be  solved  with  the  resources  of  many 
people.     Additionally,   recognizing  contributions  from  members 
without  going  abruptly  on  to  someone  else  is  very  important;  it 
has  a  positive  effect  and  tends  to  encourage  others  to  "open-up, " 
gives  a  feeling  they  are  contributing  something  worthwhile,  and 
usually  increases  the  volume  of  good  discussion. 

j .     The  tendency  must  be  reduced,   then,    for  the  group  to  be 
solely  dependent  upon  the  discussion  leader.     The  principle 
concern  of  some  traditional  leaders  is  how  they  can  most 
convincingly  present  their  knowledge  so  members  will  learn  what 
they  know.     Discussion  leaders  can  also  become  so  preoccupied 


1-28 


with  what  they  will  say  and  how  it  will  be  delivered  that  they 
are  neglectful  of  the  potential  importance  of  each  member  and 
overlook   (don't  listen)   what  is  said  when  a  member  finally  does 
get  the  opportunity  to  speak.     It  takes  time  and  effort  to  create 
the  conditions  whereby  group  members  learn  to  consider  each  other 
as  a  resource  and  to  draw  on  this  special  information  and 
experience  that  each  brings  to  the  group.     The  biggest 
contribution  to  this  objective  is  the  discussion  leader's 
attitude : 

(1)  If  he/she  does  not  believe  that  he  always  knows  best. 

(2)  If  he/she  is  willing  to  learn  from  others. 

(3)  If  he/she  does  not  have  a  strong  need  to  always  be 
seen  by  others  as  the  expert . 

(4)  If  he/she  sincerely  believes  others  can  contribute, 
then  he  has  a  real  chance  of  releasing  the  group's  own  resources. 

k.     The  importance  of  two  discussion  leaders    (primary  and 
assistant)   per  group  is  also  worthy  of  note.     With  two 
instructors  there  is  added  expertise,   continuity,  objectivity, 
instructor  feedback,   and  support  when  needed. 

(1)  It  may  take  time  for  the  two  leaders  to  effectively 
work  together  as  a  team,  but  once  this  is  accomplished  they  can 
complement  each  other  significantly,  and  the  resulting  benefits 
are  well  worth  the  investment.  If  one  discussion  leader  has 
difficulty  the  other  can  support  him/her  by  providing  additional 
expertise  without  "turning  off"  the  group  or  inducing  a  loss  of 
self-esteem  on  the  part  of  the  primary  discussion  leader. 

(2)  The  primary  discussion  leader  can  get  more  involved 
in  the  group  while  the  assistant  observes  the  primary  leader, 
each  member  of  the  group  and  the  entire  period  of  instruction. 
This  is  invaluable  to  the  group  process  and  provides  excellent 
feedback  to  the  primary  discussion  leader. 

(3)  In  case  of  sickness,   emergencies,   etc.,    there  should 
be  someone  who  can  take  over  immediately  without  an  appreciable 
change  in  mood  or  technique.     Platform  instructors  can  handle 
this  easily  through  substitute  instructors  because  it  is  mostly 
impersonal,   one-way  type  of  instruction.     A  discussion  group  is 
more  personal,   depends  on  established  support  and  on  student 
contributions.     When  a  new  discussion  leader  emerges  on  the 


1-29 


scene,  much  is  lost  from  what  has  previously  happened  in  the 
group,   the  total  group  process  suffers  a  loss,   and  they  must 
readjust  and  he/she  come  acquainted  with  the  new  group  member. 


1-30 


t 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

MARINE  CORPS  CORE  VALUES 

1.  Introduction .     The  3  0th  Commandant,   General  Carl  E.  Mundy, 
Jr.  wrote  in  a  1992  memorandum  that   "Marines  are  held  to  the 
highest  standards  of  personal  conduct.     The  Nation  expects  that 
from  us.     The  personal  and  professional  conduct,  decency, 
integrity,  and  accountability  of  Marines  must  be  beyond  reproach. 
This  is  a  non-negotiable  principle . "     What  General  Mundy  was 
talking  about  are  the  Values  that  Marines  have  displayed  for  over 
200  years  in  peacetime  and  combat.     These  Values  of  HONOR, 
COURAGE,   and  COMMITMENT  were  further  defined  by  him  in  his 
"Statement  on  Core  Values  of  United  States  Marines." 

Marines  bring  with  them  when  they  enter  the  Corps  their  own 
set  of  Core  Values.     Personal  Core  Values  are  instilled  in 
Marines  by  their  parents,    families,    religious  beliefs,  schools, 
peers,   and  other  influences  upon  their  lives.     These  individual 
sets  of  values  may  be  strong  or  they  may  be  weak.     Regardless  of 
background,   every  Marine  should  understand  that  being  a  Marine 
entails  embracing  and  adhering  to  Marine  Corps  Core  Values. 

The  31st  Commandant,   General  Charles  C.   Krulak  said  in  July 
199  6  that  "Our  challenge  is  to  be  a  Corps  of  men  and  women  who 
consistently  represent  the  highest  moral  character  in  and  out  of 
uniform.     Character  creates  a  foundation  of  which  successful 
military  units  are  built.     From  this  foundation,  Honor,  Courage, 
and  Commitment  will  always  be  evident,  providing  the  perfect 
description  of  a  United  States  Marine. " 

2.  Overview .   This  discussion  guide  is  designed  to  help  leaders 
at  all  levels  to  discuss  Marine  Corps  Values  with  their  Marines. 
Your  task  is  to  help  your  Marines  understand  how  their 
understanding  and  commitment  to  these  ideals  will  make  them 
better  Marines  and,   ultimately,   better  people.     This  subject  is 
best  approached  within  small  groups  of  Marines  who  have  a  common 
bond  such  as  a  squad,   platoon,    section,   or  office  affiliation. 
Other  chapters  in  the  guide  may  prove  useful  in  preparing  you  to 
lead  this  group  discussion. 


2-1 


References . 


FMFM  1 - 0 ,     Leading  Marines 

FM  22-100,   Military  Leadership 

ALMAR  248/96,  Character 

Commandant's  Statement  on  Core  Values  of  United  States 
Marines 

Ethos  and  Values,  November  1995  Marine  Corps  Gazette 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes. 

a.  Preparing  for  this  discussion  should  not  be  difficult. 
The  references  contain  much  background  on  how  values,    traits,  and 
one's  character  affect  leadership  and  the  effect  good  and  bad 
leadership  has  on  combat  efficiency  and  morale.     The  main  purpose 
of  this  discussion  should  be  on  how  the  character  and  values  of 
individual  Marines  also  affects  combat  and  unit  efficiency,  other 
Marines,    their  own  family  and  friends  and,   ultimately,  their 
nation . 

b.  It  may  be  useful  to  prepare  some  scenarios  that  deal 
with  this  subject.     Many  of  the  scenarios  that  appear  elsewhere 
in  this  guide  may  prove  useful. 

c.  Don't  assume  that  every  Marine  entered  the  Marine  Corps 
with  the  same  values  system  that  you  have  or  that  every  Marine 
believes  everything  that  you  believe.     Regardless  of  one's 
background  or  upbringing,   every  Marine  should  embrace  these 
values,   display  them,   and  live  them  as  much  as  possible.  No 
Marine  is  perfect  but  we  should  each  aspire  to  reach  the  ideal 
and  be  improving  all  the  time. 

5 .  Discussion . 

a.     What  are  the  Marine  Corps  Core  Values? 

(1)  HONOR  -  The  Marine  Corps  is  a  unique  institution, 
not  just  to  the  military,  but  to  the  nation  and  the  world.  As 
the  guardians  of  the  standards  of  excellence  for  our  society, 
Marines  must  possess  the  highest  sense  of  gallantry  in  serving 
the  United  States  of  America  and  embody  responsibility  to  duty 
above  self,    including,   but  not  limited  to: 


2-2 


Integrity,     Demonstrating  the  highest  standards  of 
consistent  adherence  to  right,    legal  and  ethical  conduct. 

Responsibility,     Personally  accepting  the  consequences 
for  decisions  and  actions.     Coaching  right  decisions  of  subordi- 
nates.    A  chain  is  only  as  strong  as  the  weakest  individual  link, 
but  a  battalion  of  Marines  is  more  like  a  cable.   Together  we  are 
stronger  than  any  individual  strand,   but  one  strand  may  hold  us 
together  in  a  crisis  if  it's  strong  enough.     One  Marine  taking 
responsibility  for  a  situation  may  save  the  day. 

Honesty,     Telling  the  truth.     Overt  honesty  in  word  and 
action  and  clarifying  possible  misunderstanding  or  misrepresenta- 
tion caused  by  silence  or  inaction  when  you  should     speak  up. 
Respecting  other's  property  and  demonstrating  fairness  in  all 
actions.  Marines  do  not  lie,   cheat,    or  steal. 

Tradition,     Demonstrating  respect  for  the  customs, 
courtesies,    and  traditions  developed  over  many  years  for  good 
reason,   which  produce  a  common  Marine  Corps  history  and  identity. 
Respect  for  the  heritage  and  traditions  of  others,  especially 
those  we  encounter  in  duty  around  the  world. 

(2)  COURAGE  -  Moral,  mental,  and  physical  strength  to 
resist  opposition,  face  danger,  and  endure  hardship,  including, 
but  not  limited  to: 

Self- Discipline,     Marines  hold  themselves  responsible 
for  their  own  actions  and  others  responsible  for  their  actions . 
Marines  are  committed  to  maintaining  physical,   moral,   and  mental 
health,    to  fitness  and  exercise,   and  to  life  long  learning. 

Patriotism,     Devotion  to  and  defense  of  one's  country. 
The  freely  chosen,    informed  willingness  to  support  and  defend  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

Loyalty,     Steady  reliability  to  do  one's  duty  in 
service  to  the  United  States  of  America,    the  United  States  Marine 
Corps,   one's  command,   one's  fellow  Marines,    Sailors,  Soldiers, 
Airmen,   citizens,   oneself,   and  to  family. 

Valor ,     Boldness  and  determination  in  facing  danger  in 
battle,   and  the  daily  commitment  to  excellence  and  honesty  in 
actions  small  and  large. 


2-3 


(3)   COMMITMENT  -  The  promise  or  pledge  to  complete  a 
worthy  goal  by  worthy  means  which  requires  identification  with 
that  goal  and  demonstrated  actions  to  support  that  goal,  includ- 
ing,  but  not  limited  to: 

Competence ,     Maintaining,   and  improving  one's  skill 
level  to  support  the  team.     Commitment  to  growing  toward  a 
standard  of  excellence  second  to  none. 

Teamwork,     Individual  effort  in  support  of  other  team 
members  in  accomplishing  the  team's  mission.     Marines  take  care 
of  their  own.     All  worthwhile  accomplishments  are  the  result  of  a 
team  effort. 

Selflessness ,     Marines  take  care  of  their  subordinates, 
their  families,    their  fellow  Marines  before  themselves.  The 
welfare  of  our  country  and  our  Corps  is  more  important  than  our 
individual  welfare. 

Concern  for  People,     The  Marine  Corps  is  the  custodian 
of  this  nation's  future,   her  young  people.     We  exist  to  defend 
the  nation,   but  as  importantly,   we  are  in  the  business  of  creat- 
ing honorable  citizens.     Everyone  is  of  value,   regardless  of 
race,   nation  of  origin,   religion,    or  gender.     Concern  includes  a 
commitment  to  improving  the  level  of  education,    skill,  self- 
esteem,   and  quality  of  life  for  Marines  and  their  families.  On 
the  battlefield,   a  Marine  is  the  fiercest  of  all  warriors  and  the 
most  benevolent  of  conquerors. 

Spiritual  Heritage,     The  U.S.  Constitution,   the  Pledge 
of  Allegiance,    and  the  creeds  that  guide  our  nation  recognize  the 
value  of  religious  and  spiritual  heritage  of  individuals  and  base 
our  understanding  of  rights  and  duties  on  the  endowment  of  all 
people,   by  God,   with  the  inalienable  rights  of  life,    liberty,  and 
the  pursuit  of  happiness.     Marines  maintain  spiritual  health  and 
growth  to  nurture  enduring  values  and  acquire  a  source  of 
strength  required  for  success  in  battle  and  the  ability  to  endure 
hardship . 

b.     Why  are  the  Marine  Corps  Core  Values  important? 

(1)   No  group  functions  well  unless  all  members  of  the 
group  "buy  in"   to  the  ideals  and  goals  of  the  group.  Individuals 
have  impact,   but  a  team  working  together  is  stronger  than  the 


2-4 


individual  members  of  the  team, 
mission  function  more  efficiently 
believe  in  the  team,    its  mission, 
ideals . 


Members  of  a  team  with  a  common 
and  effectively  if  they  all 
and  have  a  common  set  of 


(2)  A  common  set  of  values  to  which  every  Marine 
adheres  to  the  best  of  his  or  her  ability  gives  us  the  common 
ground  to  build  strong  teams.     As  important,    if  every  Marine 
works  to  uphold  the  Corps'   Core  Values,    their  fellow  Marines  are 
more  willing  to  place  trust  and  confidence  in  that  Marine's 
willingness  to  do  the  right  thing,   whether  in  peacetime  or 
combat.     Strong  Marines,   believing  in  the  same  ideals,  adhering 
to  the  same  code  of  behavior  and  ethics,   working  to  accomplish 
the  same  mission  are  an  unbeatable  combination. 

(3)  Every  Marine  is  a  representative  of  their  Corps. 

On  duty  or  on  liberty,    every  action  reflects  either  positively  or 
negatively  on  the  what  the  American  people  and  the  world  think  of 
the  Marine  Corps .     Strive  your  hardest  to  adhere  to  the  values 
that  make  a  Marine  unique,   and  you  will  not  let  the  Corps,  your 
fellow  Marines,   your  family,    or  your  Country  down. 

(4)  The  31st  Commandant,   General  Charles  C.   Krulak  says 
that  the  Marine  Corps  does  two  important  things  for  America,  wins 
battles  and  makes  Marines.     The  old  recruiting  poster  says   " The 
Marines  Make  Men,    Body-Mind-Spirit. "     General  Krulak  says  "The 
Marines  Make  Marines,    Body-Mind-Spirit. "     The  triangle  is  only 
strong  if  all  three  sides  are  complete.     Marines  are  physically 
fit  because  it  is  our  culture  to  be  strong.     Marines  are  mentally 
fit  because  our  Marine  culture  tells  us  to  pursue  the  study  of 
our  profession,    the  profession  of  war.     Marines  are  morally  fit 
because  we  believe  in  and  practice  our  Marine  Corps  Core  Values. 

6 .       Appendices . 

Appendix  A:     Commandant's  Statement  On  Core  Values  of  United 
States  Marines 

Appendix  B:     ALMAR  248/96  -  Character 

Appendix  C:     Ethos  and  Values,   November  199  5  Marine  Corps 
Gazette 


2-5 


APPENDIX  A 

R  091300Z  JUL  96  2YB 

FM  CMC  WASHINGTON  DC// CMC// 

TO  ALMAR 

f   BAS  //N01500// 
^■lR  248/96 
MSGI D/GENADMIN/CMC// 
SUBJ/ CHARACTER// 

RMKS/1.  MARINES  ARE  MSN  AND  WOMEN  OF  CHARACTER,  WIDELY  RECOGNIZED  FOR 
THEIR  MORAL  EXCELLENCE ,  SELFLESS  COURAGE,  COMMITTED  PRINCIPLES,  AMD 
SOUND  JUDGEMENTS.  CHARACTER  CAN  BE  DESCRIBED  AS  A  "MORAL  COMPASS" 
WITHIN  ONE'S  SELF,  THAT  HELPS  US  MAKE  RIGHT  DECISIONS  EVEN  IN  THE 
MIDST  OF  THE  SHIFTING  WINDS  OF  ADVERSITY.  UNWAVERING  CHARACTER 
ENCOURAGES  US  TO  PURSUE  HONORABLE  IDEALS.  A  WISE  PERSON  ONCE 
DECLARED,   "IDEALS  ARE  LIKE  STARS  —  WE  MAY  NEVER  REACH  THEM  BUT  WE 
CHART  OUR  COURSE  BY  THEM. " 

2.  CHARACTER  IS  DEVELOPED  EVERYDAY  IN  GARRISON,  ON  DEPLOYMENT, 
ABOARD  SHIP,  ON  DUTY  OR  ON  LIBERTY,  WHEREVER  WE  ARE  AROUND  THE  WORLD. 
WE  ARE  NOT  BORN  WITH  CHARACTER.   IT  IS  DEVELOPED  BY  THE  EXPERIENCES 
AND  DECISIONS  THAT  GUIDE  OUR  LIVES.  NEITHER  CAN  WE  BORROW  THE 
CHARACTER  OR  REPUTATION  OF  ANOTHER.  EACH  INDIVIDUAL  CREATES, 
DEVELOPS  AND  NURTURES  THEIR  OWN.  THAT  IS  WHY  EACH  OF  US  MUST  LEARN 
TO  MAKE  GOOD  MORAL  DECISIONS  IN  OUR  LIVES.  WHEN  THE  RIGHT  COURSE  OF 
ACTION  IS  UNCLEAR,   ONLY  THE  HABIT  OF  DOING  THE  RIGHT  THING,  AS 
PRACTICED  EVERYDAY  IN  ALL  AREAS  OF  OUR  LIVES,  CAN  BE  COUNTED  UPON. 
WELL- DEVELOPED  CHARACTER  IS  OUR  SHIELD  AGAINST  FEAR  AND  DESPAIR. 
THAT'S  WHY  NAPOLEON  SAID  THAT  IN  WAR,  THE  IMPORTANCE  OF  THE  MORAL, 
RELATIVE  TO  THE  PHYSICAL,   IS  THREE  TO  ONE. 

3.  CHARACTER  IS  READINESS.  THE  CORPS  IS  A  READY  FORCE,  NOT  A  FORCE 
THAT  WHEN  CALLED  MUST  STRUGGLE  TO  GET  READY.  OUR  CHALLENGE  IS  TO  BE 

A  CORPS  OF  MEN  AND  WOMEN  WHO  CONSISTENTLY  REPRESENT  THE  HIGHEST  MORAL 
PER  IN  AND  OUT  OF  UNIFORM.  CHARACTER  CREATES  A  FOUNDATION  ON 
SUCCESSFUL  MILITARY  UNITS  ARB  BUILT.  FROM  THIS  FOUNDATION, 
t',  COURAGE,  AND  COMMITMENT  WILL  ALWAYS  BE  EVIDENT,  PROVIDING 
6CT  DESCRIPTION  OF  A  UNITED  STATES  MARINE. 

4.  SEMPER  FI DELIS,   C.C.  KRULAK.// 
BT 

#3881 
NNNN 


APPENDIX  B 


COMMANDANT ' S  STATEMENT 
ON 

CORE  VALUES  OF  UNITED  STATES  MARINES 


Generation  after  generation  of  American  men  and  women  have  given  special  meaning  to  the 
term  United  States  Marine.  They  have  done  so  by  their  performance  on  and  off  the 
battlefield.  Feared  by  enemies,  respected  by  allies,  and  loved  by  the  American  people, 
Marines  are  a  "special  breed."  This  reputation  was  gained  and  is  maintained  by  a  set  of 
enduring  Core  Values.  These  values  form  the  cornerstone,  the  bedrock,  and  the  heart  of  our 
character.  They  are  the  guiding  beliefs  and  principles  that  give  us  strength,  influence  our 
attitudes,  and  regulate  our  behavior.  They  bond  our  Marine  Family  into  a  total  force  that 
can  meet  any  challenge. 

HONOR:  The  bedrock  of  our  character.  The  quality  that  guides  Marines  to  exemplify  the 
ultimate  in  ethical  and  moral  behavior;  never  to  lie,  cheat,  or  steal;  to  abide  by  an 
uncompromising  code  of  integrity;  to  respect  human  dignity;  to  have  respect  and  concern  for 
each  other.  The  quality  of  maturity,  dedication,  trust,  and  dependability  that  commits 
Marines  to  act  responsibly;  to  be  accountable  for  actions;  to  fulfill  obligations;  and  to 
hold  others  accountable  for  their  actions. 

COURAGE:  The  heart  of  our  Core  Values,  courage  is  the  mental,  moral,  and  physical 
strength  ingrained  in  Marines  to  carry  them  through  the  challenges  of  combat  and  the 
mastery  of  fear;  to  do  what  is  right;  to  adhere  to  a  higher  standard  of  personal  conduct;  to 
lead  by  example,  and  to  make  tough  decisions  under  stress  and  pressure.  It  is  the  inner 
strength  that  enables  a  Marine  to  take  that  extra  step. 

COMMITMENT:  The  spirit  of  determination  and  dedication  within  members  of  a  force 
of  arms  that  leads  to  professionalism  and  mastery  of  the  art  of  war.  It  leads  to  the  highest 
order  of  discipline  for  unit  and  self;  it  is  the  ingredient  that  enables  24-hour  a  day  dedication 
to  Corps  and  Country;  pride;  concern  for  others;  and  an  unrelenting  determination  to  achieve 
a  standard  of  excellence  in  every  endeavor.  Commitment  is  the  value  that  establishes  the 
Marine  as  the  warrior  and.  citizen  others  strive  to  emulate. 

Reaffirm  these  Core  Values  and  ensure  they  guide  your  performance,  behavior,  and  conduct 
every  minute  of  every  day. 


C.  E.  MUNDY,  JR. 
General,  U.S.  Marine  Corps 
Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps 


APPENDIX  C 


Ethos  and  Values,  NOV  95  Marine  Corps  Gazette 

Long  before  we  wear  the  uniform,   long  before  the  eagle, 
globe,   and  anchor  is  etched  in  our  soul --we  sense  the  special 
character  that  sets  Marines  apart.     Silent  to  the  ear- -Marine 
ehtos,  values,   and  character  speak  to  the  nation's  heart.  They 
say  more  about  who  we  are  than  the  dignity  of  our  uniforms,  the 
pageantry  of  our  parades,   or  the  inspiration  of  our  hymn.  The 
nation  expects  her  Marines  to  be  the  world's  finest  military 
professionals.     The  nation  demands  that  her  Marines  be  forever 
capable  and  ready,   rich  in  history  and  traditions,   and  instilled 
with  the  traditional  virtues- -honor ,   courage,  and 
commitment- -that  demonstrate  we  remain  faithful.     In  short,  we 
must  deserve  the  nation's  trust. 

. . .the  Nations  has  placed  a  measure  of  its  trust 
and  hope  in  the  one  hundred  thousand  men  who  have 
volunteered  to  serve  the  cause  of  freedom  as 
United  States  Marines.     The  Marine  Corps  is  always 
ready  to  fulfill  that  trust. 

General  Alexander  A.  Vandegrift 
10  November  194  6 

Trust  is  not  given.     Nor  is  it  easily  earned.     Today  the 
trust  of  the  nation  is  our  inheritance- -a  trust  earned  through 
the  selfless  valor  and  determined  actions  of  generations  of 
Marines  on  the  distant  shores  and  misty  battlefields  of  our 
storied  past.     Left  to  us  as  part  of  our  predecessor's  legacy,  it 
is  now  ours  to  sustain.     The  stewardship  of  this  trust  is  our 
sacred  responsibility.     It  is  a  debt  we  owe  to  those  who  have 
gone  before  us,   and  a  promise  we  make  to  those  who  will  follow. 
It  is  the  guiding  light  of  our  ethos. 

This  high  name  of  distinction  and  soldierly 
repute  we  who  are  Marines  today  have  received 
from  those ^wh  preceded  us  in  the  Corps.  With 
it  we  also  received  from  them  the  eternal  spirit 
which  has  animated  our  Corps  from  generation  and 
has  been  the  distinguishing  mark  of  the  Mairnes 
in  every  age. 


Major  General  John  A.  Lejeune 
10  November  1921 

Not  just  what  we  do,   our  ethos  is  who  we  are  and  what  we 
believe.     Today,   as  in  the  past,   the  spirit  of  this  ethos  is  born 
in  the  hearts  of  men  and  women  drawn  to  the  Corps  by  a  common 
calling- -a  desire  to  serve,   and  a  sense  of  duty  born  in  ideals 
like  patriotism,   valor,   and  fidelity.     It  grows  as  they  are 
transformed- -  from  citizen-patriots  of  the  great  American  stock, 
into  Marine- -mind,   body,   and  soul.     Like  knights  of  legend, 
Marines  are  not  made,   they  are  transformed.     They  are  forged  in 
the  furnace  of  hardship,   tempered  by  the  bonds  of  shared  hazard, 
sharpened  by  the  whet-stones  of  training  and  education,   and  honed 
to  a  fine  edge  by  innovation  and  ingenuity.     Marines,  once 
transformed,   are  forever  changed- -instilled  with  beliefs,  ideals 
and  virtues  that  have  meaning  deeper  than  words.     Today,   some  of 
these  ideals- -honor ,   courage,   commitment -- form  the  bedrock  of  our 
institutional  and  individual  character.     They  are  our  core 
values . 

He  is  the  descedant  of  a  line  of  heroes,    the  bearer 
of  a  name  hailed  as  foremost  in  the  annals  of  his 
country,    the  custodian  of  a  long  cherished  reputation 
for  honor,   valor,   and  integrity . 

Major  General  John  A.  Lejeune 
10  November  192  2 

To  be  honorable  one  must  live  with  honor.     To  live  with 
honor,   we  must  be  faithful  to  our  cause,   to  our  purpose,    to  our 
beliefs.     We  must  be  faithful  to  our  country,   to  our  Corps,  and 
to  each  other.     This  faithfulness  is  never  situational,   and  it 
must  never  be  compromised.     We  mus  respect  each  other,   believe  in 
each  other,   trust  each  other. 

Their  training,    their  spirit,   and  their  cold 
courage  prevailed  against  fanatical  opposition. 

Secretary  of  the  Navy,   James  B.  Forrestal- 
speaking  on  the  occasion  of  the 
Marine  Corps  Birthday,   Novemeber  196  8 

Commitment  is  a  promise  of  resolve.  Commitment  is  the 
investment  that  turns  ideas  into  action.  The  continuity  of 
commitment  is  dedication  and  determination,   and  the  product  is 


mastery  of  one's  profession.  Our  commitment  reflects  our 
"attitude  in  action." 


On  this  birthday,   our  nation  finds  in  its  Marine  Corps,  men 
and  women  who  exemplify  the  ideals  upon  which  our  country  was 
founded- -honor ,   courage,   and  commitment.     In  its  Marines,    it  also 
finds  men  and  women  who  know  the  meaning  of  patriotism,  valor, 
duty,   strength,   discipline,   and  innovation- -men  and  women  who 
love  country  and  Corps.     But  as  we  reflect  on  our  history,  ethos 
and  values,   remember- -the  future  will  judge  its  past- 

And  when  at  some  future  date  the  high  court  of 
history  sits  in  judgment  on  each  of  us,  recording 
whether  in  our  brief  span  of  service  we  fulfilled 
our  responsibilities  to  the  state,   our  success  or 
failure  in  whatever  office  we  hold,   will  be  measured 
by  the  answers  to  four  questions :     First,   were  we 
truly  men  of  courage. . .Second,   were  we  truly  men  of 
judgment. . .Third  were  we  truly  men  of  integrity. . . 
Finally,  were  we  truly  men  of  dedication? 

John  F .  Kennedy 

A  wise  gentleman  once  stated  that  America  has  a  Marine  Corps 
because  it  wants  a  Marine  Corps.     Today,  America  wants  a  Marine 
Corps  because  she  knows  not  only  what  we  do,   but  also  something 
about  who  we  are,   and  what  we  believe- -the  standards  of  our  ethos 
and  our  values.     The  nation  wants  its  Corps  of  Marines  because  we 
are  a  force  she  can  trust.     Our  responsibility  today  and  for  the 
future  is  to  preserve  that  trust- -honor ,   courage,   and  commitment 
should  sustain  us. 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

CORE  VALUES 

1.  Introduction .   Everyone  lives  according  to  what  they  feel  is 
worthwhile  or  according  to  their  value  system.   A  person's  value 
system  motivates  their  thinking  and  actions.  Values  and 
leadership  are  closely  linked.   By  exploring  this  connection  and 
understanding  the  enormous  impact  of  personal  values  on 
individual  behavior,   we  should  be  better  equipped  as  Marine 
leaders.     By  understanding  human  behavior,    leaders  are  more  able 
to  analyze,   predict,   and  influence  the  behavior  of  their  Marines 

2 .  Overview.     Your  task  in  leading  this  discussion  is  to  help 
your  Marines  understand  what  values  are,   how  they  are  developed, 
and  the  relationship  between  values  and  leadership. 

3 .  References 

FMFM  1-0,   Leading  Marines 

FM  22-10  0,   Military  Leadership 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.     In  preparing  to  lead  this  discussion,   a  review  of  FMFM 
1-0,   Leading  Marines,   and  Chapter  6,    FM  22-100,  Military 
Leadership ,    should  provide  some  additional  insights  into  values, 
attitudes,   behavior,   and  the  leader's  role  in  influencing  these 
human  characteristics.     In  addition,    check  with  your  local  film 
library  for  Dr.  Massey's  film  "What  You  Are  Is  Where  You  Were 
When."     This  90  minute  film  explains  the  value  formation  theory. 
Its  film  number  is  68082  DN. 

b.  This  discussion  guide  is  just  that,   a  guide,   and  is  not 
meant  to  be  the  "end  all"  of  leadership  instruction  on  the 
subject,   but  it  does  provide  the  basic  points  for  discussion. 
Only  you,    the  leader,   knows  what  your  unit  needs  most,  and, 
therefore,   you  must  evaluate  what  needs  to  be  emphasized, 
modified,   or  expanded. 

c.  When  leading  this  discussion,   remember  that  the 
effectiveness  of  the  group  learning  experience  is  primarily 


3-1 


dependent  upon  your  preparation  and  your  ability  to  fulfill  your 
duties  as  a  discussion  leader. 


5 .  Discussion 


a.  Captain  Adolf  Von  Schell  in  the  book  Battle  Leadership 
states : 

"...   as  leaders  we  must  have  some  knowledge  of  the  souls 
of  our  soldiers,   because  the  soldier,   the  living  man,   is  the 
instrument  with  which  we  have  to  work  in  war. . . .     No  commander 
lacking  in  this  inner  knowledge  of  his  men  can  accomplish  great 
things . " 

b.  Every  leadership  effort  is  affected  by  the  relationship 
between  the  values  of  the  leader  and  those  of  the  led.  Values 
are  the  keystone  to  motivation  because  they  influence  an 
individual's  perceptions  and  attitudes.     To  be  effective  leaders, 
we  must  truly  appreciate  the  importance  of  values  in 
understanding  human  behavior.     We  must  not  only  know  our  own 
values,  but  must  also  be  able  to  assess  the  similarities  and 
differences  of  our  subordinates'  values. 

c.  As  we  deal  with  our  Marines  through  observing  them, 
talking  with  their  immediate  superiors  and  peers,   or  by 
counseling  and  interviewing  them,   we  first  become  aware  of  their 
values  based  upon  their  attitudes  and  behavior.     That  behavior 
will  initially  suggest  to  us  that  they  have  certain  attitudes. 
After  a  period  of  time  we  will  realize  that  some  of  those 
attitudes  are  founded  upon  deeply  held  beliefs  or  values. 
Realizing  and  understanding  a  Marine's  attitudes  and  values  is 
essential  for  us  to  be  able  to  inspire  and  control  that  person 
and  will  suggest  what  actions  we  need  to  take  to  deal  with  that 
individual  or  group.     The  agenda  for  today's  discussion  is: 


behavior 


values 


1)  Discuss  the  development  of  values,   attitudes,  and 

2)  Discuss  organizational  versus  individual  values. 

3)  Define  the  leader's  role  in  developing  attitudes  and 

4)  Discuss  several  scenarios  involving  values  and 


behavior . 

(5)   Show  the  film,    "What  You  Are  Is  Where  You  Were  When." 


3-2 


d .     Development  of  values,   attitudes,   and  behavior . 

I 

(1)  What  is  the  difference  between  values,   attitudes,  and 
behavior?     As  you  discuss  each,   have  the  seminar  members  give 
personal  examples . 

(a)  Values .     Values  are  basic  ideas  about  the  worth 
or  importance  of  people,    concepts,   or  things.     You  may  place  a 
high  value  on  a  family  heirloom,    such  as  your  grandfather's 
watch,   or  on  a  clean,   well  maintained  car.     You  may  value 
personal  comfort  or  freedom  to  travel .     You  may  value  a 
friendship,   a  relative,    or  an  adult  who  helped  you  as  you  were 
growing  up.  Values  influence  your  behavior  because  you  use  them 
to  weigh  the  importance  of  alternatives.     For  example,   a  person 
who  values  personal  pleasure  more  than  he  values  a  trim,  healthy 
body  continually  makes  choices  between  eating  and  exercising  that 
will  ultimately  result  in  his  becoming  overweight  and  out  of 
shape.     Your  values  guide  you  in  choosing  whether  to  go  with  your 
friends  to  a  concert  or  to  a  family  gathering  on  your 
grandfather's  75th  birthday. 

(b)  Attitudes .     Attitudes  are  an  individual's  or  a 
group's  feelings  toward  something  or  someone,   and  are  usually 
expressed  or  demonstrated  in  likes  and  dislikes.     Attitudes  are 
not  as  deeply  held  as  values.     Attitudes  could  possibly  be  values 
in  the  making . 

(c)  Behavior .     A  person's  or  group's  behavior  is 
their  outward  manifestation  of  either  attitudes  or  values  --  the 
way  they  act,   dress,    or  speak. 

(2)  How  are  values  and  attitudes  developed? 

(a)  List  responses  on  a  chalkboard,   or  consider 
drawing  a  circle  representing  a  person  and  have  participants 
provide  the  forces  which  impact  on  the  person. 

(b)  Regardless  of  their  personal  theories,  most 
researchers  agree  that  we  obtain  our  values  and  attitudes  through 
our  experiences  in  society.     There  appears  to  be  some  reason  to 
believe  that  earlier  experiences  have  more  impact  than  later 
experiences.     In  our  early  lives  we  are  all  strongly  influenced 
by  our  parents,   our  teachers,   and  our  peers.     These  experiences 
tend  to  establish  our  early  attitudes,   our  likes  and  dislikes. 

As  these  attitudes  are  reinforced  by  successive  similar 
experiences,    they  become  our  basic  foundational  values. 


3-3 


Conversely,   our  values  can  have  a  direct  effect  on  our 
attitudes . 

(c)   If  we  value  punctuality  it  will  affect  our 
attitude  towards  other  people.     For  example,   if  you  have  two 
acquaintances  who  are  very  similar  in  their  personal  makeup 
except  that  one  is  punctual  and  the  other  is  always  late,  you 
will  probably  have  a  better  attitude  toward  the  one  who  is 
punctual;   that  is,  you  will  probably  like  him  better  than  the  one 
who  is  always  late.     In  this  case  your  values  have  influenced 
your  attitude. 

Note:     Institutions  such  as  the  home  and  schools  exerted  great 
influence  on  values  formation  in  the  past.     Is  this  true  today? 

(3)  What  sources  influence  the  values  formation  of  our 

youth? 

(a)   Over  the  past  decade,   the  structure  of  the 
American  family  has  seen  dramatic  changes  caused  by  geographical 
mobility  and  changing  moral  values.     The  schools'   influence  on 
values  formation  has  diminished  due  to  changing  social  attitudes 
towards  education. 

At  this  point,   have  each  individual  make  a  list  of  ten  values 
(e.g.,    freedom,   honesty,   integrity,   etc.)  placing  those  which 
they  feel  most  strongly  about  first.  After  listing  their  values, 
have  someone  explain  what  they  feel  contributed  most 
significantly  to  the  development  of  their  values. 

(4)  Why  are  values  important? 

(a)  Values  are  the  center  of  a  person's  character. 
Values  affect  our  everyday  life  and  help  determine  our  attitudes 
and  behavior.     The  influence  of  values  on  human  behavior  is  so 
great  that  people  will  fight  and  sometimes  die  for  their  values. 
An  individual's  ability  to  survive  under  stressful  conditions  is 
often  strengthened  by  firmly  established  personal  values. 

(b)  This  was  particularly  true  for  POW's.     Those  who 
believed  in  what  they  were  fighting  for  refused  to  bend  to  the 
demands  of  their  captors.     They  found  strength  in  their 
convictions  and  the  will  to  survive  many  years  of  imprisonment. 


3-4 


(5)   What  is  the  relationship  between  values  and 
leadership? 

(a)  Values  are  the  benchmark  for  leadership.     They  are 
guides  to  our  thinking  and  behavior  and  that  of  our  subordinates. 
If  a  Marine  is  left  without  any  guidance  or  supervision,  then 
personal  values  will  determine  what  that  Marine  will  or  will  not 
do.     Leaders  must  provide  guidance  and  supervision  in  order  to 
inspire   (reinforce  organizational  values)    and  to  control  (effect 
behavior)    our  Marines. 

(b)  As  a  leader  you  have  the  power  to  influence  the 
beliefs  and  values  of  your  Marines  by  setting  the  example,  by 
rewarding  behavior  that  supports  military  values  and  attitudes 
and  by  planning  and  conducting  tough  individual  and  collective 
training . 

e.   Organizational  versus  individual  values.     So  far  we  have 
been  discussing  individual  attitudes  and  values.     Do  groups  have 
attitudes  and  values? 

(1)  Yes.     Group  attitudes  and  values  usually  reflect  a 
consensus  of  the  attitudes  and  values  of  the  individuals  that 
make  up  the  group.     In  the  case  of  the  Marine  Corps,   values  such 
as  honesty,    integrity,   and  loyalty  have  been  desired  traits  for 
many  years  and  have  been  proven  necessary  in  battle.     Keep  in 
mind  that  it  is  these  and  other  values  which  initially  attract 
many  young  people  to  join  the  Marine  Corps. 

(2)  In  addition  to  those  mentioned  above,   what  are  some 
other  Marine  Corps  values?      (Have  the  group  identify  and  list  the 
Corps  values . ) 

Marine  Corps  Values  include: 

Embodying  the  leadership  traits. 
Living  the  leadership  principles. 
Being  prompt. 

Maintaining  a  neat  personal  appearance  and  soldierly  bearing. 
Accomplishing  the  mission. 
Ensuring  troop  welfare. 

Maintaining  discipline  and  obedience  to  orders. 
Sacrificing  individual  needs  for  the  benefit  of  the  group. 
Working  until  the  job  is  completed. 

(3)   Many  young  men  and  women  come  into  the  Marine  Corps 
with  predetermined  attitudes  which  may  or  may  not  correlate  with 


3-5 


our  organizational  values.     Regardless  of  their  prevalent 
attitudes,   recruit  training  produces  a  motivated,  disciplined, 
and  patriotic  Marine;   however,   once  in  the  FMF  they  seem  to  lose 
some  of  the  spark.     Why  is  this? 

(a)   Graduate  recruits  are  highly  motivated  towards 
the  Corps  and  the  standards  it  represents.     They  leave  the 
recruit  depots  with  great  expectations  of  receiving  from  and 
giving  a  lot  to  their  Corps.     They  seek  tough  training  and 
dynamic  leadership.     Too  often,   after  reporting  to  their  units, 
leadership  by  example  diminishes;   standards  become  lowered; 
training  becomes  routine  and  boring;   expectations  dim;  motivation 
drops;   tarnishing  sets  in.     Improperly  supervised,    the  future  NCO 
is  often  thrown  too  completely  on  their  own  and  is  not  always 
ready  for  this  situation.     They  may  follow  the  most  influential 
Marine  available,    frequently  the  "sea  lawyer"  who  leads  them  in 
the  wrong  direction.     Sometimes  they  may  be  promoted  too  soon  and 
are  not  prepared  for  the  accelerated  responsibilities.     Often  we 
blame  operational  commitments  for  not  conducting  leadership 
training . 

(4)  More  importantly,   how  can  we,    through  effective 
leadership,   reinforce  the  recruit  training  experience? 

(a)     Command  emphasis  must  be  placed  on  stopping  this 
trend.     With  the  quality  of  Marines  in  the  Corps  today,   we  must 
be  prepared  to  challenge  these  disciplined  and  spirited  Marines 
who  respond  magnificently  to  positive  leadership.     The  DI  and 
boot  camp  must  not  be  the  only  significant  event  in  a  Marine's 
active  duty  experience.     Commanders  and  unit  leaders  must  set  the 
example  and  ensure  that  the  development  of  our  Marines  and  NCO 1 s 
continue  when  they  join  a  unit.     A  Marine  should  find  good 
leadership,   a  sense  of  belonging,   and  meaningful  work.  Training 
must  be  challenging,   demanding,    interesting,   and  with  a  clearly 
discernible  purpose.     Leadership  by  example  is  a  must! 

(5)  What  is  a  value  conflict? 

(a)  When  a  Marine's  personal  values  and  attitudes 
differ  from  those  of  their  leader  or  the  Marine  Corps  to  such  an 
extent  that  it  affects  their  performance  of  duty  (their 
behavior),    there  is  a  conflict  of  values;   e.g.,   a  young  Marine 
decides  that  the  use  of  illegal  drugs  is  more  important  to  him 
than  his  duty  as  a  Marine  not  to  use  or  tolerate  the  use  of 
illegal  drugs. 


3-6 


(b)  As  leaders,   an  awareness  of  value  conflicts  is 
important  to  us  because  such  a  conflict  adversely  affects  mission 
accomplishment.     It  also  comprises  one  of  the  greatest  challenges 
to  leadership:     the  difficulty  of  influencing  and  controlling 
someone  who  genuinely  disagrees  or  dislikes  what  they  are 
required  to  do   (not  to  use  drugs) . 

(c)  How  do  value  conflicts  interfere  with  mission 
accomplishment? 

[1]   A  Marine  with  a  value  conflict  may  become  a 
disciplinary  problem  if  his/her  behavior  reflects  an  indifferent 
or,    in  extreme  cases,   a  hostile  attitude  towards  the  Corps' 
authority.     Disciplinary  problems  require  a  considerable  amount 
of  the  leader's  time  and  effort,   and  ultimately  affect  their  time 
and  ability  to  train  good  Marines.     Marines  whose  values  and 
attitudes  are  either  parallel  to  the  Corps '   or  who  are 
self -disciplined  enough  to   "keep  themselves  in  line"  are 
generally  the  strength  of  the  unit. 

[2]   Consider  the  case  of  a  Marine  who  is 
continually  involved  in  disciplinary  problems.     This  Marine 
requires  a  great  deal  of  the  leader's  time  because  he/she  must  be 
counseled,   watched  closely,   given  office  hours,   and  sometimes 
discharged  --  all  of  which  take  time  away  from  the  leader;  time 
which  should  be  devoted  to  their  good  Marines . 

[3]   Have  the  group  list  some  value  conflicts  they 
have  observed  and  what  characterized  the  conflict.     List  may 
include : 

[a]  An  individual   "moonlighting"   to  give 
their  family  more  but  allowing  it  to  interfere  with  his  Marine 
Corps  career . 

[b]  An  individual  working  out  to  get  in  shape 
for  a  marathon  to  the  extent  that  it  is  impacting  on  his/her  job 
performance  and  interfering  with  work  schedules. 

(4)   How  were  the  conflicts  you  observed  resolved? 
Let  discussion  group  members  explain  various  techniques  used  and 
discuss  their  effectiveness.     If  not  brought  out  during  the 
discussion,   mention  that  value  conflicts  may  be  resolved  through 
leadership  by  example.     Eventually,   an  individual  is  influenced 
by  the  leader's  personal  example  and  that  of  their  fellow  Marines 
(peer  pressure).     Or,    if  necessary  through  disciplinary  action 


3-7 


that  sets  the  example  of  what  will  happen  if  a  Marine  cannot  come 
to  grips  with  their  value  conflicts. 

(5)   Peer  pressure  is  particularly  effective  in  resolving 
conflicts.     The  emphasis  on  resolving  value  conflicts  should  be 
at  the  section/platoon/company  level  where  the  needs  of  the  group 
must  come  before  the  needs  of  the  individual.     A  Marine  must  know 
that  if  they  wish  to  belong  to  a  unit,    then  they  must  conform. 
It  is  up  to  their  fellow  Marines  to  make  this  clear  by  not 
tolerating  attitudes  or  behavior  which  interfere  with  unit 
integrity  and  mission  accomplishment  or  which  bring  dishonor  to 
the  unit. 

f .     The  leader's  role  in  developing  attitudes  and  values 

(1)  Why  is  it  important  for  leaders  to  understand  values? 
An  understanding  of  values  will  assist  the  leader  in  the 
following  manner: 

(a)  If  the  leader  has  a  clear  understanding  of  values 
and  their  relationship  to  their  Marines  they  can  fulfill  one 
essential  principle  of  leadership  --   "Know  your  men  and  look  out 
for  their  welfare." 

(b)  Knowing  the  values  of  their  Marines,   leaders  can 
communicate  more  effectively  and  provide  the  proper  guidance 
necessary  to  effect  behavior  and  ensure  discipline.     Keep  in 
mind,    the  leader  is  primarily  concerned  with  behavior  which  is 
enforced  through  policies,   directives,   and  regulations. 
Attitudinal  changes  among  subordinates  may  take  place  at  a  later 
time  after  behavior  patterns  have  been  enforced  over  a  period  of 
weeks  or  months . 

(2)  What  are  the  means  available  to  leaders  for 
determining  their  Marines'   values  and  attitudes? 

(a)   The  means  available  include: 
[1]  Interviewing 
[2]  Observing 
[3]  Counseling 

(3)  As  leaders  can  we  influence  values  in  our 
subordinates  ? 


3-8 


(a)    In  our  leadership  role  we  can  influence  our 
subordinates  by  gaining  their  respect.     In  other  words,   what  we 
are  and  what  we  portray  are  vital  to  our  success.     Marines  want 
to  emulate  good  leaders.     The  leader  must  clarify  organizational 
values  and  emphasize  and  explain  the  requirement  for  strict 
adherence  to  the  same.     It  is  essential  that  leaders  consistently 
protect  their  support  of  these  values  in  what  they  say  and  what 
they  do,    i.e.   by  setting  the  example.     Saying  one  thing  and  doing 
another  is  the  quickest  way  to  torpedo  credibility  and  to  deal  a 
deathblow  to  one's  value  as  a  leader. 

(4)  How  can  a  leader  go  about  helping  his/her 
subordinates  to  better  understand  their  values? 

(a)   Leaders  can  talk  with  their  Marines  and  help  them 
better  understand  what  their  goals  are  and  what  is  important  to 
them.     The  leader  should  help  his  Marines  to: 

[1]      Identify  their  goals. 

[2]      Identify  things  and  concepts  that  are 
important  to  them. 

[3]      Prioritize  those  things  and  concepts  that 
are  important  to  them  based  upon  their  goals. 

(5)  Why  is  it  useful  to  you  as  a  leader  to  help  your 
Marines  identify  and  clarify  their  values? 

(a)   Once  a  Marine's  values  are  correctly  identified 
and  clarified  based  on  firm  goals,   a  more  predictable  and 
consistent  behavior  pattern  results.     The  leader  can  then  plan 
how  to  lead  this  Marine  in  the  most  successful  manner  to 
accomplish  his/her  individual  and  unit  goals. 

(6)  Can  a  leader  change  or  modify  a  Marine's  values  when 
they  experience  a  value  conflict? 

(a)  Yes.  But  it  is  difficult  to  change  values  and 
beliefs,  and  leaders  should  not  expect  it  to  happen  overnight. 
It  takes  time! 

(b)  Sometimes  a  significant  emotional  event  (e.g., 
war,   heroic  acts,    love,    etc.)    can  speed  up  the  process. 
Sometimes  a  leader,   particularly  one  whom  the  follower  considers 
to  be  significant,   can  be  tremendously  influential  and  bring 


3-9 


about  amazing  change.     But  generally  it  takes  time,  concern, 
persistence,  hard  work,   and  positive  leadership  by  example. 

(b)  Where  a  value  conflict  exists,   a  leader  must 
enforce  behavior  and  at  the  same  time  provide  knowledge  which 
will  help  the  individual  resolve  the  conflict.     Consider  this 
situation : 

(c)  Some  individuals  value  their  individual  freedoms 
to  the  point  that  this  individualism  conflicts  with  the  Corps' 
values,   norms  or  standards.     Such  an  example  is  long  hair  and  an 
individual  Marine's  concern  with  conforming  more  with  civilian 
standards  for  appearance.     Often,    in  their  strong  desire  to  "fit 
in"   to  society  and  express  individual  freedom,    they  risk  getting 
into  trouble  in  the  Corps  by  not  conforming  to  appearance 
standards.     In  this  situation  a  leader  must: 

[1]   Enforce  behavior.     The  leader  uses  discipline 
to  affect  the  Marine's  behavior  directly   (orders  him  to  get  a 
proper  haircut) .     In  this  case  it  is  hoped  that  an  enforced 
behavior  pattern  repeated  often  enough  will  result  in  an  ultimate 
change  of  attitudes  and  values. 

[2]    Provide  knowledge.     The  leader  should  help 
the  Marine  to  better  understand  their  relationship  to  society, 
and  explain  that  in  the  Corps  certain  individual  freedoms  must  be 
set  aside  for  the  good  of  the  Corps.     By  enforcing  a  desired 
behavior,   leaders  fulfill  their  responsibility  to  enforce  the 
Corps'    standards,   and  by  providing  additional  knowledge/ insights 
to  the  individual,   help  Marines  to  develop  a  positive  attitude 
which  may  eventually  resolve  the  value  conflict. 

(7)   Can  a  unit  influence  a  Marine's  values? 

(a)   Yes.     When  people  join  a  new  group  they  want  to  be 
accepted  and  make  friends.     A  Marine  new  to  a  unit  will  go  along 
with  group  norms    (organizational  values)    in  order  to  be  accepted. 
They  will  adjust  to  the  norms  by  adopting  the  beliefs  and  values 
that  underlie  them.     That's  why  the  way  Marines  are  received  in  a 
unit  is  so  important. 

g .   Scenarios  involving  values  and  behavior. 

The  following  scenarios  are  intended  to  highlight  possible 
situations  Marines  may  encounter.     These  scenarios  will  get 
people  thinking  about  values  and  how  values  and  attitudes  affect 
behavior  when  an  individual  has  a  decision  to  make.     Let  several 


3-10 


seminar  members  express  their  views  and  thoughts  on  the 
following : 

(1)  The  BST  will  be  given  tomorrow  and  you  need  to  study 
in  order  to  pass  it.     You  feel  if  you  study  real  hard,   you  can 
"ace"   it,   and  know  it  will  help  towards  promotion.     A  friend 
wants  you  to  go  with  him  to  the  club  stating  you  know  that  stuff 
and  will  be  able  to  pass  it.     You  haven't  relaxed  in  the  club  in 
a  week.     What  do  you  do?     What  values  are  involved? 

(2)  You've  finally  gotten  out  of  debt  and  have  been 
wanting  for  a  long  time  to  participate  in  the  Tuition  Assistance 
(TA)   program  and  improve  your  education.     But  you've  recently  met 
this  young  woman  who  has  been  very  nice  to  you.     She  says  she  is 
divorced;   she  has  two  young  children.     They  all  like  you  very 
much.     They  don't  seem  to  have  many  material  things  and  always 
seem  to  need  money.     You  know  if  you  get  in  too  deep  you  won't  be 
able  to  participate  in  TA.     What  will  you  do?     What  are  the 
important  issues  here? 

(3)  It  is  sunup  and  your  six  man  patrol  has  just  been  hit 
about  1000  meters  away  from  your  combat  outpost.     Your  patrol 
killed  the  nine  enemy  soldiers  that  hit  you,   but  you  see  about  15 
or  2  0  more  enemy  heading  towards  your  position  from  about  3  00 
meters  away.     Three  of  your  men  and  the  corpsman  were  killed,  and 
the  fifth  wounded  badly.     He's  in  great  pain  and  begs  you  to  kill 
him  and  "make  it"  before  the  enemy  reinforcements  arrive.  You 
don't  think  he's  wounded  that  badly  and  believe  he  has  a  good 
chance  to  survive  if  he  gets  medical  help.     You  know  you'll  have 
to  carry  him,   however,   and  it'll  slow  you  down  to  the  extent  the 
enemy  may  be  able  to  catch  up  before  you  get  back  "home."  You 
are  certain  you  can  make  it  back  by  yourself.     What  values  are  at 
play  in  this  scenario? 

(4)  It  is  1900  and  you've  just  reported  aboard  after  a 
long  journey  and  are  tired,    especially  from  lugging  the  sea  bag 
everywhere  you  go.     No  one  met  or  briefed  you,   and  the  Duty  NCO 
flatly  told  you  to  find  a  rack  somewhere  in  Building  212  and 
report  to  the  first  sergeant  at  0730  tomorrow.     When  you  finally 
find  the  building  and  locate  a  rack,   LCpl  Blivit,   a  fast  talking, 
pleasant,    friendly  but  un-squared  away  looking  Marine  greets  you 
and  wants  to  buy  you  some  "welcome  aboard"  drinks  at  the  club. 
Your  gear  is  in  your  sea  bag  and  needs  a  lot  of  work  to  get  it 
squared  away.     You  would  like  to  look  good  when  you  see  the  first 
sergeant  tomorrow,   but  you're  beat  and  could  really  use  something 
cool  to  drink.     LCpl  Blivit  is  the  only  Marine  who's  been  nice  to 

I 


3-11 


you.     What  will  the  decision  be?     What  values  are  at  work  in 
this  scenario? 

(5)  You're  married  and  have  been  unaccompanied  in  Okinawa 
for  two  months  and  have  four  more  months  to  go .     To  this  point 
you  have  been  spending  your  evenings  at  the  hobby  shop,  the 
library,   or  just  writing  letters  to  your  wife.     Last  night  a 
couple  of  the  guys  asked  you  to  go  on  liberty.     You  were  feeling 
a  little  down,   and  a  couple  of  beers  sounded  like  a  good  idea,  so 
you  joined  your  friends  at  a  bar  out  in  town.     After  a  few  drinks 
one  of  the  girls  asked  you  to  dance,   you  accepted,   and  continued 
dancing  and  drinking  with  her  till  closing  time.     As  you  were 
leaving  the  bar,    she  said  that  she  hoped  she  would  see  you  again 
tomorrow  night  and  you  said,    "For  sure."     The  next  day  you 
boasted  to  all  your  friends  about  the  good  time  you  had  last 
evening,   but  said  you  would  not  go  back  to  the  bar  again  this 
evening.     About  1400  you  get  a  call  from  the  young  lady  you  were 
with  last  evening  asking  if  you  were  coming  back  tonight.     How  do 
you  handle  this  situation?     What ' s  important  here? 

(6)  You  are  the  pilot  in  command  of  a  single  helicopter 
which  has  been  diverted  for  an  emergency  extraction  of  a  recon 
team.     You  make  contact  with  the  team  and  plan  your  approach  for 
the  pickup.     Just  as  you  land  in  the  zone,   you  start  taking  heavy 
automatic  weapons  fire.     The  recon  team  makes  for  your  helo  as 
the  fire  becomes  more  intense.     As  soon  as  you  get  the  six 
Marines  aboard  your  aircraft,   your  crew  chief  says   "Take  Off!" 

As  you  lift  off  to  clear  the  zone,  the  crew-chief  comes  up  on  the 
ICS  (intercommunication  system)  again  and  tells  you  that  the  team 
leader  just  informed  him  that  you  left  two  men  in  the  zone  --  two 
men  who  were  providing  protective  fire  for  the  others  who  boarded 
the  aircraft.  The  team  leader  wants  you  to  go  back  to  get  them. 
What  do  you  do?     What  factors  are  involved? 

h.     Show  the  film  "What  You  Are  Is  Where  You  Were  When. " 

(1)  Dr.  Massey's  film  focuses  on  an  area  of  leadership 
frequently  overlooked  and  ignored,    i.e.,    the  importance  of  values 
and  how  they  are  developed.     This  film  is  provided  for  the 
discussion  group  to  assimilate  the  concept  that  values  are  not 
only  an  important  consideration  for  a  leader,   but  also  shape  the 
leader's  behavior  and  those  of  his  Marines  in  many  ways. 

(2)  Introduce  the  film.     Use  the  film  synopsis,  to 
prepare  some  opening  remarks.   Films  may  be  found  at  your  public 
library,    the  base  library,   or  at  TAVSC . 


3-12 


Important !     Emphasize  that  Dr.  Massey  speaks  rapidly  and  does 
not  look  like  John  Wayne,    so  you  must  listen  closely,  especially 
during  the  first  few  minutes  of  the  film.     Once  you  get  used  to 
his  pace  and  style,    there  should  be  no  problem. 

(3)  If  possible,   after  the  film  hand  out  copies  of  the 
synopsis  of  Dr.  Massey 's  presentation,    "What  You  Are  Is  Where  You 
Were  When"   to  those  who  ask  for  it. 

(4)  Does  anyone  have  comments  on  Dr.  Massey 's  theory? 

Emphasize  that  this  is  just  one  approach  aimed  at  explaining 
values  imprinting,   role  modeling  and  socialization  factors. 
Pursue  any  objections  or  new  ideas,   but  do  not  let  the  seminar 
get  bogged  down  since  there  are  many  acceptable  theories. 
The  main  points  are  that  people  have  different  values  and  behave 
(differently)   according  the  their  values. 

i .  Summary 

(1)  Recap  the  main  points  made  by  the  group. 

(2)  When  leaders  understand  the  development  and  role  of 
values  and  attitudes,    they  are  in  a  more  favorable  position  to 
deal  with  the  behavioral  problems  of  their  Marines.     When  leaders 
acknowledge  that  their  Marines  will  not  always  act  and  react  as 
the  leader  does,    or  that  they  will  not  understand  things  or  feel 
about  them  as  the  leader  does,    then  leaders  can  approach  new 
situations  and  their  Marines  more  intelligently  and  helpfully. 

(3)  Values  and  attitudes  are  learned.     When  leaders 
establish  mutual  understanding  between  their  Marines  and 
themselves,    they  have  helped  create  favorable  attitudes  toward 
suitable  values. 

(4)  Our  profession  provides  each  of  us  with  a 
superstructure  of  values  designed  to  assist  us  in  carrying  out 
our  duties  and  functions  as  Marine  professionals. 

Unquestionably,   we  will  sometimes  find  ourselves  in  circumstances 
where  personal  and  professional  value  systems  conflict.     In  such 
instances,   adherence  to  our  professional  values  must  take 
precedence . 

6.  Appendices .  None 


I 


3-13 


( 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

CORE  VALUES:      PROFESSIONALISM  AND  ETHICS 

1.  Introduction.     Core  Values:   Honor,   Courage,   and  Commitment! 
Conduct  beyond  reproach!   Doing  what  is  right!  Integrity! 
Consummate  professional !     These  are  basic  Marine  Corps  values 
which  have  earned  the  special  trust  and  confidence  of  America  in 
her  Marines .     Any  breach  in  this  special  trust  can  have 
devastating  effects  on  our  unit,   our  Corps  and  our  Country. 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  chapter  is  to  stress  the 
importance  of  values  and  to  provide  appropriate  practical 
exercises  which: 

a.  Stress  to  the  Marine  the  professional  aspect  of  Corps  and 
expected  standards  of  conduct. 

b.  Promote  an  understanding  of  values,    character,   and  the 
Marine  Corps  core  values . 

c.  Promote  an  understanding  of  ethics  and  ethical  decision 
making . 

3 .  References 

FMFM  1-0,   Leading  Marines 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.   The  following  outlines  the  main 
topics  to  be  covered  during  the  discussion: 

a.  Values,   where  values  come  from,    categories  of  values. 

b.  Marine  Corps  Core  Values:   Honor,   Courage,    and  Commitment. 

c.  Definition  of  a  professional,    importance  of 
professionalism. 

d.  Ethics,    ethical  traits  considered  particularly  important 
to  the  military   (obedience,    loyalty,   discipline,    self -discipline , 
and  selflessness) ;  what  documents  our  professional  ethics  are 
based  on   (UCMJ,   Law  of  Land  Warfare,   Code  of  Conduct,   Oath  of 
Office) ;   ethical  decision  making;   and  our  ethical 
responsibilities  toward  society. 


4-1 


e.  The  dangers  of  careerism  and  of  treating  the  military  as 
just  another  profession. 

f.  Identify  the  qualities  of  a  military  professional. 

g.  Identify  the  military  professional's  responsibilities  to 
society . 

i.     Identify  through  scenarios,   individuals  who  best 
exemplify  the  ideal  characteristics  of  a  military  professional. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.  What  are  values?  An  individual's  or  group's  ideas  about 
the  worth  or  importance  of  people,    things,   and  concepts. 

b.  How  are  values,   attitudes,   and  behavior  related? 

Behavior:     An  individual's  or  group's  outward  manifestation  of 
either  attitudes  or  values. 

Attitudes:     An  individual's  or  group's  feeling  toward  something 
or  someone  which  are  expressed  in  likes  or  dislikes. 

If  you  have  two  Marines  who  are  very  similar  in  their  personal 
makeup  except  that  one  is  always  late  and  the  other  is  always 
punctual,   you  will  probably  have  a  better  attitude  toward  the  one 
who  is  punctual.   In  this  case,  your  values  have  influenced  your 
attitude.  Conversely,   by  observation  of  a  Marine's  behavior  and 
attitudes,   you  may  gain  some  insight  into  what  he  values.  This 
insight  may  be  the  key  to  being  able  to  influence  the  Marine  in  a 
positive  way,    thus  modifying  any  negative  behavior  he  may  have 
displayed. 

c.  Where  do  we  get  our  values? 

Home,    school,   peer  groups,   community,    jobs,  church. 
Sociologists  agree  that  values  formed  early  in  life  seem  to  have 
a  more  lasting  impact. 

d.  It  is  recognized  that  values  are  organized  into  what 
categories? 

Personal,    social    (subcategories  folkways,   mores,  institutional 
ways,   and  taboos),   economic,  political,   and  religious. 


4-2 


(1)  Personal  values:   Traits  that  are  representative  of  a 
person's  moral  character  i.e.   honesty,    responsibility,  loyalty, 
moral  courage,  friendliness. 

(2)  Social  values:  Values  that  are  learned  and  that 
involve  one's  relationship  to  society  and  to  other  people,  i.e. 
social  responsibility,    social  consciousness,  healthy 
interpersonal  relationships,   equality,    justice,    liberty,  freedom, 
patriotism.   There  are  four  classes  of  social  values: 

(a)  Folk  ways:     Values  people  accept  out  of  habit. 

(b)  Mores:     Morality  which  governs  values. 

(c)  Institutional  Ways:     Practices  set  up  under  law. 

(d)  Taboos:     The  emphatic  do's  and  don'ts  of  a 
particular  society. 

(3)  Economic  values.     These  values  are  identified  through 
such  mediums  as  equal  employment,    stable  economy,   balancing  of 
supply  and  demand  of  productive  goods,   money,   private  property, 
pride  of  ownership,   and  taxes.     Many  believe  that  value  is  a 
commodity.     An  automobile,   a  house,    or  a  TV  set  have  certain 
values  to  them  and  their  price  is  an  economic  value. 

(4)  Political  values.     These  include  loyalty  to  country, 
concern  for  national  welfare,   democracy,   public  service,  voting, 
elections,   and  civic  responsibility. 

(5)  Religious  values.     Characterized  by  reverence  for 
life,   human  dignity,   and  freedom  to  worship. 

e.     How  is  character  related  to  our  values? 

Our  character  is  defined  by  "...the  commitment  to  an  admirable 
set  of  values,   and  the  courage  to  manifest  those  values  in  one's 
life,   no  matter  the  cost  in  terms  of  personal  success  or 
popularity.    "  Lewis  Sorley  in  an  article  for  the  March  1989  issue 
of  Parameters  magazine. 


4-3 


Appendices 


Appendix  A 
Appendix  B 
Appendix  C 
Appendix  D 
Appendix  E 


Meet  Ian  Nicholas  Wallocker 
Ian  goes  to  college 

1STLT  I.M.  Wallocker-FMF,   Camp  Lejeune 
1STLT  I.M.  Wallocker-FMF,   Convoy  Commander 
1STLT  I.M.  Wallocker-FMF,    Sea  Duty 


4-4 


Exercise  #1 


APPENDIX  A 
MEET  IAN  NICHOLAS  WALLOCKER 


Ian  is  a  twelve-year  old  boy  who  has  grown  up  as  an  only  child  in 
a  stable  middle-class  family  environment.   His  father  is  a 
management  level  white-collar  worker,   and  his  mother  has  recently 
started  working  again  while  Ian  is  in  school.   The  family  goes  to 
church  every  Sunday  and  Mr.  Wallocker  is  actively  involved  in  the 
local  Republican  town  council.   In  the  last  year: 

-Mr.  Wallocker  worked  many  consecutive  Saturdays  to  buy  a 
Jacuzzi  and  a  new  Volvo.    Ian  likes  to  play  football  on  Saturdays 
with  his  father. 

-Ian  received  an  increase  in  his  allowance  for  good  grades 
which  he  made  time  to  do  by  not  joining  the  football  team. 

-Ian  became  active  in  the  youth  organization  at  his  church. 

-Mr.  Wallocker  was  promoted  into  a  good  friend's  position 
because  of  his  hard  efforts.   The  friend  was  fired. 

-Mrs.  Wallocker  was  mugged  and  beaten  in  the  parking  lot  at 
her  place  of  work.   The  culprits  were  never  caught. 

-Ian  received  the  only  beating  of  his  life   (a  stout  one) 
from  his  father  for  stealing  a  small  item  from  a  local  store. 

What  are  some  of  the  possible  positive  and  negative  values, 
attitudes,  and  beliefs  that  Ian  may  have  been  exposed  to  so  far 
in  life? 

Mental  effort  is  more  important  than  physical  effort 

Money  is  important 
Get  ahead  at  any  cost,    even  at  the  expense  of  others 
Wrong  doing  is  punished  -  if  you  are  caught 

Never  steal 
Belief  in  God  and  Religion 


4-5 


APPENDIX  B 


Exercise  #2 

IAN  GOES  TO  COLLEGE 

Ian  graduates  from  high  school  and  is  accepted  to  a  medium- si zed 
liberal  arts  school  close  to  home.  He  lives  on  campus  and  gets 
his  first  car   (used  K-Car)   as  a  high  school  graduation  gift.  The 
following  things  occur  to  him  during  his  college  years. 

-He  depends  on  his  parents  for  tuition  and  most  of  his  living 
expenses . 

-He  meets  his  first  "love"  but  cannot  treat  her  the  way  he 
wants  to  due  to  a  "lack  of  funds."  She  leaves  him  and  marries  a 
guy  who  drives  a  BMW. 

-Several  times  he  sees  other  students  cheat  on  tests.  They  do 
not  get  caught  and  no  one  turns  them  in.   He  figures,    "if  they 
want  to  risk  it,   it's  their  business." 

-Ian  receives  a  partial  scholarship  for  being  a  "walk-on"  to 
the  soccer  team,   a  sport  he  took  up  in  high  school. 

-He  has  several  friends  who  develop  steady  drug  and  alcohol 
habits.   Ian  still  hangs  out  with  these  people  but,  with  the 
exception  of  some  excessive  drinking  his  freshman  year,   he  does 
not  use  drugs  and  only  drinks   (moderately)   on  weekends.  He 
figures,    "if  they  want  to  risk  it,    it's  their  business." 

-His  fraternity  house  is  filled  mostly  with  old  furniture  and 
decor  that  was  "appropriated"   from  various  sources  around  campus. 

-He  meets  a  Marine  Corps  0S0  during  a  job  seminar  his  senior 
year.   The  Marine  sales  pitch  differs  because  it  does  not  promote 
job  skills,   but  leadership  training  and  decision  making.   Ian  also 
sees  that  the  starting  wage  and  promotion  scale  for  officers  is 
not  bad. 

What  are  some  additional  beliefs,  attitudes,  and  values  that 
Ian  has  been  exposed  to  during  his  college  years? 

(Theft  is  okay,    in  small  amounts. 
Money  means  power  and  happiness . 
Drugs,   alcohol,   and  integrity   (lying  and  cheating)   are  personal 

decisions . 

The  military  offers  a  good  wage  and  lifestyle. 
Physical  effort  can  be  rewarding  ) 

Now  that  we  have  a  better  understanding  of  how  values  are 
formed,  and  since  we  realize  that  Ian  is  on  the  verge  of  joining 
the  officer  ranks  of  the  Marine  Corps,  what  kind  of  values  will 
he  find  in  his  new  environment? 


4-6 


(The  Marines  should  either  answer  with  some  of  the  leadership 
traits  from  philosophy  of  leadership  or  preferably  with  the  USMC 
Core  Values:     Honor,   Courage,   and  Commitment.) 

(Explain  that  the  Core  Values  state  in  a  compressed  form  the 
standards  of  conduct  that  are  expected  of  all  Marines.) 

Why  was  the  Tailhook  scandal  an  issue  that  the  American  public 
was  so  concerned  with?     Why  didn't  they  just  chalk  it  up  to  a 
bunch  of  flyboys  having  a  good  time? 

(The  Marines  should  answer  that  Tailhook  shocked  the  American 
public  because  they  expected  better  from  their  military  and  from 
their  military  officers  in  particular.     Even  if  the  average 
citizen  probably  wouldn't  express  this  expectation  in  the  form  of 
our  Core  Values,    they  have  a  preconceived  idea  of  what  kind  of 
behavior  is  acceptable  from  those  in  whom  they  have  placed 
"special  trust  and  confidence.") 

Which  do  you  think  is  more  difficult  to  display? 

(Moral  courage.) 

During  Ian's  time  at  TBS,  he  saw  that  a  lieutenant  in  the 
senior  company  on  deck  was  forced  to  leave  the  USMC  after  his 
roommate  turned  him  in  for  cheating  on  a  test.  Did  that  act 
require  moral  courage?     If  so,  what  fears  did  he  have  to 
overcome ? 

(Yes.   The  fear  losing  a  friend.     The  fear  of  later  regret  and 
guilt.   The  fear  of  being  ostracized  by  other  members  of  the 
platoon . ) 

Does  Ian  have  a  decision  to  make  involving  moral  courage? 

(Yes.   He  must  decide  what  to  do  about  his  roommate  who 
requested  special  liberty  in  order  to  visit  his  ill  grandmother. 
This  same  lieutenant's  girlfriend  called  after  his  departure  to 
inquire  about  what  time  to  meet  him  at  the  ski  lodge.   The  Marines 
should  recognize  the  need  for  Ian  to  look  into  this  possible 
breach  of  integrity.   However,    they  should  not  miss  the  point  that 
the  goal  of  our  emphasis  on  honor  and  integrity  is  to  encourage 
an  atmosphere  in  which  trust  abounds.   Your  word  and  signature  are 
your  bond.   In  other  words,    Ian  has  a  responsibility  to  act  in 
this  case,   but  the  Marines  should  not  get  the  idea  that  they 
should  constantly  be  prying  into  each  other's  personal  affairs 


4-7 


looking  for  evidence  of  wrong  doing.  We  are  not  in  the  business 
of  being  thought  police.) 

What  is  commitment  and  why  is  it  important  to  us? 

(Commitment  is  the  spirit  of  determination  and  dedication 
within  members  of  a  force  of  arms  that  leads  to  professionalism 
and  mastery  of  the  art  of  war.     It  is  important  because  it  refers 
to  that  internal  drive  to  better  oneself,    to  sacrifice,   and  to 
come  through  when  the  going  gets  tough. ) 

A  big  part  of  being  considered  a  military  professional  is 
living  up  to  the  standards  we've  just  discussed.  What  is  a 
military  professional? 

(A  person  who  has  undergone  preparation  and  training.  He 
possesses  the  knowledge  on  which  professional  actions  are  based 
and  the  ability  to  apply  this  knowledge  in  a  practical  way. 
Furthermore,    the  professional  leader  knows  the  principles  of 
leadership  and  how  to  apply  them  to  his  unit's  advantage.  He 
accepts  the  service  motive  of  his  work.   His  profession  is  a  means 
of  earning  a  living,   but  wages  do  not  become  the  primary  purpose 
of  his  work. ) 

What  are  some  of  the  Qualities  that  experts  consider  necessary 
prerequisites  for  an  occupation  to  be  considered  a  profession? 

(Renders  a  unique  social  service.) 

(Relies  upon  intellectual  skills.) 

(Involves  long  periods  of  specialized  training  and  experience.) 

(Has  considerable  autonomy  and  decision  making  authority. ) 

(Are  held  personally  responsible  for  their  actions  and 
decisions . ) 

(Service  is  emphasized  over  financial  reward.) 

(A  profession  is  self-governing  and  responsible  for  policing 
its  own  ranks . ) 

(Professions  have  their  own  code  of  ethics  which  establish 
acceptable  standards  of  conduct  for  members.) 


4-8 


We  constantly  refer  to  professionalism,   the  need  to  behave  as 
professionals,  and  the  desirability  of  professional  behavior.  Why 
is  it  so  important  to  us? 

(It  must  be  recognized  that  unprofessional  behavior  by  a  Marine 
reflects  not  just  upon  that  Marine's  personal  reputation,  but 
upon  all  Marines.   The  public  expects  and  hold  Marines  to  higher 
standards  than  other  professions.) 

As  part  of  the  definition  of  a  profession,  it  was  mentioned 
that  there  was  a  requirement  for  a  code  of  ethics.  What  makes  up 
our  written  code  of  ethics? 

(The  UCMJ,    the  Law  of  Land  Warfare,    the  Code  of  Conduct,  the 
Oath  of  Office . ) 

Careerists  and  those  who  view  the  military  as  an  occupation 
have  been  constant  detractors  from  our  overall  professionalism 
for  years.  What  do  these  terms  mean  to  you? 

(Careerism.    "They  seek  advancement  for  its  own  sake  and  see  it 
exclusively  as  a  goal  rather  than  as  an  opportunity. . .   For  the 
careerist  the  name  of  the  game  is  to  get  promoted  at  all  cost; 
everything  else  is  secondary.   Unworthy  of  the  title  'military 
professional, '    these  individuals  adopt  the  strategy  of... getting 
their  tickets  punched  without  any  concern  for  the  kind  of 
contribution  they  are  making ...  always  insuring  that  others 
receive  the  blame  if  things  go  wrong  while  they  get  the  credit 
for  the  successes...   They  lack  integrity,   willingly  lying  and 
cheating  to  make  themselves  look  good.   These  are  the  boot  lickers 
and  yes-men  who  paint  a  euphoric  world  for  their  commanders  and 
render  inaccurate  reports  when  it  suits  their  purpose ...  Members 
of  the  military  profession  abhor  the  Careerist.") 

(Occupation  rather  than  Profession:    "Committed  professional 
Marines  of  all  ranks  continue  to  worry  over  the  fundamental  shift 
in  the  motivational  basis  of  the  military  system  away  from  a 
calling  toward   'just  another  job'-  where  the  first  priority 
readily  could  become  self  interest...'   This  shift  is  quite  real, 
as  increasing  numbers  of  service  people  are  motivated  primarily 
by  monetary  incentives  rather  than  the  responsibilities  of  the 
military  profession.") 

-both  of  the  above  quotes  are  from  The  Military  Professional  in 
America  by  Lt  Col  John  F.    Shiner  USAF,  1981. 


4-9 


Now  that  we  have  a  better  understanding  of  military  ethics,  we 
need  to  put  that  understanding  to  use  by  examining  the  process  of 
ethical  decision  making.     We  all  realize  that  at  times  we  are 
going  to  run  into  situations  that  are  ambiguous  -  where  there  are 
no  easy  answers.     An  example  would  be  Ian's  situation  with  his 
roommate.     He  doesn't  know  for  sure  whether  his  roommate  lied  to 
his  Platoon  Commander.     He  now  must  make  a  decision  about  what  to 
do.     His  understanding  and  commitment  to  our  code  of  ethics,  his 
understanding  of  our  core  values,  his  values  as  absorbed 
throughout  his  life,  and  his  moral  courage  will  all  come  into 
play  during  this  process.     Let's  look  at  the  remaining  scenarios 
for  more  examples  of  this  demanding  process. 


4-10 


APPENDIX  C 


SCENARIO  #3 

1STLT  I.M.  WALLOCKER-FMF.   Camp  Lejeune 

Our  character  leaves  TBS  and  attends  the  Logistics  Officer 
Course.   He  is  now  a  salty  0402  currently  assigned  as  the 
Maintenance  Management  Officer  and  Assistant  Logistics  Officer  of 
an  infantry  rifle  battalion  at  Camp  Lejeune,   N.C.   The  following 
are  a  series  of  situations  he  is  exposed  to  in  the  FMF . 

-The  battalion  has  just  returned  from  a  two-month  winter 
training  exercise.     Many  Staff  NCOs  and  officers  have  submitted 
annual  leave  papers . 

-It  is  Sunday  morning  the  10th  of  March.   Since  Ian  did  not 
take  leave  he  finds  himself  posted  as  the  Officer  of  the  Day.  As 
he  looks  through  the  folder  including  all  leave  papers  he  notices 
that  most  of  the  officers  who  are  scheduled  to  start  leave  on 
Monday  the  11th  have  already  picked  up  their  leave  papers.  "Roger 
that"  he  says  to  himself.     Since  SNCOs  and  officers  have  the 
privilege  of  checking  out  by  phone  and  signing  their  own 
departure  times  on  leave  papers  they  probably  picked  them  up  on 
Friday  to  save  a  trip  in  to  work  on  Monday. 

-At  about  0730  the  Battalion  Executive  Officer  calls.  He 
tells  Ian  to  be  sure  to  have  IstLt  Peters  contact  him  before 
Peters  checks  out  on  leave  Monday  morning.     The  XO  has  tried  to 
contact  Peters  at  home  but  no  one  answers  the  phone.     He  thinks 
that  Lt  Peters  is  either  at  church,   brunch,   or  both.     He  knows 
that  Lt  Peters  is  slated  to  start  leave  on  Monday  and  will  be 
going  to  Florida  for  10  days. 

-Ian  tells  the  XO  that  Lt  Peters  has  already  picked  up  his 
leave  papers  but  has  not  checked  out  by  phone  yet.     When  he  does 
Ian  will  inform  him  to  get  in  touch  with  the  XO . 

-On  a  hunch,    Ian  calls  the  leave  address  phone  number  listed 
on  the  unit  copy  of  Lt  Peters'    leave  papers.   Peters  answers  the 
phone.   Ian  asks  him  what  the  heck  he  is  doing  in  Florida  when  his 
leave  does  not  start  until  Monday.     Lt  Peters  says  that  he  had 
the  chance  to  catch  a  military  hop  on  Saturday  and  since  it  was  a 
weekend  he  would  just  sign  his  own  leave  papers  on  Monday  when  it 
was  time  to  start  leave. 

Has  Lt  Peters  violated  any  rules?  If  so  how,  and  what  does  he 
stand  to  lose? 


4-11 


(Yes,   he  has.     Liberty  cannot  be  taken  in  conjunction  with 
leave.     This  officer  stands  to  lose  his  professional  integrity 
and  reputation  and  can  be  charged  with  unauthorized  absence. 
Also,    if  he  happened  to  get  into  an  accident  while  in  Florida 
that  required  a  hospital  stay,   the  resulting  line  of 
duty/misconduct  investigation  would  find  that  the  Marine  Corps 
would  be  under  no  obligation  to  pay  for  his  medical  expenses.) 

Lt  Peters  tells  Ian,    "Hey  Ian,  remember  the  LP A (Lieutenant 
Protection  Association) .     Can  you  cover  for  me  with  the  XO?" 
What  should  Ian  tell  him? 

(No!     Have  this  guy  explain  it  to  the  XO  when  he  talks  to  him.) 

What  does  Lt  Wallocker  stand  to  lose  if  he  covers  for  the  other 
lieutenant? 

(His  own  professional  reputation  and  integrity. ) 

If  you  are  not  familiar  with  the  Leave  and  Liberty  Regulations 
where  would  you  find  the  answer  to  these  questions? 

(The  S-l  shop. ) 

The  above  is  a  very  realistic  situation.  What  do  you  think 
you  would  do  as  the  battalion  OOD  in  this  case? 


4-12 


APPENDIX  D 


SCENARIO  #4 

1STLT  I.M.  WALLOCKER-FMF ,   Convoy  Commander 

The  battalion  deploys  on  a  six-month  Med  cruise.     The  MEU  finds 
itself  located  offshore  near  a  sensitive  political  area  as  a 
contingency  force.     Shortly  after  the  arrival  of  Marine  forces, 
the  situation  deteriorates  and  the  government  of  the  developing 
country  requests  U.S.  military  support. 

-Lt  Wallocker  finds  himself  in  charge  of  running  resupply 
convoys  to  rifle  companies  located  in  small  villages  in  the 
battalion  area  of  operations.     These  convoys  are  essential  to  the 
battalion's  efforts  and  therefore  are  usually  escorted  by  heavy 
guns  vehicles  along  with  FO  and  FAC  teams.     The  battalion  has 
been  engaged  several  times,   but  the  Marines'   role  remains  mainly 
a  supporting  effort  for  the  local  military.   Rules  of  engagement 
are  very  specific,   and  all  Marines  have  been  thoroughly  briefed 
on  them . 

-Ian  is  currently  stopped  along  a  remote  stretch  of  road  to 
help  repair  a  flat  tire  on  a  five-ton  truck.     The  rest  of  his 
vehicles  are  stopped  one  mile  ahead  waiting  for  them.  An  American 
Lieutenant  comes  out  of  the  brush  at  the  side  of  the  road  to 
talk.      "Hey  Marine,   are  you  in  charge  of  those  MK-19  vehicles 
that  just  went  by?"    "Sure  am,"   replies  Ian.      "What's  goin'  on?" 
"Well,    I'm  an  advisor  to  the  local  ground  militia  and  we're  about 
to  conduct  an  assault  on  that  village  over  there.     It's  full  of 
rebel  forces  according  to  the  local  honcho .     I've  been  trying  to 
get  some  kind  of  fire  support  for  the  attack  but  everything's 
been  refused.     I  could  sure  use  your  MK-19s  to  pound  the  heck  out 
of  it . " 

-Lt  Wallocker  knows  that  the  rules  of  engagement  says  treat 
every  inhabited  area  as  a  No  Fire  Area.     The  only  way  a  village 
can  be  fired  upon  is  if  the  unit  is  receiving  fire  from  it. 
"Well  I  can't  do  that  unless  they're  shooting  at  us.     How  do  you 
know  that  there  aren't  civilians  in  there?"  asks  Ian.      "The  local 
chief  says  everyone  in  there  is  hostile.     Look,    I've  got  author- 
ity in  this  area  and  I  need  those  19s  now."   says  the  advisor. 


4-13 


-"Well  let  me  see  what  I  can  do."  replies  Lt  Wallocker.  At 
this  time  the  Marines  have  finished  changing  the  tire  and  Ian 
cannot  get  comm  with  his  higher  headquarters.     Ian  says,  "Look, 
let  me  get  this  truck  out  of  here  and  talk  to  my  higher.     If  they 
say  it's  good-to-go,    I'll  bring  my  MK-19s  back  in  five  minutes." 
He  leaves  and  rejoins  the  convoy.     Upon  reaching  the  convoy,  he 
still  cannot  get  comm  and  being  doubtful  of  the  advisor's  intel 
and  authority,   he  decides  to  complete  his  mission. 

-Lt  Wallocker  gets  the  convoy  to  the  line  companies  and  back  to 
battalion  safely.     He  doesn't  mention  the  incident  to  anyone. 
Later  that  night,   while  in  the  COC,   he  hears  over  the  regimental 
intelligence  net  that  the  village  was  attacked  by  a  ground- 
directed  air-strike  shortly  after  his  departure.  Forty-five 
enemy  were  reported  KIA.     Since  the  coordinates  describe  exactly 
where  the  advisor  wanted  his  heavy  guns  to  engage,    Ian  suspects 
that  the  KIA  were  civilians. 

Should  Lt  Wallocker  have  done  anything  differently,  and  what 
should  he  do  now? 

(He  should  have  reported  the  incident  to  his  higher 
headquarters  as  soon  as  possible.  He  could  also  have  better 
explained  the  rules  of  engagement  to  the  advisor.  At  this  time  he 
should  immediately  explain  the  entire  incident  to  his  commanding 
officer . ) 

Has  Ian  contributed  to  a  possible  war  crime? 

(Not  deliberately.) 

What  kind  of  pressures  might  the  advisor  have  been  under? 

(Pressures  from  his  higher  for  "body  counts."     A  desire  to 
succeed.     Frustration  at  not  being  able  to  close  with  and  destroy 
the  enemy.     All  realistic  pressures  that  will  impact  (hopefully 
minus  the  pressure  for  body  counts)    on  all  of  us  in  a  combat 
situation . ) 

Rather  than  keeping  quiet,  what  could  Lt  Wallocker  have  done 
after  establishing  comm  or  after  returning  to  battalion? 

(He  could  have  immediately  reported  the  incident.) 


4-14 


APPENDIX  E 


SCENARIO  #5 

1STLT  I.M.  WALLOCKER- FMF .    Sea  Duty 

After  spending  three  years  in  a  battalion  and  having  shown  a  high 
level  of  maturity  and  proficiency  in  logistics  and  combat  arms, 
our  character  gets  his  next  assignment  --  sea  duty  aboard  the 
aircraft  carrier,   USS  Abraham  Lincoln .     He  reported  aboard  two 
months  ago  and  assumed  the  duties  of  Executive  Officer  for  the 
Marine  detachment.     The  unit  is  exceptionally  well-trained  and 
disciplined.     Their  morale  is  very  high,   and  they  have  recently 
earned  outstanding  grades  on  a  recent  inspection.     The  NCOs  are 
outstanding  and  routinely  display  initiative,   dependability,  and 
good  judgment. 

-The  carrier  has  arrived  in  Naples,    Italy  and  will  remain 
there  for  two  weeks.     This  morning  immediately  after  holding  the 
colors'   ceremony  for  the  ship,   Cpl  Losh,   who  was  in  charge  of  the 
color  detail  comes  to  see  Ian  with  his  squad  leader.     He  reports 
that  while  the  color  detail  was  waiting  by  the   "Island"   for  the 
appropriate  time  to  move  out,   a  sailor  on  the  signal  bridge  began 
spitting  down  on  them.     His  men  wanted  to   "correct"   the  sailor, 
but  Cpl  Losh  showed  excellent  professionalism  by  going  up  himself 
and  taking  the  man's  name  and  ID  card.     He  has  prepared  a  charge 
sheet  and  has  three  eye  witnesses  who  can  identify  the  sailor. 
He  mentions  that  the  men  of  the  detachment  wanted  to  take  the 
matter  into  their  own  hands,   but  the  First  Sergeant  assured  them 
that  the  XO  will  see  that  justice  is  done. 

-Lt  Wallocker  submits  the  charges  to  the  Detachment  CO,  who 
concurs  with  them  and  just  prior  to  departing  on  annual  leave 
sends  the  charges  up  the  chain  of  command  for  handling  at 
Captain's  Mast.     On  the  day  of  the  Captain's  Mast,    Ian  sends  Cpl 
Losh  and  the  other  witnesses  up  to  testify.     When  they  return  it 
is  obvious  that  they  are  very  disturbed  and  angry.   Lt  Wallocker 
quickly  finds  out  that  the  Captain  of  the  ship  did  a  very  cursory 
job  of  dealing  with  this  case.     He  didn't  question  the  Marines 
and  when  the  sailor's   "Chiefs"   said  the  sailor  had  a  "good 
record"   the  Captain  of  the  ship  dismissed  the  charges  with  a 
warning.     As  the  Marines  were  leaving,    several  of  the  sailor's 
friends  laughed  and  taunted  them  about  being  "seagoing 
spittoons."     Only  Cpl  Losh's  strong  leadership  prevented  a  brawl. 

-The  Captain  of  the  ship  is  notorious  for  giving  light 
punishment  at  Captain's  Mast  but  this  is  the  first  time  it  has 


4-15 


impacted  on  the  Marine  Detachment.     As  Ian  is  thinking  over  the 
problem,    the  First  Sergeant  enters.      "Hey  XO,   our  Devil  Dogs  are 
feelin'   bad  and  lookin'   mad.     This  thing  could  really  hurt  our 
morale,   and  I  feel  sorry  for  any  sailor  on  "libo"  who  runs  into 
any  of  our  guys." 

The  first  shorecall  is  in  two  days,   and  tensions  between 
Marines  and  sailors  are  becoming  very  strained.     Lt  Wallocker 
anticipates  a  serious  liberty  incident  developing  ashore. 

What  steps  should  Lt  Wallocker  take  to  prevent  a  major  setback 
in  unit  moral  and  to  preclude  a  serious  incident  ashore  with  the 
Navy? 

(Get  the  detachment  together  and  give  them  a  refresher  on 
professionalism  and  discipline.  Attempt  to  get  something  more  in 
the  way  of  punishment  from  the  captain.) 

Should  Ian  approach  the  Captain  of  the  ship?  If  so  what  should 
he  say? 

better  su     (Yes.   He  should  expect  that  the  answer  will  not  be 
changed.     He  could  tactfully  discuss  the  effect  that  the  incident 
has  had  on  the  morale  of  his  Marines  and  the  need  for  better 
support  in  the  future.     A  time  for  moral  courage.) 

The  Captain  tells  Lt  Wallocker,    "I  will  not  change  my  decision, 
and  furthermore,   there  will  be  no  liberty  incidents  ashore.  I 
hold  you  personally  responsible,  Lieutenant."     What  additional 
steps  can  Ian  take? 

(Explain  to  his  Marines  that  the  incident  is  over.     Pass  on  the 
Captain's  words  about  incidents  not  being  tolerated.     Commend  the 
corporal  for  his  professionalism  and  tell  the  Marines  that  they 
should  be  glad  that  they  belong  to  the  group  that  is  "squared 
away" ) 


4-16 


9 


I 


i 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

ETHICAL  LEADERSHIP 

1.  Introduction .     Chester  Barnard,    in  his  classic  work,  The 
Functions  of  the  Executive    (1938) ,   asserted  that  ethical  behavior 
is  a  leadership  responsibility.     Barnard  argued  that 
organizations  thrive  in  proportion  to  the  quality  of  their 
leadership,   and  that  the  quality  of  leadership  depends  upon  the 
quality  of  an  organizational  code  of  ethics. 

2 .  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
discuss  the  importance  of  ethics  and  their  applicability  to 
leaders  and  subordinates  in  today's  Marine  Corps.     The  leader's 
role  in  fostering  an  ethical  climate  is  of  the  utmost  importance. 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
ethical  leadership  within  the  Marine  Corps: 

FMFM  1 - 0 ,    Leading  Marines 

The  Function  of  the  Executive;   Chester  Barnard 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.  N/A 

5 .  Discussion 

a .  Definitions 

(1)   Ethics .     A  set  of  standards  or  a  value  system  by  which 
free,   human  actions  are  ultimately  determined  as  right  or  wrong, 
good  or  evil .     Annex  A  further  explains  ethics  and  provides  some 
definitions  that  may  be  useful  when  preparing  your  outline. 


(2)  Code  of  Ethics.     The  rules  of  conduct  generally 
recognized  within  a  particular  class  of  human  actions  e.g., 
medical  ethics,    legal  ethics,   military  ethics.     A  code  of  ethics 
helps  establish  moral  opinion  and  define  expected/acceptable 
behavior  in  specialized  fields. 

(3)  Professional  Ethics.     Refer  to  and  deal  with 
additional  ideals  and  practices  that  grow  out  of  one's 
professional  privileges  and  responsibilities.  Professional 
ethics  apply  to  certain  groups,    e.g.,    the  military,   and  are  an 
attempt  to  define  situations  that  otherwise  would  remain 


5-1 


uncertain  and  to  direct  the  moral  consciousness  of  the  members 
of  the  profession  to  its  peculiar  problems.     For  example,  the 
military  defines  situations  and  prescribes  correct  behavior  for 
its  members  in  documents  such  as  the  Code  of  Conduct    (Appendix  B) 
and  the  Law  of  Land  Warfare. 

b.  Ethics  have  to  do  with  right  and  proper  conduct.  (What 
is  right  and  what  is  wrong?)     Ethics  are  sometimes  referred  to  as 
being  tied  to  a  set  of  rules.     However,   many  rules  are  not 
concrete  in  the  sense  of  laws,   and  may  not  be  written  down  on 
paper  for  all  to  follow.     The  rules  to  which  we  are  referring 
when  we  speak  of  ethics  are  similar  to  the  basic  rules  of 
sportsmanship.     For  example,    true  sportsmanship  expects  that  the 
players  have  a  healthy  attitude  toward  competition  and  a  general 
belief  that  how  one  plays  the  game  is  important.     It  involves  an 
internal  sense  of  fair  play  and  obligation  to  do  things  the  right 
way,   even  though  the  right  way  may  be  a  bit  tougher. 

c.  Philosophy .       Great  sportsmanship  requires  a  sense  of 
integrity  and  a  genuine  concern  for  the  example  that  is  set  in 
each  and  every  part  of  the  game.     Sportsmanship  is  separate  from 
the  purely  technical  aspects  of  any  sport,   as  well  as  the 
individual  skills  that  are  a  part  of  being  really  good  player  in 
the  sport.     If  we  say  that  someone  is  a  great  sportsman,   we  are 
not  referring  to  the  individual  skill  and  talent  as  a  ballplayer 
or  coach;   rather  we  are  talking  about  the  integrity  of  the 
individual  and  how  that  individual  represents  the  ideals  of 
sportsmanship  in  its  truest  sense.      (Do  we  win  in  sports  at  all 
costs?  In  combat?) 

Ethics  also  involves  a  concern  for  standards  of  excellence. 
It  should  be  no  surprise  to  anyone  that  every  Marine  is  expected 
to  act  in  accordance  with  some  very  specific  standards  of  right 
and  responsible  action.     Every  Marine  is  expected  to  do  his  or 
her  job  in  a  proper  and  correct  manner,   and  to  act  in  accordance 
with  a  sense  of  purpose  and  a  regard  for  high  personal  standards. 

d.  What  is  the  relationship  between  law  and  ethics?  Laws  are 
humanity's  attempt  to  interpret  the  ethics  of  the  society.  Laws 
and  regulations  often  define  ethical  behavior;  what  is  good  or 
bad,   right  or  wrong.     Unfortunately,   no  regulation  can  cover 
every  human  situation.     Therefore,   conflicts  develop  between  law 
and  ethical  behavior,    i.e.,    the  law  says  it's  wrong  to  speed. 
However,   a  man  whose  son  has  just  been  bitten  by  a  copperhead 
feels  that  speeding  to  get  his  son  to  the  hospital  is  the  right 
behavior . 

e .  Discuss  the  significance  of  ethics  in  the  military. 


5-2 


(1)  Why  must  the  Armed  Forces  concern  themselves  with 
ethical  behavior? 

(2)  Society  entrusts  the  Armed  Forces  with  the 

means /capability  of  great  destructive  power  and  its  use  during 
war;   society  expects  responsible  utilization  of  that  power. 
How  would/could  that  power  be  misused  or  misperceived  in  both 
today's  military  and  throughout  history? 

(3)  Society  grants  the  leaders  of  the  Armed  Forces 
comprehensive  control  over  its  members,    even  to  the  extent  that 
the  very  freedom  and  guarantees  which  the  Armed  Forces  exist  to 
preserve  are  for  the  military  members  themselves  substantially 
abridged.     What  might  some  examples  of  this  be? 

(4)  The  very  nature  of  the  purpose  for  which  armies  are 
established  is  to  prepare  for  the  country's  defense  against  the 
uncertain,    the  unknown,    the  unpredictable,   and  the  unpleasant. 
We  put  our  brightest  military  minds  to  the  task  of  wargaming  and 
planning,   but  the  best  of  these  plans  are  only  contingencies 
based  on  assumptions  about  events  which  have  not  yet  occurred. 
Ours  is  a  calling  for  which  we  cannot  write  all  the  rules  in 
advance.     Therefore,   as  in  no  other  calling,   we  must  establish 
another  calling.  We  must  have  leaders  who  will  do  what  is 
required  and  what  is  right  when  the  striking  hour  comes  when  they 
must  rely  on  themselves  when  the  nation  relies  on  them  the  most. 

f.  What  is  a  Code  of  Ethics?     The  Code  of  Ethics  for  Marines 
can  be  summed  up  in  three  words:   honor,    courage,    and  commitment. 

g.  Marine  Corps  Policies:     The  Law  of  Land  Warfare,   Code  of 
Conduct,   UCMJ,   promotion  warrants,   and  the  Oath  of  Office  set 
some  standards.      (See  Appendix  B  and  Appendix  C) 

(1)  Paragraph  1100  of  the  Marine  Corps  Manual  addresses 
the  moral  responsibilities  of  leaders,    such  as  special  trust  and 
confidence,    integrity,   good  manners,    sound  judgment,  discretion, 
duty  relationships,    social  and  business  contacts,   and  qualities 
such  as  integrity,   obedience,    courage,    zeal,    sobriety,  attention 
to  duty,   and  personal  relations. 

(2)  Customs,    courtesies,    and  traditions  play  a 
significant  role  in  the  establishment  of  moral  values  in  the 
Corps . 


5-3 


(3)   Perhaps  the  most  important  way  new  Marines  come  to 
know  standards  of  conduct  is  through  the  example  set  by  their 
leaders  on  a  day  to  day  basis. 


h.     What  kind  of  examples  are  set  by  leaders  today?  Some 
actions  are  traditionally  considered  right  or  wrong,   good  or  bad 
by  Marines.  Keeping  in  mind  the  values  and  the  standards  which  we 
have  in  the  Marine  Corps,  we  are  able  to  come  up  with  a  list  of 
"desirable  and  undesirable"  actions  which  characterize  Marines. 

(1)  A  list  of  desirable  actions  includes: 

(a)  Doing  one's  job  well  without  complaining. 

(b)  Setting  a  good  example  and  displaying  strong, 
virtuous  qualities  of  leadership,   such  as  honesty  and 
integrity . 

(c)  Working  together  as  a  team  to  accomplish  the 

mission . 

(2)  A  list  of  undesirable  actions  includes: 

(a)  A  negative  attitude. 

(b)  Stealing  from  another  Marine. 

(c)  Not  caring  that  a  peer  looks  shabby  in  uniform, 
or  goes  UA,   or  uses  illegal  drugs. 

(d)  Not  carrying  one's  full  and  fair  share  of  the 

workload . 

(e)  Breaking  one's  faith  and  trust  with  a  fellow 

Marine . 

(f)  Cowardice  or  dishonor. 

i.   Unspoken  ethics.     Our  Corps'    standards  run  the  spectrum 
of  ideals,    from  not  showing  cowardice  and  dishonor  by  leaving  our 
dead  on  the  battlefield,    to  not  holding  hands  with  our 
sweethearts  in  public,   or  going  without  a  hair  cut  even  while  on 
leave . 

(1)   Some  ethically  oriented  standards  based  on  tradition 

include : 

(a)   A  Marine's  word  is  his/her  bond. 


5-4 


(b)  A  leader  doesn't  eat  until  his/her  subordinates 

have . 

(c)  Marines  take  care  of  their  own. 
( 2 )   Ways  Marines  uphold  these  values: 

(a)  First,   we  must  inform  all  Marines  of  the  standards 

required. 

(b)  Second,   we  must  daily  reinforce  these  values  and 
standards  expected  of  all  Marines.     This  reinforcement  must  be 
found  in  unit  policies,    in  local  procedures    (formal  and 
informal) ,   and  in  the  daily  example  which  is  set  by  senior  and 
junior  leaders  alike,   as  well  as  by  peers. 

(c)  Finally,    there  must  be  an  effective  system  of 
approval  and  disapproval  for  the  actions  of  all  Marines.     In  this 
case  the  idea  of  reward  and  punishment  is  not  intended  to  provide 
an  incentive  for  behavior,   but  rather  to  provide  a  determination 
of  what  behavior  is  considered  acceptable  and  desirable,   and  what 
is  considered  unacceptable  and  undesirable,    for  all  to  see 
(senior  and  junior  alike) . 

j .     Ethics  are  important  to  the  idea  of  Standards  of 
Excellence .     Our  obligation  as  Marines  serving  "Corps  and 
Country"   is  more  than  simply  obeying  orders.     It  requires  a  sense 
of  commitment  to  both  the  mission  and  roles  we  serve  in  as 
Marines.     Mere  awareness  of  the  responsibility  involved  is  not 
enough.     There  must  exist  a  tenacious  sense  of  obligation,   and  a 
strong  sense  of  duty  and  honor  in  all  that  we  accomplish.  At 
this  level  of  commitment,   we  are  dealing  with  ethics. 

k .     Relationship  between  ethics  and  day  to  day  MPS 
proficiency .     Ethics  and  standards  in  MOS  proficiency  mean  that 
Marines  should  not  be  satisfied  with  themselves  until  they  know 
everything  about  their  own  job,   as  well  as  the  job  of  the  next 
Marine  senior  and  junior  to  them.     This  form  of  work  ethic  is 
what  develops  a  personal  sense  of  pride  and  personal 
accomplishment.     It  becomes  a  matter  of  integrity  to  strive  to 
obtain  all  the  knowledge  and  skill  necessary  to  meet  any 
challenge  and  responsibility  successfully. 

1 .     How  can  we  relate  the  idea  of  ethics  to  our  personal 
standard  of  discipline?     The  issue  of  discipline  also  carries 
ethical  implications.     Consider,    for  example,   a  Marine's  concern 
about  his/her  personal  standard  of  conduct.     This  sense  of 
concern  does  not  stem  from  fear  of  punishment,   but  because  they 


5-5 


genuinely  feel  a  sense  of  obligation  to  maintain  a  high  standard 
of  conduct  because  they  are  Marines.     Often  the  wearing  of  the 
uniform  becomes  justification  for  excellence  in  conduct.  Pride 
is  the  underlying  motivation;  anything  less  than  excellence  is  a 
matter  of  dishonor  and  personal  failure. 

m.     The  leader's  role  in  establishing  an  ethical  climate. 
Leaders  are  expected  by  others  to  behave  ethically  and 
responsibly,  both  personally  and  professionally.     A  leader 
promotes  ethical  behavior  in  his  or  her  subordinates  through 
setting,   enforcing,   and  publicizing  high  standards.  Furthermore, 
leaders  must  project  an  example  of  tolerance  in  regard  to  honest 
mistakes  in  the  training  environment. 

n .     Problems  that  can  surface  within  military  ethics. 
Issuing  unclear  orders  to  a  subordinate,   who  may  not  possess  a 
sound  personal  code  of  ethics  or  who  has  a  "can  do  anything" 
attitude,   may  cause  him/her  to  compromise  his/her  ethics  in  the 
execution  of  the  order.     As  a  result,   he/she  may  give  a  incorrect 
report  to  a  superior,   use  undesirable  methods  in  carrying  out  the 
order,   or  may  even  commit  an  illegal  act  out  of  fear  of  the 
consequences  that  will  result  if  the  mission  is  not  accomplished. 
Some  examples  may  be:    "Gunny,   I  want  the  barracks  painted.  I 
don't  care  how  you  do  it!"  or,    "I  want  100%  qualification  on  the 
rifle  range."  Obviously  these  orders  are  stated  in  questionable 
terms  that  could  easily  lead  to  unethical  behavior  by  those 
executing  the  orders . 

o .     Effects  that  inconsistent  rewards  or  punishment  for 
unethical  behavior  have  on  a  unit.     Leaders  must  ensure  they 
reward  and  punish  based  on  the  Corps '   established  standards  and 
traditions .   The  individual  conscience  of  a  Marine  can  be 
paralyzed  by  frustration  arising  from  situations  where  ethical 
actions  are  penalized  or  ignored,   and  where  unethical  actions  are 
rewarded,   either  directly  or  indirectly,   by  not  being  punished. 
For  example,    the  gunnery  sergeant  who  gets  the  barracks  painted 
as  directed,   gets  a  real  pat  on  the  back.     However,  everyone, 
including  the  CO,   knows  he  stole  the  paint  from  another  unit  on 
the  base.     Furthermore,    the  squad  leader  who  does  not  get  100% 
qualification,  but  gave  his  absolute  best  effort,   gets  chewed 
out,   while  another  squad  leader  gets  100%  qualification  by 
"penciling"  a  score  card,   and  receives  a  meritorious  mast. 

p .     Communication  problems  can  inhibit  the  ethical 
environment  of  the  Marine  Corps.     The  inability  of  information  to 
flow  freely  through  the  chain  of  command,    thereby  isolating  top 
leadership  from  organizational  realities,   may  produce  unrealistic 


5-6 


expectations  from  them.     Also,    there  are  few  rewards  for  honesty 

in  communication.     This  situation  promotes  tendencies  to  alter 

facts  and  to  withhold  information,    i.e.,    if  you  tell  the  truth, 
you  get   "chewed  out". 

Additionally,     the  perception  from  subordinates  that  their 
superiors  discourage  negative  feedback  can  result  in 
communication  blockades.     This  may  find  subordinates  hesitant  to 
ask  their  superiors  for  clarification  or  guidance  on  issued 
orders.     This  could  mean  the  difference  between  a  Marine  making  a 
bad  judgment  call  and  a  failed  mission.     Leaders  need  to  ensure 
open  lines  of  communication  exist  throughout  their  chain  of 
command . 

q .     Ethics  in  the  way  we  perceive  training  Marines  for 
combat .     Combat  training  is  designed  to  enable  Marines  to  fight, 
survive  and  win.     It  is  not  to  instill  a  mode  of  thinking  that 
entails  barbaric  acts  of  killing  or  violence.  Marines  are  to  be 
disciplined  and  responsible  enough  to  distinguish  when  they 
should  employ  their  training,   and  when  not  to. 

Good  training  and  leadership  will  prevent  irresponsible 
actions  in  peacetime  or  combat.     Atrocities  are  committed  by 
poorly  trained  and  poorly  disciplined  personnel.   Good  leadership 
in  the  Corps  means  Marines  must  daily  exercise  their  oaths  to 
support  and  defend  our  Constitution  and  uphold  the  honor  of  their 
unit  and  Corps  by  words  and  actions.     Each  Marine  must  be 
physically,   mentally,   morally,    spiritually,   and  emotionally 
trained  to  do  so  confidently  and  effectively  at  all  times, 
ranging  from  personal  peacetime  behavior  to  all-out  combat 
action . 

r.     Ethical  dilemmas  facing  leaders.     The  following  scenarios 
provide  situations  where  leaders  face  ethical  dilemmas. 

(1)  The  reviewing  officer  for  your  fitness  reports  tells 
you  he  has  added  numbers  in  block  15  to  increase  your  chances  of 
promotion . 

(2)  Your  platoon  commander  is  very  concerned  about  the 
submission  of  reports  to  the  company  commander.   The  company  CO 
has  indicated  he  will  not  forward  reports  showing  negative 
information . 

(3)  Your  boss  has  demonstrated  in  the  past  that  he  does 
not  like  subordinates  to  disagree  with  him.  You  are  convinced  a 
recently  published  order  is  unduly  severe  on  your  Marines. 


5-7 


(4)  A  crew  chief,   a  personal  friend,    is  a  heavy  drinker 
but  has  always  performed  well.     During  a  pref light  briefing,  you 
smell  alcohol  on  his  breath. 

(5)  Re-enlistments  are  on  the  skyline.   You  have  a  Marine 
who  is  a  marginal  performer.   However,   he  does  not  have  any  NJP ' s 
or  courts-martial.     If  he  is  re-enlisted,   he  will  be  promoted  to 
the  next  higher  grade.     He  wants  to  stay  in  the  Marine  Corps. 
Your  recommendation  is  all  that  he  needs.     Your  CO  has  recently 
commented  on  how  low  re-enlistment  rates  are  in  your  unit. 

(6)  In  preparation  for  the  IG,    the  training  officer,  your 
supervisor,   requires  you  to  document  training  that  was  never 
accomplished . 

(7)  The  executive  officer  orders  all  sections  to  spend 
budget  money  at  the  end  of  a  fiscal  year  whether  they  need  to  or 
not,    to  ensure  reallocation  of  that  money  in  the  next  fiscal 
year . 

(8)  The  patrol  leader  who,    instead  of  carrying  out  his 
mission  and  following  the  patrol  route,   goes  out  beyond  the  front 
lines  about  2  00  meters  and  hides  there  in  defilade  for  the  night. 

(9)  Your  unit  has  just  assaulted  a  small  enemy  village 
located  by  a  river.     You  were  successful  but  took  a  few 
casualties.     The  unit  is  mopping  up  and  searching  for  enemy 
believed  to  be  hiding  in  the  riverbank.     The  buddy  of  one  of  the 
company  runners    (a  lance  corporal)   had  his  elbow  shattered  by  a 
enemy  round  and  is  moaning  on  the  ground  being  treated  by  a 
corpsman.     A  POW  is  captured  and  pulled  out  of  the  river.  Two 
Marines  are  herding  him  to  the  CP.     When  they  approach  near  the 
lance  corporal,    the  lance  corporal  curses  in  rage,    charges  and 
strikes  the  POW  a  blow  with  his  fist.     Other  Marines  are 
watching,    including  leaders,   but  seem  stunned  and  unmoving.  You 
are  close  by  and  certain  the  lance  corporal  won't  stop  with  one 
blow . 

The  Law  of  Land  Warfare  requires  POW's  to  be  treated 
humanely.     POW's  can  provide  intelligence  that  can  save  lives  of 
many  Marines.     One  such  act  can  lead  to  other  more  violent  acts. 
Quick,    forceful  action  is  required. 

Historically,    in  the  above  situation,    the  company 
commander,    seeing  that  no  one  else  was  taking  action  to  stop  the 
lance  corporal,   moved  quickly,   grabbed  the  lance  corporal,  pinned 
his  arms  to  his  side,   pulled  him  away  forcefully,   and  in  a  voice 


5-8 


loud  enough  for  everyone  nearby  to  hear,    told  him  to  knock  it 
off,    that  he  knew  how  he  felt,   but  that  POW's  were  not  to  be 
treated  that  way,   and  directed  the  POW  be  taken  to  the 
interpreter.     The  spell  was  broken  and  everyone  went  about  their 
business . 

s.     Summary .     The  Marine  Corps  cannot  function  successfully 
as  a  group  of  individuals  working  independently,   doing  their  own 
thing,   and  maintaining  whatever  set  of  individual  standards  they 
may  have.     It  is  necessary  for  all  Marines  to  function  together 
as  a  team  and  subscribe  to  Marine  Corps  standards.     This  requires 
Marines  to  perform  their  duties  well,    to  have  a  common  purpose, 
and  display  a  common  sense  of  obligation  to  the  highest  standards 
of  personal  conduct. 

Everyone  must  know  and  fully  understand  what  standards  are 
required  and  actively  seek  to  maintain  those  standards.   Only  then 
can  the  Marine  Corps  and  any  unit  in  the  Marine  Corps  hope  to 
achieve  success . 

The  nature  of  the  obligation  which  we  have  as  Marines 
requires  more  than  simple  obedience  of  orders.     It  requires  a 
sense  of  commitment  to  the  purpose  and  the  role  which  we  perform 
as  Marines.     Simple  awareness  of  the  responsibility  involved  is 
not  enough.     There  must  exist  a  sense  of  obligation  for  whatever 
action  is  required  to  accomplish  our  responsibility  thoroughly. 
At  this  level  of  commitment  we  are  dealing  with  ethics. 

6 .  Appendices 

Appendix  A:  Definitions 
Appendix  B:   Code  of  Conduct 
Appendix  C:   Oath  of  Office 


5-9 


APPENDIX  A 


DEFINITIONS 


CODE  OF  ETHICS .     The  rules  of  conduct  generally  recognized  in 
respect  to  a  particular  class  of  human  actions;   e.g.,  medical 
ethics,    legal  ethics.     It  serves  to  crystallize  moral  opinion  and 
define  behavior  in  specialized  fields. 

DUTY .     The  conduct  or  action  required  of  a  person  on  moral 
grounds . 

ETHICS .     A  set  of  standards  or  value  system  by  which  free,  human 
actions  are  ultimately  determined  as  right  or  wrong,   good  or 
evil.  While  most  persons  use  the  terms  morals  and  ethics 
synonymously,   morals  and  morality  usually  refer  to  conduct  or 
behavior  patterns;  whereas  ethics  and  ethical  refer  to  the  study 
of  these  matters  or  to  a  system  of  ideas  about  them.  For 
example,   we  usually  speak  of  a  moral  man  and  of  an  ethical  system 
or  code. 

FIDELITY .     Faithfulness  in  the  discharge  of  duty  or  of 
obligations;   allegiance  to  those  to  whom  one  is  bound  in  honor; 
loyalty . 

HONEST .     Fair  and  candid  in  dealing  with  others;      true;  just; 
upright;   characterized  by  openness  and  sincerity. 

HONOR.     Credit  or  reputation  for  behavior  that  is  becoming  or 
worthy.     A  source  of  credit  or  distinction.     A  personal 
characteristic  consciously  maintained,    such  as  might  deserve  or 
expect  esteem. 

INTEGRITY .     Soundness  of  moral  principle  and  character; 
uprightness;  honesty. 

MILITARY  ETHICS .  The  statement  of  professional  ethics  applied  to 
a  specific  group,    i.e.,    the  military. 

MORALS .      Pertaining  to  or  concerned  with  right  conduct  or  the 
distinction  between  right  or  wrong.     Morality  covers  the 
extensive  field  of  personal  and  social  behavior. 

PROFESSIONAL  ETHICS.  Refer  to  and  deal  with  additional  ideals 
and  practices  that  grow  out  of  one's  professional  privileges  and 


5-10 


responsibilities.  Professional  ethics  apply  to  certain  groups, 
e.g.,  the  military,  and  are  the  expression  of  the  attempt  to 
define  situations  that  otherwise  would  remain  uncertain  and  to 
direct  the  moral  consciousness  of  the  members  of  the  profession 
to  its  peculiar  problems. 

RIGHT .  Conforming  to  ethical  or  moral  standards.  The  term  is 
used  when  speaking  of  acts . 

STANDARD .  Anything  taken  by  general  consent  as  a  basis  of 
comparison;   an  approved  model. 

VALUE .     That  which  has  worth  or  is  desirable. 

WRONG .  Deviating  from  moral  rectitude  as  prescribed  by  law  or  by 
conscience;  immoral,  not  just,  proper,  or  equitable  according  to 
a  standard  or  code;   deviating  from  fact  and  truth. 

LAWS  AND  ETHICS .  Laws  are  said  to  be  man's  attempt  to  codify  his 
ethics.  Laws  and  regulations  often  define  accepted  ethical 
behavior.  Unfortunately,  laws  and  regulations  deal  with  specifics 
and  are  unable  to  address  every  possible  human  situation. 
Therefore  conflicts  can  develop  between  the  law  and  ethical 
behavior.  For  example,  the  law  says  it  is  wrong  to  speed; 
however,  a  man  whose  son  has  just  been  bitten  by  a  poisonous 
snake  and  who  is  speeding  his  son  to  the  hospital  would  certainly 
not  consider  his  speeding  as  unethical. 


5-11 


APPENDIX  B 


CODE  OF  CONDUCT 

The  Code  of  Conduct  was  prescribed  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States  in  1955  as  a  simple,   written  creed  applying  to  all 
American  fighting  men.   The  words  of  the  Code,   presented  in  six 
articles,   state  principles  that  Americans  have  honored  in  all  the 
wars  this  country  has  fought  since  1776. 

The  Code  is  not  intended  to  provide  guidance  on  every  aspect 
of  military  life.     For  that  purpose  there  are  military 
regulations,    rules  of  military  courtesy,   and  established  customs 
and  traditions.     The  Code  of  Conduct  is  in  no  way  connected  with 
the  Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice   (UCMJ) .     The  UCMJ  has 
punitive  powers;   the  Code  of  Conduct  does  not. 

The  six  articles  of  the  Code  can  be  divided  into  three 
categories.     Articles  I  and  II  are  general  statements  of 
dedication  to  country  and  freedom.     Conduct  on  the  battlefield  is 
the  subject  of  Article  II.     Articles  III,    IV  and  V  concern 
conduct  as  a  prisoner  of  war. 

(Extracted  from  Chapter  Three  of  the  Guidebook  for  Marines ) 

Article  I 

I  am  an  American.  I  serve  in  the  forces  which  guard  my  country 
and  our  way  of  life.  I  am  prepared  to  give  my  life  in  their 
defense . 

It  is  a  long-standing  tradition  of  American  citizens  to 
willingly  answer  the  call  to  arms  when  the  peace  and  security  of 
this  nation  are  threatened.     Patrick  Henry  stated  it  best  in  the 
early  days  of  our  country  when  he  said,    "Give  me  liberty  or  give 
me  death. "  Nathan  Hale,    captured  by  the  British  during  the 
Revolutionary  War  and  charged  with  spying,   personified  the  spirit 
of  the  American  fighting  man  when  he  spoke  the  immortal  words,  "I 
only  regret  that  I  have  but  one  life  to  give  for  my  country, " 
just  before  his  execution  by  hanging. 

More  recently,    the  threat  to  America  has  been  less  obvious 
as  small  countries  such  as  South  Korea  and  South  Vietnam  and 
Kuwait  have  borne  the  brunt  of  our  enemies'  attacks. 
Nevertheless,   Americans  have  risen  to  the  challenge  and  have 
proven  their  dedication  and  willingness  to  make  the  supreme 
sacrifice  as  much  as  in  any  of  the  wars  in  our  history. 


5-12 


In  December  1967,   Marine  Corporal  Larry  E.   Smedley  led  his 
squad  of  six  men  into  an  ambush  site  west  of  the  vital  military 
complex  at  Da  Nang  in  South  Vietnam.     When  an  estimated  100  enemy 
soldiers  were  observed  carrying  122mm  rocket  launchers  and 
mortars  into  position  to  launch  an  attack  on  Da  Nang,  Corporal 
Smedley  courageously  led  his  men  in  a  bold  attack  on  the  enemy 
force  which  outnumbered  them  by  more  than  15  to  1. 

Corporal  Smedley  fell  mortally  wounded  in  this  engagement 
and  was  later  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor  for  his  courageous 
actions.     His  bold  initiative  and  fearless  devotion  to  duty  are 
perfect  examples  of  the  meaning  of  the  words  of  Article  I  of  the 
Code  of  Conduct. 

Article  II 

I  will  never  surrender  of  my  own  free  will.   If  in  command  I 
will  never  surrender  my  men  while  they  still  have  the  means  to 
resist . 

This  is  an  American  tradition  that  dates  back  to  the 
Revolutionary  War.     An  individual  may  never  voluntarily  surrender 
himself.     If  isolated  and  unable  to  fight  the  enemy,   he/she  is 
obligated  to  evade  capture  and  rejoin  friendly  forces  at  the 
earliest  possible  time. 

John  Paul  Jones  always  comes  to  mind  when  one  reads  Article  II 
of  the  Code.     It  was  in  1779  that  the  captain  of  the  Bonhomme 
Richard  challenged  two  British  ships  of  war,    the  Serapis  and  the 
Countess  ol  Scarborough.   Old,    slow,   and  hopelessly  outclassed  the 
Richard  was  being  badly  battered,   repeatedly  set  on  fire,  and 
rapidly  filling  with  water  when  the  captain  of  the  Serapis 
called,    "Do  you  ask  for  quarter?" 

"I  have  not  yet  begun  to  fight,"   said  John  Paul  Jones.  Hours 
later,    the  Serapis  struck  her  flag  and  Jones  and  his  crew  boarded 
and  captured  the  British  ship  as  they  watched  their  own  ship 
sink . 

Where  a  unit  is  involved,    the  Marine  in  command  may  never 
surrender  that  unit  to  the  enemy  while  it  has  the  power  to  resist 
or  evade.  A  unit  that  is  cut  off  or  surrounded  must  continue  to 
fight  until  it  is  relieved  by,   or  able  to  rejoin  friendly  forces. 

Private  First  Class  Melvin  E.  Newlin  was  manning  a  key 
machine  gun  post  with  four  other  Marines  in  July  19  67  when  a 
savage  enemy  attack  nearly  overran  their  position.  Critically 
wounded,   his  comrades  killed,    Private  Newlin  propped  himself 


5-13 


against  his  machine  gun  and  twice  repelled  the  enemy  attempts  to 
overrun  his  position.   During  a  third  assault,   he  was  knocked 
unconscious  by  a  grenade,   and  the  enemy,   believing  him  dead, 
bypassed  him  and  continued  their  attack  on  the  main  force.  When 
he  regained  consciousness,   he  crawled  back  to  his  weapon  and 
brought  it  to  bear  on  the  enemy  rear,    inflicting  heavy  casualties 
and  causing  the  enemy  to  stop  their  assault  on  the  main  positions 
and  again  attack  his  machine  gun  post.     Repelling  two  more  enemy 
assaults,    Private  Newlin  was  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor  for  his 
courageous  refusal  to  surrender  his  position  or  to  cease  fighting 
because  of  his  wounds. 

In  June  1966,    Staff  Sergeant  Jimmie  E.   Howard  and  his 
reconnaissance  platoon  of  18  men  were  occupying  an  observation 
post  deep  within  enemy  controlled  territory  in  South  Vietnam  when 
they  were  attacked  by  a  battalion  size  force  of  enemy  soldiers. 
During  repeated  assaults  on  the  Marine  position  and  despite 
severe  wounds,   Staff  Sergeant  Howard  encouraged  his  men  and 
directed  their  fire,   distributed  ammunition,    and  directed 
repeated  air  strikes  on  the  enemy.     After  a  night  of  intense 
fighting  which  resulted  in  five  men  killed  and  all  but  one  man 
wounded,   the  beleaguered  platoon  still  held  its  position.  Later, 
when  evacuation  helicopters  approached  the  platoon's  position, 
Staff  Sergeant  Howard  warned  them  away  and  continued  to  direct 
air  strikes  and  small  arms  fire  on  the  enemy  to  ensure  a  secure 
landing  zone.     For  his  valiant  leadership,   courageous  fighting 
spirit,   and  refusal  to  let  his  unit  be  beaten  despite  the 
overwhelming  odds,    Staff  Sergeant  Howard  was  awarded  the  Medal  of 
Honor . 

Article  III 

If  I  am  captured,   I  will  continue  to  resist  by  all  means 
available.     I  will  make  every  effort  to  escape  and  aid  others  to 
escape.     I  will  accept  neither  parole  or  special  favors  from  the 
enemy. 

ARTICLE  IV 

If  I  become  a  prisoner  of  war,   I  will  keep  faith  with  my 
fellow  prisoners.     I  will  give  no  information  nor  take  part  in 
any  action  which  might  be  harmful  to  my  comrades.     If  I  am 
senior,  I  will  take  command.     If  not,   I  will  obey  the  lawful 
orders  of  those  appointed  over  me  and  we'll  back  them  up  in  every 
way. 


5-14 


Article  V 

When  questioned,   should  I  become  a  prisoner  of  war,  I  am 
required  to  give  name,  rank,   service  number,  and  date  of  birth. 
I  will  evade  answering  further  questions  to  the  utmost  of  my 
ability.     I  will  make  no  oral  nor  written  statement  disloyal  to 
my  country  and  its  allies  or  harmful  to  their  cause. 

The  misfortune  of  being  captured  by  the  enemy  does  not  end  a 
Marine's  usefulness  to  his  country.     It  is  his  duty  to  continue 
to  resist  the  enemy  by  all  possible  means,   and  to  escape  and 
assist  others  to  escape.     A  Marine  may  not  accept  parole  from  the 
enemy  or  special  favors  such  as  more  food,   warm  clothes,  fewer 
physical  restrictions,   etc.,    in  return  for  promises  not  to 
escape,   or  informing,   or  providing  information  to  the  enemy. 

Informing,   or  any  other  action  endangering  the  well-being  of 
a  fellow  prisoner  is  forbidden.     Prisoners  of  war  will  not  help 
the  enemy  by  identifying  fellow  prisoners  who  may  have  knowledge 
of  particular  value  to  the  enemy,   and  who  may,    therefore,   be  made 
to  suffer  brutal  means  of  interrogation. 

Strong  leadership  is  essential  to  discipline.  Without 
discipline,   organization,    resistance,   and  even  survival  may  be 
extremely  difficult.     Personal  hygiene,    sanitation,   and  care  of 
sick  and  wounded  prisoners  of  war  are  absolute  musts.     All  United 
States  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  will  continue  to 
carry  out  their  responsibilities  and  exercise  their  authority  if 
captured . 

The  senior  line  officer  or  noncommissioned  officer  within 
the  prisoner  of  war  camp  or  group  of  prisoners  will  assume 
command  according  to  rank  or  date  of  rank,   without  regard  to 
service.     He  is  the  lawful  superior  of  all  lower  ranking 
personnel,   regardless  of  branch  of  service. 

The  responsibility  to  assume  command  must  be  exercised  by 
the  senior.     If  the  senior  officer  or  noncommissioned  officer  is 
incapacitated  or  unable  to  command  for  any  reason,    command  will 
be  assumed  by  the  next  senior  man. 

Article  VI 

I  will  never  forget  that  I  am  an  American  responsible  for  my 
actions,  and  dedicated  to  the  principles  which  made  my  country 
free.     I  will  trust  in  my  God  and  in  the  United  States  of 
America. 


5-15 


Article  VI  and  Article  I  of  the  Code  are  quite  similar.  The 
repeated  words   "I  am  an  American,    fighting  in  the  service  of  my 
country"   are  perhaps  the  most  important  words  of  the  Code, 
because  they  signify  each  American's  faith  and  confidence  in 
their  God,    their  country,   and  their  service.     Since  John  Paul 
Jones  made  his  defiant  reply  "I  have  not  yet  begun  to  fight,"  to 
the  present,   Americans  have  traditionally  fought  the  enemy 
wherever  he  was  found  and  with  whatever  weapons  were  available. 
When  captured,    the  POW  continues  the  battle  in  a  new  arena.  When 
facing  interrogators  they  are  under  fire  just  as  though  bullets 
and  shell  fragments  were  flying  about  them. 

Disarmed,    the  POW  must  fight  back  with  mind  and  spirit, 
remaining  faithful  to  his  fellow  POW's,   yielding  no  military 
information,   and  resisting  every  attempt  of  indoctrination.  It 
is  the  responsibility  of  each  Marine  to  honor  these  traditions  by 
carefully  adhering  to  the  meaning  of  each  article  of  the  Code  of 
Conduct.     The  many  Americans  who  have  accepted  this 
responsibility  are  heroes  in  the  finest  sense  of  the  word. 

In  February  1966,   Lieutenant    (jg)   Dieter  Dengler,   USNR,  was 
on  a  bombing  mission  over  North  Vietnam  when  his  aircraft  was 
badly  damaged  by  ground  fire.     Lieutenant  Dengler  crash-landed 
his  aircraft  in  nearby  Laos  and  attempted  to  evade  capture.  After 
successfully  evading  for  one  day,   he  was  captured  and  led  to  a 
village  where  he  was  interrogated  and  told  to  sign  a  Communist 
propaganda  statement  condemning  the  United  States.  Lieutenant 
Dengler ' s  repeated  refusal  to  give  more  than  his  name,  rank, 
service  number  and  date  of  birth,    or  to  sign  any  statements, 
resulted  in  severe  beatings.     When  he  continued  to  refuse  to 
answer  questions,   he  was  tied  behind  a  water  buffalo  which 
dragged  him  through  the  brush.     The  interrogations  and  beating 
continued  for  three  days,   but  Lieutenant  Dengler  refused  to  give 
in . 

Later,   he  escaped  from  his  guards  but  was  recaptured  and 
again  severely  beaten.     After  six  months  in  captivity,  Lieutenant 
Dengler  successfully  escaped,   killing  several  enemy  guards  in  the 
process.     On  the  17th  day,   a  pilot  who  escaped  with  him  was 
killed,   and  Lieutenant  Dengler  had  to  continue  alone.  Although 
suffering  from  malnutrition,    jaundice,    fatigue,   and  badly  cut  and 
swollen  feet,   Lieutenant  Dengler  refused  to  give  up.     Finally,  on 
the  2  2nd  day  after  his  escape,   he  managed  to  lay  out  a  crude  SOS 
on  a  bed  of  rocks  and  attract  attention  of  a  United  States  Air 
Force  aircraft.     Later  a  rescue  helicopter  plucked  him  to  safety 
and  ended  his  ordeal. 


5-16 


The  stories  of  those  who  have  steadfastly  followed  both  the 
spirit  and  letter  of  Articles  III,    IV  and  V  of  the  Code  of 
Conduct  are  numerous. 


5-17 


APPENDIX  C 

OATH  OF  OFFICE  (enlisted) 

I,    DO  SOLEMNLY  SWEAR   (OR  AFFIRM)    THAT  I  WILL  SUPPORT  AND  DEFEND 
THE  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES  AGAINST  ALL  ENEMIES  FOREIGN 
AND  DOMESTIC;   THAT  i  WILL  BEAR  TRUE  FAITH  AND  ALLEGIANCE  TO  THE 
SAME;   AND  THAT  I  WILL  OBEY  THE  ORDERS  OF  THE  PRESIDENT  OF  THE 
UNITED  STATES  AND  THE  ORDERS  OF  THE  OFFICERS  APPOINTED  OVER  ME, 
ACCORDING  TO  REGULATIONS  AND  THE  UNIFORM  CODE  OF  MILITARY 
JUSTICE.      SO  HELP  ME  GOD. 


5-18 


J 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
Character  Development 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

RIGHT  -vs-  WRONG 

--Ultimately,  every  Marine  is  drawn  to  a  situation  in  which  he 
is  compelled  to  apply  the  fundamentals  of  what  he  believes  to  be 
just  and  right. 

--Unknown  Marine 

1.  Introduction .     The  above  abstract  depicts  a  situation  that 
every  Marine  faces  in  the  course  of  their  career.     That  is, 
eventually  every  Marine  will  be  witness  to  some  action  that  will 
require  him  or  her  to  apply  the  factors  of  integrity,  ethics, 
morals,   and  culture  to  a  situation  that,   by  virtue  of  being  a 
Marine,   he  or  she  is  responsible.     Marine  leadership,    is  by  no 
means  foreign  to  the  welfare  of  human  life,    that  is  our  fellow 
Marines.     We  as  Marines  must  decide  what  is  black  and  white,  and 
what  composes  the  determents  of  each.     We  must  genuinely  know 
what  is  right  and  what  is  wrong. 

2.  Overview .     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
make  Marines  aware  of  the  moral  and  ethical  principles  that 
compose  the  values  which  distinguish  right  from  wrong. 

3 .  References 

a .  FMFM  1 - 0 ,   Leading  Marines 

b .  USNA  Guide  for  Naval  Leaders 

c .  Dictionary  of  Social  Sciences 

d.  FM  22-100,   Military  Leadership 

e.  Appendix  A:  Definitions 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.    Initiate  group  discussions  in  the 
case  of  each  of  the  of  the  practical  exercises. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.     Marines  should  attempt  to  set  the  example  in  every  aspect 
of  themselves,   whether  it  be  as  leaders  or  as  followers.     If  a 
Marine  continuously  sets  the  example,   he/she  will  be  successful 
in  all  aspects  of  life.     If  a  Marine  religiously  pursues 


6-1 


attainment  of  all  the  leadership  traits,   as  described  in 
FM22-100,   he/she  will  unequivocally  set  a  good  example. 

b.  Sometimes  doing  what  is  right  is  not  the  easiest  path  to 
follow.     Certain  situations  arise  in  which  the  best  course  of 
action  cannot  be  clearly  decided  as  being  the  right  or  wrong 
thing  to  do.     A  good  example  is  the  famous  dilemma  of  stealing  a 
loaf  of  bread  to  feed  a  hungry  family.     Your  response  to  these 
dilemmas  will  depend  upon  your  up-bringing  and  exposure  to  morals 
and  ethics.     What  may  be  right  and  justified     in  one  culture  or 
sub-culture,   may  be  inappropriate  or  illegal  in  another.     It  is 
in  this  fine  distinction  that  many  Marines  find  themselves 
confused. 

c.  Consider  the  young  Marine  who  was  brought  up  in  the  inner 
city.  After  accession  into  to  the  Marine  Corps,    this  individual 
gets  caught  smoking  marijuana  and  is  repeatedly  disciplined  for 
fighting.     While  drugs  and  violence  against  peers  may  have  been 
the  norm  in  the  inner  city,    it  was  emphasized  in  training  that  it 
is  illegal,   and  has  no  place  in  the  Marine  Corps.     In  such  cases, 
Marines  need  to  know  that  common  cultural  norms  of  society  as  a 
whole  and  the  Marine  Corps  regulations  override  any  pre-existing 
sub-cultural  norms.     This  is  not  to  say  that  all  crime  in  the 
Marine  Corps  is  attributable  to  a  lack  of  moral  and  ethical 
training,   but  simply  that  with  specific  training,    the  Marine  will 
know  that  a  particular  action  is  right  or  wrong. 

d.  The  basic  Marine  Corps  definition  of  integrity,  "Marines 
do  not  lie  cheat  or  steal,   nor  tolerate  those  who  do,"  must  be 
the  foundation  of  every  Marine's  professional  and  personal 
ethics.     When  officers  and  NCO ' s  deviate  from  the  standards  of 
conduct,    it  makes  correcting  other  Marines  nearly  impossible.  In 
a  letter  to  Professor  Karel  Montor,   Admiral  Arleigh  Burke  summed 
up  the  importance  of  integrity: 

" Integrity" 

"First  you  find  yourself  overlooking  small  infractions  that 
you  would  have  corrected  on  the  spot  in  the  past.     Soon  you  are  a 
participant  in  these  infractions .     "After  all, "  you  say, 
"Everybody ' s  doing  it."    All  too  soon  you  find  yourself  trapped: 
You  no  longer  can  stand  on  a  favorite  principle  because  you  have 
strayed  from  it.     Finding  no  way  out,  you  begin  to  rationalize, 
and  then  you  are  hooked.     The  important  fact  is,   the  men  who 
travel  the  path  outlined  above  have  misused  the  very  basic 
quality  and  characteristic  expected  of  a  professional  military 


6-2 


man,  or  any  other  professional  man  for  that  matter:     They  have 
compromised  their  integrity. " 

e.     Every  Marine  starts  out  his/her  career  with  unblemished 
integrity,   and  it  is  up  to  the  individual  to  either  maintain  or 
tarnish  that  integrity.   Once  one's  integrity  has  been 
compromised,    it  is  very  difficult  to  regain  it  in  the  eyes  of 
your  peers.     Doing  the  right  thing  will  not  always  make  you  the 
most  popular  Marine  in  the  squad  bay,   but  it  will  give  you  a 
clean  conscience  and  demand  the  respect  of  others.     It  is 
obvious  that  down  the  road  this  is  far  more  important  than 
winning  any  popularity  contest.     In  short,    integrity  and  "doing 
the  right  thing"  go  hand  in  hand. 

f.  Perhaps  one  of  the  most  difficult  tests  of  integrity  is 
peer  pressure.     Everyone  has  been  in  a  situation  where  "everyone" 
is  doing  something  wrong,   and  the  pressure  to  join  in  is  great. 
One  may  think,    "If     I  don't  join  in,    then  I  will  lose  respect 
among  my  peers,   not  gain  it."     This  is  untrue  in  the  professional 
environment.     We  as  Marines,   have  the  moral  obligation  to  do  what 
is  right.     This  means  not  surrendering  to  peer  pressure  when  it 
may  involve  illegal  or  immoral  decisions. 

g.  It  is  easy  to  sit  back  and  say  that  you  would  do  the 
right  thing  by  keeping  a  friend  from  driving  drunk,   or  turning  a 
peer  over  to  the  authorities  for  committing  a  violent  crime.  But 
what  about  doing  the  right  thing  when  no  one  is  in  immediate  or 
even  remote  jeopardy  of  being  hurt?     Surely  doing  the  wrong 
thing,   and  not  turning  someone  in  for  cheating  on  a  test  is 
better  than  ostracizing  yourself  from  your  group  of  friends, 
isn't  it?     Not  in  the  Corps!     Even  fulfilling  a  promise  is  no 
justification  to  moral  wrong-doing. 

Again,   we  are  Marines  and  are  subject  to  a  stronger  set  of 
morals  and  ethics  than  most  civilian  organizations.     When  a 
Marine  deviates  from  this  moral  path  it  is  the  responsibility  of 
his/her  fellow  Marines  to  help  him/her  back  onto  the  path,  or 
risk  themselves  becoming  no  different  from  the  cheater. 
Furthermore,   whether  we  realize  it  or  not,   most  rules  have  a 
purpose.      "The  law  is  the  last  result  of  human  wisdom  acting  upon 
human  experience."    (Samuel  Johnson,   Miscellanies ,    i,  223). 

Cheating  or  bending  the  rules  may  not  have  immediate 
ramifications  to  the  individual,   but  down  the  road  it  could 
create  dire  consequences .     What  about  the  platoon  commander  who 


6-3 


cheats  on  a  call  for  fire  package,   only  to  find  himself  in  a 
combat  situation  in  desperate  need  of  supporting  arms.     How  about 
the  young  Lance  Corporal  who  lies  constantly  and  gets  away  with 
it,   and  then  finds  that  a  lie  about  a  seemingly  unimportant 
situation  gets  someone  killed  or  injured.     The  more  we  do  the 
wrong  thing,    the  harder  it  becomes  to  recognize  right  from  wrong. 
Conversely,   once  we     bill  ourselves  as  moral  and  ethical,  doing 
the  right  thing  becomes  second  nature.     This  is  the  point  where 
you  will  have  earned  your  self-respect  and  the  undying  respect  of 
your  peers . 

h.     Now  let's  take  a  look  at  some  case  studies.     Read  the 
situations  that  follow  and  discuss  them  with  your  platoon  or 
peers.     Talk  about  the  moral  issue  involved,   the  ramifications 
thereof,   and  what  is  being  done  right.     Discuss  how  you  would  act 
in  the  situation?     Do  you  have  what  it  takes  to  do  the  right 
thing,   or  would  you  bow  out  and  do  the  wrong  thing? 

6 .     Practical  Exercises 

a .     Exercise  #1 

  (1)    Special  situation.     You  are  a  young,   hard  charging 

PFC  just  out  of  boot  camp.     Upon  checking  into  your  first  duty 
station,   Camp  Pendleton,   you  immediately  make  friends  among  your 
peers.     One  of  your  new  friends,    PFC  Cana,   has  asked  you  to  join 
him  and  several  other  Marines  in  a  party  trip  to  Tiajuana, 
Mexico.     You  eagerly  accept.     On  the  way,   you  hear  PFC  Cana 
repeatedly  asking  those  around  you  if  they  had  the  "stuff." 
Thinking  they  are  talking  about  booze,   you  pay  no  attention. 
After  reaching  Tiajuana  and  partying  at  the  bars  for  several 
hours,    PFC  Cana  and  his  friends  demand  that  you  accompany  them 
back  to  the  hotel,    so  you  can  be  initiated  into  the  group.  You 
follow  since  you  really  like  to  hang  out  with  PFC  Cana  and  his 
friends,   and  you  would  like  to  be  invited  back.     Upon  entering 
the  room,    PFC  Cana  breaks  out  a  bag  of  marijuana  and  begins  to 
roll  a  marijuana  cigarette.     Your  "initiation",   explains  PFC 
Cana,    is  to  "party  all  night  and  to  feel  no  pain. " 

You  have  never  touched  drugs,   and  the  mere  sight  of  them 
outrages  you.     But  this  is  a  tricky  situation.     On  the  one  hand, 
you  want  to  become  part  of  the  group,   and  it's  not  like  anyone 
will  ever  find  out  about  this.     Also,   you  figure  that  no  one  is 
in  danger  of  getting  hurt  since  you  are  all  staying  at  the  hotel. 
On  the  other  hand,    if  you  decline,    chances  are  that  the  rest  of 


6-4 


the  group  will  call  you  weak  and  not  have  anything  to  do  with 
you.     There  could  also  be  threats  or  violence  against  yourself, 
out  of  their  fear  about  being  reported.     If  you  smoke  the  drugs 
this  time,   will  it  become  a  weekly  occurrence?     What  if  this  is 
just  the  beginning,   and  the  group  is  also  into  hard  drugs,  or 
even  major  crime?     Do  you  think  that  they  will  take  it  personally 
if  you  "just  say  no?"     Do  you  think  you  have  a  responsibility  as 
a  Marine,    to  report  these  individuals? 

(2)  First  Requirement.     Discuss  what  you  would  do. 

(3)  Proposed  Solution.     Refuse  the  marijuana  and  inform 
PFC  Cana  that  while  you  are  not  afraid  of  the  marijuana,    it  is  an 
illegal  drug,   and  that  he  is  currently  breaking  the  law,  and 
disobeying  a  Marine  Corps  order.     Advise  PFC  Cana  of  the  risk  he 
is  taking  with  respect  to  his  career.     Further  advise  him  that 
while  you  enjoy  hanging  out  with  him  and  his  friends,   you  would 
prefer  the  company  Marines  who  live  by  integrity  and  honesty. 

b .     Exercise  #2 . 

(1)    Special  Situation.     A  new  lieutenant  was  accused  of 
having  numerous  sexual  liaisons  with  enlisted  personnel .  These 
accusations  came  to  light  through  several  anonymous  letters  to 
presented  to  the  commanding  officer.     These  complaints  came  as  no 
surprise,    since  the  lieutenant  was  seen  on  several  occasions 
drinking  and  dancing  with  many  enlisted  Marines  during  the  past 
few  months . 

You  are  the  investigating  officer.     A  staff  sergeant  tells 
you  in  private  of  having  had  sexual  relations  with  the 
lieutenant,   as  had  many  others  that  were  identified  in  the 
letters  of  complaint. 

As  your  investigation  ends  and  your  interviews  finish,  you 
prepare  your  draft  report .     Upon  showing  the  report  to  your 
senior,   he  proceeds  to  make  changes  to  the  report,  which 
essentially  water  it  down.     Your  senior  then  informs  you  to 
formalize  your  report  and  submit  it. 

As  you  review  the  report,   you  find  that  some  statements  have 
been  changed  and  other  statements  of  a  sensitive  nature  have 
disappeared  altogether.     Furthermore,   many  of  the  witnesses  you 
spoke  with,   have  since  been  told  to  keep  quiet  on  the  issue,  or 
face  the  consequences . 


6-5 


Your  senior  apparently  wants  this  incident  covered  up,  both 
to  save  embarrassment  to  the  unit,   and  not  have  the  careers  of 
many  fine  NCOs  threatened  by  the  acts  of  one  lieutenant. 

As  the  OIC  of  the  investigation,   you  feel  you  can  understand 
the  concerns  of  your  CO.   Furthermore  you  know  that  failure  to 
comply  with  your  CO ' s  wishes  could  result  in  a  poor  FITREP,  in 
effect  destroying  your  career.     However,   you  also  know  that  you 
are  entrusted  with  special  trust  and  confidence  by  your 
commission,   and  you  know  what  is  right. 

(2)   First  Requirement.     Discuss  what  you  would  do  in  the 
situation . 

  (3)    Proposed  Solution.     Express  your  concerns  to  the  CO 

about  submitting  a  false  report.     Respectfully  inform  your  CO 
that  you  have  no  intention  of  downplaying  this  incident,   and  that 
threatening  witnesses  is  a  direct  violation  of  their  rights. 
Further  inform  your  CO  that  while  the  careers  of  many  fine  NCOs 
are  in  jeopardy,    they  nevertheless  violated  a  major  Marine  Corps 
order  prohibiting  fraternization,   and  to  let  them  get  away  with 
it  would  be  setting  a  poor  example  for  others  to  follow. 

c .     Exercise  #3 . 

(1)    Special  Situation.     Smith  and  Jones  are  good  friends, 
and  both  are  coming  up  for  promotion.     In  order  to  increase  their 
cutting  scores,   and  enhance  their  knowledge,   both  decide  to  sign 
up  for  the  same  MCI . 

As  far  as  careers  go,   both  are  outstanding  Marines.  While 
they  know  that  MCI ' s  are  meant  to  be  taken  individually,  they 
both  joke  about  how  good  it  is  that  they  are  both  enrolled  for 
the  same  course,    since  they  can  now  "check  each  others  answers." 

When  the  MCI ' s  arrive,  Jones  uses  the  majority  of  his  free 
time  to  quickly  finish  the  MCI,  while  Smith  takes  on  a  "put  it 
off  until  tomorrow"  attitude. 

Upon  completion  of  the  MCI,   Jones  comments  to  Smith  that  he 
better  get   "moving"   on  the  MCI.     At  this  point,    Smith  confides  in 
Jones  that  he  has  no  time  to  finish  the  course,   and  has  trouble 
"understanding  the  material."     He  asks  Jones  for  help. 


6-6 


Being  a  good  friend,   Jones  agrees  to  guide  Smith  in  some 
broad  concepts.     However,   as  the  two  continue  on,   Jones  realizes 
that  Smith  is  asking  him  for  specific  answers.     Jones  begins  to 
feel  awkward  in  the  situation,   not  wanting  to  come  across  as  not 
supporting  his  friend. 

Jones  knows  that  Smith  has  crossed  the  line.  Furthermore, 
since  both  Marines  are  equal,   Jones  doesn't  think  it's  fair  that 
Smith  is  willing  to  cheat  in  order  to  obtain  the  same  cutting 
score  as  himself.     What  would  happen  if  Jones  gave  him  the 
answers,   only  to  find  out  that  he  did  not  pick  up  the  promotion, 
while  Smith  did?     Aside  from  this,   being  an  outstanding  Marine, 
Jones  does  not  want  to  jeopardize  his  integrity.     Jones  finds 
himself  at  an  impasse  on  how  to  approach  the  subject  with  his 
long-time  friend. 

(2)  Requirement .     Discuss  what  you  think  Jones  should  do 
in  this  situation. 

(3)  Proposed  Solution.     Jones  should  be  honest  with  his 
friend  by  making  it  clear  that  he  is  there  to  help  Smith,  not 
cheat  for  him.     Smith  may  not  be  aware  of  how  his  actions  are 
being  interpreted.     In  any  case,    if  the  two  are  true  friends  then 
Jones  should  have  no  problem  confronting  the  problem  in  a  open 
and  honest  manner,   without  jeopardizing  the  friendship. 

d .     Exercise  #4 . 

(1)    Special  Situation.     LCpl  White  is  with  his  platoon  on 
their  way  back  from  a  CAX.     Along  the  way,    the  bus  stops  to  get 
gas  and  to  give  the  Marines  a  chance  to  get  some  chow  and  to 
stretch  their  legs.     Using  the  free  time,   LCpl  White  enters  into 
the  mini-mall/ food  court  with  a  small  group  of  Marines  and  his 
squad  leader,   LCpl  David. 

After  chow  the  Marines  still  have  fifteen  minutes  before  the 
bus  leaves,    so  they  decide  to  check  out  the  music  store  for  some 
CD's.     Upon  looking  through  the  titles,   LCpl  David  grows  excited 
after  finding  a  CD  he  thought  was  no  longer  on  the  market.  Upon 
realizing  that  neither  he,   nor  any  of  the  Marines  around  him  have 
the  money  for  the  CD,   LCpl  David  decides  he  must  have  it  right 
then.     As  the  other  Marines  head  back  to  the  bus,   LCpl  White  is 
on  his  way  out  of  the  store,   when  he  notices  LCpl  David  tearing 
the  magnetic  sticker  off  the  CD  and  making  his  way  to  an 
unoccupied  part  of  the  store. 


6-7 


As  the  bus  leaves,   LCpl  David  takes  the  CD  out  of  his  sea 
bag  and  puts  it  into  his  portable  CD  player,   and  begins  to  listen 
to  it.     LCpl  White  approaches  LCpl  David  and  asks  him  if  he  stole 
the  CD,   and  is  told  to   "mind  your  own  business,    or  life  in  the 
squad  will  become  very  rough  on  you." 

Knowing  that  LCpl  David  stole  the  CD,   LCpl  White  returns  to 
his  seat  to  consider  his  options. 

(2)  Requirement .     Discuss  what  LCpl  White  should  do. 

(3)  Proposed  Solution.     LCpl  White  should  inform  LCpl 
David  that  he  is  sure  he  stole  the  CD,   and  that  he  is  setting  a 
poor  example  for  his  squad.     LCpl  David  should  further  be 
informed  that  using  his  position  of  leadership  to  make  threats  is 
in  the  utmost  of  unprof essionalism.     LCpl  White  should  give  LCpl 
David  the  opportunity  to  return  the  CD  and  turn  himself  in.  If 
LCpl  David  refuses  these  terms,    then  LCpl  White  should  report  the 
incident  through  the  chain  of  command. 

e .     Exercise  #5. 

(1)    Special  Situation.         As  the  XO  of  a  Marine 
fighter /attack  squadron  on  deployment  in  the  Mediterranean,  you 
have  been  told  by  the  CO  to  conduct  a  readiness  inspection  and 
have  a  report  ready  within  fifteen  hours.     Shortly  after  this 
order,   you  learn  that  your  squadron  is  to  fly  a  combat  air  patrol 
for  a  TRAP   (Tactical  Recovery  of  Aircraft  and  Personnel)  mission 
to  rescue  a  downed  American  Airmen.     Upon  completing  your  report, 
you  realize  that  you  are  short  on  spare  parts  and  not  capable  of 
flying  the  mission  within  set  safety  parameters. 

Almost  immediately  after  you  turn  in  your  report,   you  get  a 
secure  call  from  the  CO  instructing  you  to  change  your  report  to 
reflect  a  combat  ready  squadron.     The  CO  further  instructs  you 
that  your  squadron  has  the  only  acceptable  readiness  level  for 
the  operation  and  the  downed  pilot  cannot  afford  to  wait  for 
spare  parts.     Every  delay  is  an  additional  threat  upon  his  life. 

While  you  realize  that  the  hostile  country  in  which  the  pilot 
is  located  has  a  small  air  force  at  best,   and  that  rescuing  a 
comrade  in  arms  comes  in  the  highest  calling,   you  also  realize 
that  should  any  unexpected  enemy  air  power  show  up,    that  this 
operation  has   "disaster"  written  all  over  it.  Furthermore, 
intelligence  has  indicated  that  if  the  pilot  is  captured  and 


6-8 


somehow  allowed  to  live,    finding  his  location  will  be  next  to 
impossible  for  months  to  come. 

(2)  Requirement .     Discuss  what  you  would  do,    taking  into 
account  values,    ethics,   and  right  versus  wrong. 

(3)  Proposed  Solution.     Inform  your  CO  that  you  will  not 
falsify  a  report,   but  rather  you  will  submit  the  report  through 
the  chain  of  command.     Also  inform  your  CO  that  mission 
requirements  are  set  for  a  reason,   and  disregarding  them  is  not  a 
wise  thing  to  do.     The  commander  of  the  operation  will  be  in  a 
better  position  to  order  the  operation  if  he  is  in  possession  of 
the  most  accurate  reports  available.     If  he  feels  that  the 
mission  is  worth  the  risk  he  will  still  give  the  go-ahead. 

To  this  point  we  have  discussed  doing  the  right  thing  with 
regards  to  our  peers  and  fellow  Marines.     However,    the  United 
States  Marine  Corps  enjoys  the  greatest  reputation  of  any  other 
organization  on  earth.     This  reputation  has  not  come  from  hollow 
promises,   but  from  battlefield  success.     Such  reputations  are  not 
set  in  stone  and  must  be  constantly  maintained  if  our  Corps  is  to 
continue  to  excel  in  the  next  century.     As  Marines,   we  are  not 
only  held  to  a  higher  standard  by  our  Corps,   but  by  the  American 
people  who  support  us .     When  Americans  open  a  newspaper  and  read 
about  Marines  drunk  and  disorderly,    cheating  on  tests,  and 
committing  felonies,   America's  opinion  of  the  Marine  Corps 
suffers.     As  for  the  Marines  who  commit  these  crimes,  they 
gravely  tarnish  a  reputation  earned  by  the  blood  of  thousands  who 
have  gone  before. 

7.     Summary .     It  has  been  said  that  our  country  lacks  the  moral 
fiber  it  possessed  twenty  years  ago,   and  unless  we  get  it  back, 
our  country  will  cease  to  be  great  in  the  future.     The  same  is 
true  of  the  Marine  Corps.     The  task  of  retaining,   believing  in, 
and  applying  our  core  values  is  as  important  as  ever.     The  Marine 
Corps  has  the  opportunity  to  lead  the  way  into  the  next  century 
in  regaining  our  traditional  American  values.     This  belief  refers 
not  only  to  the  law,   but  to  our  morals  and  ethics  as  well.  For 
most  of  us  doing  the  right  thing  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  law; 
it  is  just  about  doing  the  right  thing,   even  when  no  one  is 
watching.     Walking  the  lines  at   "zero  dark  thirty, "  when  it  is 
below  freezing  is  the  right  thing  to  do,    just  as  not  taking 
responsibility  for  your  actions  is  wrong.     Neither  of  the  two  may 
be  in  any  law,   but  most  of  us  agree  with  them.     This  is  where  the 
ethics  and  morality  behind  doing     "right"  and  doing  "wrong"  come 


6-9 


into  play.     When  we,   as  a  Corps,    can  implement  these  concepts, 
and  you  as  a  individual  Marine,   can  implement  them  in  every 
situation  that  arises,    then  we  will  truly  be  leading  the  way  and 
setting  the  example  for  America.     It  is  the  right  thing  to  do. 

8 .  Appendices 

Appendix  A:  Definitions 


6-10 


RIGHT  -vs-  WRONG 


APPENDIX  A 
DEFINITIONS** 

Right .     An  ethical  or  moral  quality  that  constitutes  the  ideal  of 
moral  propriety  and  involves  various  attributes,    such  as 
adherence  to  duty;   obedience  to  lawful  authority,   whether  divine 
or  human;   and  freedom  from  guilt. 

Wrong .     Something  that  is  immoral  or  unethical  such  as, 
Principles,   practices,   or  conduct  contrary  to  justice,  goodness, 
or  equity,    or  to  laws  accepted  as  having  divine  or  human 
sanction . 

Culture .     The  body  of  customary  beliefs,    social  forms,  and 
material  traits  constituting  a  distinct  complex  tradition  of  a 
racial,    religious,   or  social  group. 

Sub-culture .     An  ethnic,   regional,   economic,    or  social  group, 
exhibiting  characteristic  patterns  of  behavior  sufficient  to 
distinguish  it  from  others  within  an  embracing  culture  or 
society . 

Morality .     Goodness  and  uprightness  of  behavior;  conduct 
conforming  to  the  customs  or  accepted  standards  of  a  particular 
culture  or  group. 

Morals .     Conforming  to,   or  proceeding  from  a  standard  of  what  is 
good  and  right . 

Ethics .     The  principles  of  conduct  governing  an  individual  or  a 
profession;     the  discipline  dealing  with  what  is  good  and  bad,  or 
right  and  wrong,   or  with  moral  duty  and  obligation. 

**From  Webster's  New  World  Dictionary 


6-11 


9 


I 


c 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

MENTORING 

1.  Introduction .     Everybody  is  a  mentor  and  everybody  has 
mentors.     Most  of  us  just  don't  use  the  word.     Think  back  to  all 
those  who  have  helped  you  throughout  your  life  to  achieve  the 
successes  you  have  had.     Remember  that  teacher  in  high  school  who 
helped  you  understand  math,    or  that  coach  who  worked  with  you  to 
be  a  better  sports  team  player?     Remember  the  times  your  parents 
helped  you  through  tough  periods  and  supported  you?     They  were 
mentoring  you,   providing  assistance  in  the  form  of  counsel  to 
help  you  perform  better  and  to  assist  you  in  your  personal  and 
professional  growth. 

2.  Overview .     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
outline  and  discuss  the  purposes  and  goals  of  a  Mentoring  Program 
and  provide  guidance  on  how  to  set  up  and  participate  in  a 
Mentoring  Program. 

3 .  Reference 

Commandant's  White  Letter  No.   10-95  of  3  May  1995 
"Another  Leadership  Tool". 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5.  Discussion .     The  following  definitions  will  be  used 
throughout  this  chapter. 

a.     Mentoring .     Mentoring  is  a  formal  or  informal  program 
that  links  junior  Marines  with  more  experienced  Marines  for  the 
purposes  of  career  development  and  professional  growth,  through 
sharing  knowledge  and  insights  that  have  been  learned  through  the 
years . 

b.     Mentor .     A  senior  Marine  who  voluntarily  undertakes  to 
coach,   advise,   and  guide  a  younger  Marine  in  order  to  enhance 
technical / leadership  skills  and  intellectual/professional 
development . 


7-1 


c.  Mentee .  A  junior  Marine  who  voluntarily  accepts  tutelage 
from  a  more  senior  Marine  for  the  purpose  of  enhancing  skills  and 
professional  development. 

d.  Mentoring  Connection .     A  voluntary  professional 
association  between  a  Mentor  and  Mentee.     It  may  be  of  long  or 
short  duration,   be  conducted  in  person  or  by  any  form  of 
communication . 

6 .  Philosophy 

a.  Since  its  inception,    the  Marine  Corps  has  emphasized  the 
importance  of  passing  on  professional  knowledge  to  those  we  are 
privileged  to  lead.     General  Lejeune  described  the  imparting  of 
that  knowledge  "as  a  teacher  does  to  a  scholar."     By  definition, 
a  mentor  is  a  trusted  counselor  or  guide;   although  not 
specifically  mentioned  in  General  Lejeune 's  comments,    the  concept 
of  mentoring  as  a  leadership  tool  was  surely  applicable  then  and 
is  certainly  applicable  now. 

b.  There  are  no  set  rules  for  a  mentoring  program,  but 
general  guidelines  apply.     The  most  important  thing  to  remember 
is  that  mentoring  is  a  professional  association  formed  to  enhance 
a  junior  Marine's  professional  and  personal  worth  to  him/herself 
and  to  the  Corps.     The  rules  and  regulations  than  define  the 
relationships  between  senior  and  junior  Marines  apply  in  total  to 
mentoring . 

c.  Mentoring  is  usually  an  informal  program,   but  can  be 
command  sponsored.     The  relationship  between  mentor  and  mentee  is 
voluntary . 

d.  When  there  is  no  command  sponsored  program,  "natural" 
mentoring  may  take  place. 

e.  A  mentoring  connection  is  a  professional  career 
development  association,   whose  success  is  solely  the 
responsibility  of  the  mentor  and  mentee. 

f.  General  Carl  E.  Mundy,   Jr.,    in  his  White  Letter  described 
mentoring  as   "another  leadership  tool  that  can  benefit  both  the 
individual  Marine  and  the  organization."     He  stated  "Further,  the 
concept  of  mentoring  is  consistent  with  the  strategies  for 
achieving  one  of  the  goals  outlined  in  our  vision  of  the 
future--to  utilize  fully  the  talents  of  our  people." 


7-2 


a.  There  is  no  Marine  Corps  Order  that  mandates  or  describes 
a  Mentoring  Program.     Thus,    the  rules  that  govern  a  Mentoring 
Program  are  informal  and  established  by  individual  commands 
within  guidelines  that  describe  the  proper  relationships  between 
juniors  and  seniors.     Where  no  command-sponsored  program  exists, 
mentors  and  mentees  who  establish  their  own  "natural"  mentoring 
relationships  must  adhere  to  all  applicable  standards  of  conduct 
and  regulations  for  junior/senior  professional  and  personal 
relationships . 

b.  A  mentoring  program  does  not  replace  the  chain  of  command 
nor  is  mentoring  meant  to  interfere  with  command  relationships, 
senior/subordinate  relationships,   or  Request  Mast.     Mentor /mentee 
relationships  are  not  to  be  used  to  influence  fitness  reports, 
pro-con  marks,   non- judicial  punishment  or  other  disciplinary 
actions . 

c.  The  Commandant's  White  Letter  10-95  of  3  May  1995 
requested  commanding  generals,   commanding  officers,   and  officers 
in  charge   "to  take  appropriate  steps  to  develop  and  implement  a 
voluntary,    informal  mentoring  program  that  allows  the  opportunity 
for  each  officer  to  be  involved  throughout  his  or  her  career." 

d.  Mentoring  should  be  a  universal  program.     Mentoring  is 
useful  for  all  Marines,   officer  and  enlisted,   minority  or 
majority,   male  and  female.     While  it  is  useful  for  mentor  and 
mentee  to  have  some  things  in  common,    it  is  not  necessary.  All 
that  is  necessary,    is  a  willingness  on  the  part  of  both  parties 
to  make  a  genuine  effort  to  improve  the  performance  and 
professional  prospects  for  success  of  the  mentee  and  to  follow 
guidelines  set  forth  in  Marine  Corps  rules  and  regulations  that 
describe  the  proper  relationships  between  seniors  and  juniors, 
officers  and  enlisted,   male  and  female  Marines. 

8.     Mentor-Mentee  Associations.     Mentoring  shouldn't  happen  by 
chance.   Both  members  of  the  mentoring  connection  have 
responsibilities . 

a.     Mentor  Roles.   The  roles  assumed  by  a  mentor  depend  on  the 
needs  of  the  mentee  and  on  the  association  established  between 
the  two.     There  are  at  least  ten  roles  a  mentor  can  assume: 


7-3 


(1)  Teacher .  As  a  teacher,    the  mentor  teaches  the 
mentee  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  perform  the  job 
successfully . 

(2)  Guide .     As  a  guide,    the  mentor  helps  the  mentee 
to  understand  how  to   "navigate"  and  understand  the  inner  workings 
of  an  organization.     Sometimes  this  includes  passing  on 
information  about  the  unwritten  "rules"   for  success. 

(3)  Counselor .     Requires  establishment  of  trust  in 
the  mentoring  association.     A  counselor  listens  to  possible 
ethics  situations  and  provides  guidance  to  help  the  mentee  find 
his  or  her  own  solutions  and  improve  his/her  own  problem  solving 
skills . 

(4)  Motivator .     A  mentor  shows  support  to  help  a 
mentee  through  the  tough  times,   keeping  the  mentee  focused  on 
developing  job  skills  to  improve  performance,    self  respect,   and  a 
sense  of  self-worth. 

(5)  Sponsor .     The  mentor  helps  to  create 
possibilities  for  the  mentee  that  may  otherwise  not  be  available. 
Opportunities  should  be  challenging  and  instructive,  without 
being  overwhelming.     Do  not  set  the  Mentee  up  for  failure. 

(6)  Coach .     A  coach  observes  performance,  assesses 
capabilities,   provides  feedback  to  the  mentee,   and  instructs  with 
a  view  to  improve  performance.     Then  the  loop  repeats. 

(7)  Advisor .     A  mentor  helps  the  mentee  develop 
professional  interests  and  set  realistic  career  goals.  Goals 
should  be  specific,   have  a  time-frame  and  set  deadlines,  be 
results  oriented,   relevant,   and  reachable. 

(8)  Referral  Agent .     Once  a  career  plan  is  developed, 
the  mentor  assists  the  mentee  in  approaching  persons  who  can 
provide  training,    information,   and  assistance.   The  mentor  also 
points  the  mentee  to  relevant  career  enhancing  schools, 
correspondence  courses,   books,   reading,  professional 
organizations,   and  self  improvement  activities. 

(9)  Role  Model .     The  mentor  is  a  living  example  for 
the  mentee  to  emulate.  A  mentor  must  lead  and  teach  by  example. 


7-4 


(10)   Door  Opener .     The  mentor  opens  doors  of 
opportunity  by  helping  the  mentee  establish  a  network  of 
professional  contacts  both  within  and  outside  the  Marine  Corps. 
He/she  helps  the  mentee  understand  the  importance  of  staying  in 
touch  with  seniors,   peers,   and  juniors  to  exchange  information, 
ideas,   and  concerns. 

b .  Mentee  Roles 

(1)  Willing .     The  mentee  must  want  to  improve 
performance,   contribute  to  the  organization,   and  enhance 
professional  prospects  and  be  willing  to  work  to  reach  his/her 
goals . 

(2)  Active .     A  mentee  takes  action  based  on  career  goals, 
suggestions  of  a  mentor,    job  requirements,   and  educational 
opportunities . 

(3)  Accepting .     A  mentee  is  willing  to  accept 
responsibility  for  his/her  actions,   accept  meaningful  feedback 
and  criticism,   and  accept  guidance  and  counseling  from  his/her 
mentor . 

(4)  Respectful .     The  mentee  shows  consideration  and 
respect  for  the  mentor's  willingness  to  help  and  seriously 
considers  all  advice  and  suggestions  from  the  mentor.   He/she  is 
open-minded;  progress  takes  time  and  effort. 

(5)  Professional .     The  mentor /mentee  relationship  is 
professional  at  all  times.     Both  parties  should  be  respectful  of 
privacy  and  each  others  personal  lives. 

(6)  Prepared .     The  mentee  is  ready  to  move  beyond  the 
mentoring  association,   once  the  association  has  served  its 
purpose . 

c.  Establishing  a  Mentoring  Connection.   There  are  six  stages 
to  developing,   maintaining,   and  terminating  a  mentoring 
connection : 

(1)    Identification  Stage .     Most  mentoring  associations 
are  formed  haphazardly,    except  where  a  command- sponsored  program 
is  in  place.     Where  no  program  exists,    either  a  senior  or  junior 
may  initiate  the  mentoring  connection.     Seniors  look  for  Marines 
with  potential  for  improvement  who  need  guidance.  Juniors 


7-5 


recognize  that  they  need  assistance  with  some  facet  of  their 
professional  development  and  seek  help  to  improve.     There  may  be 
some  common  bond  between  mentor  and  mentee  such  as  MOS,  gender, 
race,   hometown,   hobbies,   unit,  etc. 

(2)  Preparation  stage .     Both  Mentor  and  Mentee  must  want 
to  establish  the  mentoring  association.     They  should  understand 
the  purpose  of  the  relationship,   expectations,   goals,   risks,  and 
rewards . 

(3)  Initiation  stage .     The  mentor  and  mentee  set  the 
parameters,   discuss  and  set  goals,   decide  on  time- frames,  and 
write  a  plan  with  a  time-frame. 

(4)  Cultivation  stage .     This  is  the  stage  where  the 
mentor  teaches  job  skills,   provides  guidance,    lends  psychological 
support,    opens  doors,   and  provides  counsel.     The  mentee  works  to 
improve  performance,    learn  new  skills,    follow  guidance,  and 
actively  learn  the  organization,    its  goals  and  "ethos." 

(5)  Redefinition  stage .     A  review  and  action  phase  where 
the  mentor  and  mentee  assess  accomplishments,   reorient  the  action 
plan,   and  redefine  goals.     During  this  stage  one  or  both  parties 
may  decide  to  end  the  association. 

(6)  Termination  stage .     Parties  may  decide  during  the 
redefinition  stage  to  terminate  the  association  due  to  positive 
or  negative  factors.     Mentor  and  mentee  should  discuss  which 
goals  were  achieved  and  which  were  not.     Both  should  endeavor  to 
make  a  realistic  assessment  of  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  the 
association.     Sometimes  mentoring  associations  continue 
indefinitely . 

d .     Tools  for  a  Successful  Mentoring  Connection 

(1)   Effective  Interpersonal  Communication  Skills .  Both 
mentor  and  mentee  must  be  able  to  adequately  express  to  each 
other  the  messages  they  want  to  get  across .  Interpersonal 
communication  is  a  dynamic,   never-ending,    two-way  process  that  is 
oriented  towards  the  receiver.  Messages  are  written,  spoken, 
verbal,   and  non-verbal.   The  receiver  must  listen,   read,  reflect, 
and  respond.     There  are  barriers  to  effective  communication.   In  a 
mentoring  connection,    it  is  better  for  the  mentor  to  avoid  being 
authoritarian,   admonishing,    threatening,   or  too  critical  and 
negative.   The  mentor  must  strike  the  right  balance  between  being 


7-6 


overly  harsh  or  coddling  the  mentee.     Feedback  is  necessary  for 
any  communication  loop  to  develop  and  operate  properly.  Encourage 
the  mentee  to  discuss  what  is  and  isn't  working  for  him  or  her. 
Mentor,   ensure  you  understand  and  observe  the  mentee  and  his/her 
work  so  you  can  provide  meaningful  help  and  guidance. 

(2)  Personal  Assessment .     Each  mentee  with  his/her 
mentor's  assistance,   must  truthfully  perform  a  self -assessment  to 
identify  both  strengths  and  weaknesses.   Look  at  past  performance, 
performance  reports,   MOS  school  grades  and  other  performance 
indicators.   Examine  the  criteria  for  advancement.  What  schools, 
outside  educational  courses,   Marine  Corps  Institute  courses,  and 
other  improvement  opportunities  are  important  to  the  mentee ' s 
career  advancement?     Once  strengths  and  weaknesses  are  examined, 

a  listing  is  made  of  areas  for  improvement  or  enhancement. 

(3)  Make  a  Career  Development  Plan.     The  mentor  and 
mentee  look  at  the  mentee ' s  strengths  and  weaknesses  and  develop 
a  plan  to  use  educational  and  professional  opportunities  to 
develop  necessary  skills  and  professional  attributes  in  the 
mentee.   The  plan  can  be  based  on  both  short  and  long  term 
improvements.   The  mentee ' s  first  goal  may  be  to  attain  the 
necessary  cutting  score  for  promotion.  Maybe  an  improvement  in 
the  Physical  Fitness  Test  Score,   or  another  MCI  course  is  all 
that  is  needed.   Look  at  the  long  term.  What  professional  schools 
should  the  mentee  seek  to  attend  to  prepare  for  increased 
responsibility?  Does  the  mentee  need  further  formal  education,  or 
even  a  college  degree  to  fully  meet  his/her  goals?     Of  what 
professional  organizations  should  the  mentee  be  a  member  of? 
Follow  the  plan.   The  mentor  can  help  attain  goals  by  utilizing 
formal  and  informal  contacts,   writing  letters  of  introduction, 
helping  prepare  the  mentee  for  formal  schooling,  etc. 

Re-evaluate  the  plan.     When  a  major  goal  is  achieved, 
expectations  may  rise.     Don't  be  afraid  to  set  the   "bar"   a  little 
higher.     Conversely,    some  goals  may  not  be  achievable,  therefore 
a  reassessment  of  what  is  and  isn't  practical  may  be  necessary. 

e.     The  successful  mentoring  connection.     How  are  mentoring 
connections  formed? 

(1)   Command  sponsorship .     Some  commands  have  established 
programs  for  mentoring.     They  keep  a  list  of  volunteers  from 
among  the  more  senior  members  and  from  among  the  interested 
juniors.     Matches  are  made  based  on  a  number  of  elements  like 


7-7 


working  relationships,    shared  interests  such  as  MOS  or 
background,   and  other  natural  factors.     A  command  may  establish 
mentoring  relationships  for  all  personnel.     Some  will  work  out; 
some  will  not.     The  Commanding  Officer  will  set  the  parameters 
for  the  program,   but  should  give  considerable  leeway  to  allow 
mentors  and  mentees  the  ability  to  design  their  programs  based  on 
individual  preferences  and  goals. 

(2)   Natural  mentoring  associations.     Most  mentoring 
occurs   "naturally."     In  other  words,    some  shared  experience, 
background,   or  other  factor  causes  the  connection  to  occur  almost 
by  itself.     A  mentee  looking  for  help  may  want  to  emulate  the 
success  and  style  of  a  senior  and  asks  for  assistance.     A  senior 
may  see  the  spark  of  potential  in  a  junior  and  take 
responsibility  to  encourage  and  assist.     Naturally  formed 
mentoring  connections  should  be  encouraged.     Both  members  of  the 
connection  should  utilize  the  steps  and  stages  to  enhance  the 
chances  of  success.     Assess,   make  a  plan,    execute  the  plan, 
re-assess,   adjust,   and  recognize  the  responsibility  of  each 
member  of  the  mentoring  connection. 

f .   Improper  mentoring  relationships 

(1)  The  Marine  Corps  Manual    (MCM)   paragraph  110  0.4 
defines  an  "improper  relationship  as:    "situations  that  invite  or 
give  the  appearance  of  familiarity  or  undue  informality  among 
Marines  of  different  grades." 

(2)  The  sentence  states  that  familiarity  and  undue 
informality  between  Marines  of  different  grades  is  improper. 
Further,    it  states  that  perception  is  important  because  the 
relationship  or  situation  must  not  invite  or  give  the  appearance 

of  familiarity  or  undue  informality. 

(3)  It  is  primarily  the  mentor's  responsibility  to  ensure 
that  the  mentoring  connection  is  kept  on  the  proper  professional 
level.     The  command  should  know  that  the  mentor  and  mentee,    if  in 
the  same  unit,   are  working  together  to  improve  the  mentee ' s 
performance.     Don't  hide  the  connection.     Be  open  and  above  board 
in  all  actions.     Strictly  adhere  to  the  guidelines  contained  in 
the  MCM. 

Transition .  We  have  briefly  discussed  Mentoring  and  its  effects 
on  individuals  and  the  Marine  Corps.  Mentoring  can  be  a  powerful 
tool  to  ensure  that  all  Marines  perform  to  the  best  of  their 


7-8 


abilities,   have  opportunities  for  advancement  and 
self -improvement ,   and  can  contribute  to  the  success  of  the  Corps. 
"Another  leadership  tool"   is  how  General  Mundy  put  it.  Mentoring 
is  another  arrow  in  the  quiver  of  successful,   concerned  leaders 
to  encourage  and  help  their  Marines. 


7-9 


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UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

SUBSTANCE  ABUSE 

1.  Introduction .   The  United  States  Marine  Corps  will  not 
tolerate  the  distribution,  possession  or  use  of  illegal 
substances . 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
introduce  the  established  policies,   programs,   and  punishments 
involving  the  use  and  abuse  of  alcohol  and  drugs  in  the  Marine 
Corps . 

3.  References .  The  following  provides  additional  information  on 
Substance  Abuse: 

MCO  P5300.12,   The  Marine  Corps  Substance  Abuse  Program 
NAVMC  2  75  0 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a .     Purpose  of  Preventive  Education. 

(1)  In  order  to  make  responsible  decisions,   leaders  must 
possess  knowledge  and  be  thoroughly  familiar  with  the  Marine 
Corps  policies  concerning  drug  abuse.     MCO  P53  00.12,   Chapter  4, 
The  Marine  Corps  Substance  Abuse  Program,   and  NAVMC  2  7  50  are  the 
basic  references  that  provide  information  and  guidance  to 
commanders.     To  ensure  an  effective  drug  abuse  program,  leaders 
must  be  familiar  with  these  documents,   and  also  must  be  aware  of 
local  commanders'   policies  on  this  issue. 

(2)  Additionally,    leaders  must  be  aware  of  their  role  in 
ensuring  that  all  Marines  and  Sailors  in  their  command  are 
properly  educated.     An  aggressive  education  program  must  be 
pursued  at  the  lowest  level  to  ensure  that  all  Marines  and 
Sailors  are  kept  informed  of  the  physical  dangers  and  serious 
consequences  they  will  face  due  to  illegal  drug  use  in  the  Marine 
Corps . 


8-1 


(3)    It  is  only  through  a  concerned  and  total  leadership 
effort  that  we  as  leaders  can  help  Marines  avoid  the 
ramifications  of  illegal  drug  use.     This  effort  must  encompass 
all  leadership  ranks  from  NCO  up. 


b .     Leadership  Responsibilities. 


(1)  In  light  of  the  current  influence  that  drug  use  has 
on  society,    there  is  an  overwhelming  responsibility  for  leaders 
to  set  and  instill  standards  that  promote  a  drug-free 
environment.     Some  of  the  ways  that  we  can  encourage  this  are: 

(a)  Change  existing  attitudes  about  drugs  and  their 
use.     Your  Marines  have  come  from  a  wide  variety  of  backgrounds. 
Many  of  them  have  lived  in  environments  where  drug  trafficking 
and  use  were  a  part  of  everyday  life.     We  must  instill  in  them 
the  belief  that  the  use  of  drugs  is  harmful  not  only  to  them,  but 
also  to  the  team  effort  that  we  as  Marines  enjoy. 

(b)  Developing  peer  pressure  amongst  your  Marines 
through  building  a  "tight  unit"  will  encourage  Marines  to  avoid 
drugs  --  looking  out  for  one  another.     This  will  also  prevent 
outsiders,   or  newly  joined  Marines,   with  drug  habits  from 
introducing  drugs  into  your  unit. 

(c)  As  leaders,   we  must  also  be  concerned  about  the 
quality  of  life  that  is  available  to  Marines.     This  is 
particularly  true  during  overseas  deployments  where  Marines  are 
without  transportation,    family,    or  the  opportunity  to  pursue 
their  normal  interests.     Leaders  should  encourage  unit 
camaraderie  by  scheduling  activities  after  normal  working  hours 
and  on  weekends  to  break  up  the  monotony  of  deployment  life  and 
offer  an  alternative  to  the  temptations  of  drugs  as  an  escape. 

(2)  By  educating  Marines  and  Sailors  about  the  inherent 
health  risks,    as  well  as  the  serious  consequences  that  can  result 
if  they  are  caught,   we  can  help  them  make  more  informed  decisions 
concerning  the  use  of  illegal  drugs. 

(3)  The  education  process  is  and  must  be  continuous,  both 
to  ensure  that  new  members  are  fully  educated,  and  to  reemphasize 
to  present  members  the  importance  of  not  allowing  drugs  to  affect 
unit  performance  and  overall  safety. 


8-2 


(4)   The  consequences  for  use  of  illegal  drugs  vary  from 
state  to  state.     Possession  amounts  in  one  state  may  equal 
distribution  amounts  in  another.     The  same  holds  true  for  foreign 
countries.     Since  we  can  expect  to  deploy  as  Marines,   we  must 
inform  our  subordinates  of  each  country's  law  regarding 
possession  and  use  of  illegal  drugs.     Laws  in  Okinawa,  for 
example,   are  extremely  severe,   and  Marines  caught  using  or 
distributing  drugs  are  subject  to  imprisonment  in  Japanese 
prisons.     This  can  result  in  a  lengthy  trial  process  and 
relatively  long  sentence  where  the  Marine  is  forced  to  live 
without  benefit  of  usual  American  democratic  rights  or  English 
speaking  prison-mates.     It  is  in  the  best  interest  of  the  Marine 
that  he  is  briefed  before,    and  upon  arrival  in  Okinawa,   about  the 
harsh  punishments  above  and  beyond  those  that  the  Marine  Corps 
can  impose. 

Transition .     Now  that  you  have  an  understanding  of  prevention 
through  education,    let's  take  a  look  at  the  deterrent  measures 
taken  by  the  Marine  Corps.     The  most  effective  deterrent  for 
those  who  violate  drug  policy  are  the  means  by  which  we  identify 
the  user  or  trafficker. 

c .     Deterrent  Measures 

(1)  Identification  Means.     Aggressive  identification 
measures  offer  the  single  best  method  of  reducing  drug  abuse  in 
the  Marine  Corps.     Speedy  detection  prevents  escalation  of  drug 
use  to  a  point  where  treatment /rehabilitation  is  necessary  and 
the  Marine  becomes  a  liability  to  the  unit  and  fellow  Marines. 
There  are  many  methods  available  to  a  commander  to  identify  drug 
users,   both  within  the  unit  and  from  external  agencies. 

(2)  Organizations  such  as  the  Naval  Criminal 
Investigative  Service  and  local  law  enforcement  agencies  work 
through  under-cover  operations  and  investigations  to  identify 
distributors  and  users  for  arrest  and  prosecution. 

(3)  Random  inspections  of  unit  areas  combined  with  the 
use  of  dogs  can  deter  Marines  from  retaining  drugs  in  their 
vehicles  or  in  the  barracks . 

(4)  Perhaps  the  most  effective  method  is  to  know  your 
Marines.     Generally  one  can  recognize  changes  in  behavior  and 
personality  that  signal  either  a  personal  problem  or  worse  yet,  a 
drug  problem.     An  active  and  interested  leader  can  do  a  great 


8-3 


deal  to  prevent  young  Marines  from  falling  to  the  temptations 
that  are  often  present  around  military  bases. 

d .     Urinalysis  Program 

(1)  Each  unit  will  have  a  urinalysis  program  which  will 
be  run  by  the  unit's  Substance  Abuse  Control  Officer   (SACO) . 
This  position  is  normally  held  by  a  SNCO  or  NCO .     They  monitor 
and  schedule  urinalysis  screenings  when  requested  by  the 
commanding  officer  and  provide  counseling  and  education  to  unit 
members . 

(2)  The  purpose  of  the  urinalysis  is  to  deter,  identify, 
and  confirm  illegal  drug  use  as  early  as  possible.  Testing 
begins  at  the  earliest  available  time  following  accession  into 
the  Marine  Corps.     By  identifying  drug  users  early,    the  Marine 
Corps  can  remove  them  from  the  Marine  Corps  before  they  can 
influence  others. 

(3)  No  person  who  indicates  dependency  on  drugs  will  be 
accessed  into  the  Marine  Corps.     The  following  testing 
enforcement  standards  have  been  established  to  further  reduce  the 
possibility  of  illegal  drug  users  from  entering  the  Corps: 

Officer  Candidates  30th  day 

TBS  Students  3  0th  day 

Recruit  96  Hours 

(4)  Notice  that  recruits  are  tested  within  the  first  96 
hours .     The  rationale  is  to  detect  use  of  such  body  soluble  drugs 
as  cocaine  which  may  be  undetectable  after  72  hours  or  less. 
Samples  may  be  initially  tested  using  a  portable  test  kit. 

(5)  History.     Less  than  two  years  ago  a  second  lieutenant 
tested  positive  on  his  screening  urinalysis  at  TBS  and  was 
summarily  discharged  from  the  Marine  Corps.     At  Second  Marines, 
in  Camp  Lejeune,    two  gunnery  sergeants  who  also  turned  up 
positive  for  cocaine  suffered  the  same  fate--  this  after  nearly 
18  years  of  service  in  the  Marine  Corps.     The  urinalysis 
screening  is  strictly  black  and  white;  you  either  did  or  you 
didn't  use  drugs.     It  does  not  differentiate  between  rank  or 
experience . 

(6)  Urinalysis  Test  Kits  can  screen  for  the  following 
illegal  substances: 


8-4 


THC   (Cannabis,  Marijuana) 
Cocaine 

Amphetamines  (Uppers) 
Barbiturates  (Downers) 
PCP 

Steroids 

(7)   The  most  commonly  used  drugs  are  marijuana, 
cocaine,   and  steroids.     Recently  in  Camp  Lejeune,    the  drug  LSD, 
or  acid,   has  apparently  become  popular  due  to  its  low  cost  and 
the  difficulty  in  detecting  it  on  a  urinalysis.     Samples  must  be 
taken  soon  after  its  use,    and  they  must  be  specifically  tested 
for  LSD.     Confirmation  for  legal  action,    in  any  case,   must  be 
accomplished  at  a  DoD-certif ied  Navy  Drug  Screening  Lab. 

Transition .     Now  that  we  have  seen  what  the  urinalysis 
program  can  do,    let's  move  on  to  the  premises  of  testing  our 
Marines . 

e .     Testing  premises. 

(1)  Inspections,   random  screenings,   unit  sweeps, 
accession  testing,    rehabilitation,   and  facility  testing. 

(2)  Searches  and  Seizures,   command  testing,  personal 

consent . 

(3)  Fitness  for  Duty,    command  directed,  physician 
directed,    safety,  rehabilitation. 

(4)  Additional  reasons,    courts  martial,  personal 
reliability . 

(5)  There  must  be  strict  compliance  with  MCO  P5300.12, 
regarding  "Chain  of  Custody."     There  are  two  reasons  for  such 
strict  compliance  with  this  order  and  the  legality  of  testing 
premises.   They  are: 

(a)  Protection  of  individual  rights    (which  must  be 
adhered  to  at  all  times) . 

(b)  Continued  program  reliability. 


8-5 


(7)    In  order  to  successfully  prosecute  an  individual 
based  upon  a  urinalysis  result,   a  solid  record  of  the  chain  of 
custody  must  be  established  without  question  from  the  unit  SACO 
to  the  DoD  screening  facility.     Any  questionable  violation  of 
procedure  can  be  grounds  for  acquittal  and  dismissal  of  all 
charges.     Defense  counsels  in  all  cases  of  drug  abuse  will 
regularly  pursue  this  venue  to  attempt  to  discredit  urinalysis 
results . 

Transition .     Now  that  the  drug  violator  has  been  identified, 
we  will  punish  and  separate  the  individual. 

f .  Identification,   punishment,   and  separation. 

(1)  The  Marine  Corps  policy  concerning  drugs  states  that, 
"Distribution,   possession,   or  use  of  illegal  substances  is  not 
tolerated. "     This  policy  is  crystal  clear  in  its  meaning  and 
intent,   and  all  commanders  should  do  their  utmost  to  see  it 
enforced . 

(2)  A  Marine  identified  as  a  trafficker  will  be 
disciplined  to  the  fullest  extent  possible   (remember,  however, 
that  what  constitutes  trafficking  varies  from  state  to  state) . 

If  for  some  reason  punitive  discharge  is  not  awarded,  the  command 
should  administratively  separate  the  offender. 

(3)  Disciplinary  action  and  processing  for  separation  are 
appropriate,    regardless  of  rank. 

(4)  Following  separation,  all  Marines  must  be  provided 
the  address  of  a  local  VA  Hospital  where  they  will  be  afforded 
Level  III  equivalent  rehabilitation  treatment. 

Transition .     Once  a  drug  user  has  been  identified,  the 
following  administrative  action  may  be  taken,    in  addition  to 
punitive  actions,    to  discourage  drug  policy  violators. 

g .  Administrative  action. 

(1)  Denial  of  base  driving  privileges. 

(2)  Eviction  from  government  quarters  for  married 
personnel,    to  include  their  families. 


8-6 


a  BEQ. 


above 


(3)  Unmarried  Marines  may  be  forced  to  move  on  base  into 

(4)  Page  11,    12  13  entry  into  SRB  as  required. 

(5)  CMC  directed/special  fitness  report    (Sergeant  and 

(6)  Expeditious  discharge. 


(7)   When  preventive  education  and  identification  measures 
fail,    the  only  recourse  is  to  pursue  legal  action  to  the  fullest 
extent  possible.     Any  leniency  in  dealing  with  drug  users  sends 
an  improper  message  to  Marines  and  Sailors  in  the  unit. 

Transition .     Now  that  you  have  a  better  understanding  of  the 
policies,   punishments,   and  programs  related  to  the  use  of  illegal 
drugs,    let's  take  a  look  at  an  equally  disturbing  trend  in  the 
services:   alcohol  abuse. 


h .     Alcohol  abuse. 


(1)   Alcohol  abuse  is  any  irresponsible  use  of  alcohol 
that  adversely  affects  individual  or  unit  performance. 
Consumption  alone  does  not  constitute  abuse.     Alcohol  abuse  is 
generally  characterized  by: 


(a)   Violent  crime. 


(b)   Auto  accidents. 


(c)  Spouse/child  abuse. 

(d)  Absenteeism. 

(e)  Aggressive  behavior 

(f)  Irresponsible  acts. 


(2)   Marine  Corps  policy  on  alcohol  abuse,    as  in  the  case 
of  drug  abuse,    is  one  of  zero  tolerance. 


(3)    Prevention  of  alcohol  abuse  in  the  Marine  Corps  is 
the  joint  responsibility  of  both  the  individual  and  the 
supervisor.     All  officers,    SNCOs ,   and  NCOs  must  become  involved. 


8-7 


Once  identified,  the  irresponsible  drinker  must  be  confronted 
and  appropriate  action  taken. 

(4)  Key  elements  of  the  leadership  effort  to  eliminate 
alcohol  abuse  are: 

(a)  Prevention. 

(b)  Timely  identification. 

(c)  Precise  documentation. 

(d)  Effective  treatment. 

(e)  Appropriate  discipline. 

(f)  Restoration  to  full  duty. 

(g)  Separation  as  appropriate. 

(5)  Enforcement  standards  are  as  follows: 

(a)  No  one  accessed  with  an  alcohol  need. 

(b)  Sub-standard  performance,   misconduct,  and 
incapacity  to  perform  are  not  condoned. 

(c)  Prompt,   appropriate  disciplinary  action  or 
administrative  action  will  result  from  alcohol-related  acts  or 
misconduct . 

(d)  One  year  revocation  of  base  driving  privileges 

for  DWI/DUI. 

(e)  Required  participation  in  organized  education 
treatment  program. 

(f)  Refusal  to  cooperate  with  treatment  is  grounds 
for  separation. 

(6)  The  goals  of  the  Marine  Corps  Alcohol  Abuse  Program 

are : 

(a)  Identification. 


8-8 


(b)  Appropriate  treatment. 

(c)  Restoration  to  full  duty. 

(7)  Prevention  and  detection  measures  used  are: 

(a)  Identify  abusers. 

(b)  Health  and  welfare  inspections. 

(c)  Random  vehicle  check  points. 

(d)  Unit  commanders  formally  counsel  alcohol  abusers. 

(e)  De-glamorize  alcohol. 

(8)  As  leaders,    the  best  place  to  start  is  by 
deglamorizing  alcohol  and  minimizing  the  importance  it  holds 
among  Marines.     Practices  which  tend  to  encourage  or  glamorize 
the  use  of  alcohol  must  be  avoided. 

(9)  When  throwing  parties  within  your  command,  provide 
sodas  and  other  non-alcoholic  beverages,   as  well  as  beer.  Teach 
and  encourage  Marines  to  realize  that  it  is  all  right  not  to  be 
heavy  drinkers  or  even  to  drink  at  all.     Discourage  beer  chugging 
contests  or  slamming  down  shots  of  alcohol.     Officers  and  SNCOs 
should  set  a  good  example  at  these  functions  by  demonstrating 
responsible  consumption  of  alcohol .     Show  Marines  that  they  can 
have  a  good  time  without  becoming  grossly  intoxicated.  Dispel 
notions  that   "hard-drinking"  means  "hard-charging." 

(10)  Commanders  should  also  institute  policies  which 
support  the  responsible  consumption  of  alcohol.     Such  policies 
may  include  designated  drivers,   buddy  system  on  liberty,  a 
responsible  limit  for  officers  and  SNCOs  at  command  sponsored 
functions.     While  on  ship's  liberty,    officers  and  SNCOs  should 
send  Marines  and  Sailors  back  to  the  ship  when  they  are  found 
drinking  irresponsibly.     Units  in  Camp  Lejeune  recently 
instituted  a  Cab  Chit  where  drunk  Marines  and  Sailors  could 
produce  a  laminated  chit  that  would  direct  a  cab  to  deliver  the 
member  to  the  unit's  OOD.     The  OOD  pays  the  cab  out  of  a  unit 
fund  and  the  Marine  must  pay  the  money  back  on  the  following 
workday. 


8-9 


(11)   Alcohol  abusers  will  be  held  accountable  for  their 
actions.     Alcohol  is  never  a  rationale  for  inappropriate  conduct. 
Your  Marines  must  understand  that  once  they  have  consumed  a 
single  beer,   all  of  their  decisions  and  actions  are  alcohol- 
related.     Educate  them  to  choose  their  drinking  environment 
carefully.     Almost  all  Marine  Corps  bases  regularly  screen  all 
drivers  coming  through  gates  after  a  certain  hour  on  weekends . 
Any  slight  smell  of  alcohol  on  a  driver's  breath  usually  results 
in  a  trip  to  the  military  police  station  and  a  ticket  for  DUI . 

Transition .     The  Corps  wants  to  help  Marines  with  substance 
abuse  problems  and  aggressively  promotes  several  programs  that 
are  effective  in  rehabilitating  alcohol  abusers  and  returning 
them  to  their  units  as  productive  members. 

i .     Rehabilitation  Programs. 

(1)  Level  I:     Unit  programs  conducted  at  regiment,  group, 
squadron,   separate  battalion  level,   and  at  barracks. 

(a)  Unit  commanders  are  responsible  for  running  the 
program  at  this  level,   assisted  by  the  unit  SACO.     The  program 
provides  command  counseling,   basic  alcohol/alcoholism  preventive 
education,   discipline,   and  rudimentary  screening  for  the  first- 
time  non-dependent  abuser. 

(b)  Leaders  must  supervise  their  Marines'  attendance 
and  ask  Marines  who  attend  about  the  caliber  of  instruction  to 
ensure  its  effectiveness. 

(c)  After  Level  I  rudimentary  screening,   a  decision 
is  made  as  to  whether  or  not  the  Marine  needs  additional  help. 
Suspected  substance  dependent  Marines  should  be  sent  to  Level  II 
for  evaluation  and  follow-on  medical  diagnosis. 

(2)  Level  II  treatment  is  conducted  at  division,  wing, 
FSSG,   base,    station,   and  depot  level.     It  provides  in-depth 
screening  and  evaluation  for  possible  alcohol  dependency  and 
out-patient,    or  short  term  treatment  for  non-dependent  abusers 
who  fail  to  benefit  from  Level  I  or  who  exceed  the  capabilities 
of  the  Level  I  program. 

(a)   Level  II.     The  Marine's  treatment  is  now  the 
responsibility  of  the  commanding  general  and  commanding  officers 
of  the  command.     Once  again,   attendance  must  be  supervised. 


8-10 


Failure  to  attend  will  result  in  a  phone  call  from  the  CG ' s 
staff  to  your  battalion  commander,   which  will  almost  certainly 
trickle  downhill  to  your  level.      "Training  in  the  field"  does  not 
justify  non-attendance. 

(b)  Level  II  is  ordinarily  out-patient  care  not  to 
exceed  14  days  or  in-patient  not  to  exceed  30  days.     Results  of 
the  medical  evaluation  prior  to  admission  may  determine  a 
patient's  requirement  for  either  in-patient  or  out-patient  care. 

(c)  Level  II  treatment  consists  of  an  in-depth 
screening  and  evaluation  for  possible  substance  dependency.  If 
it  is  determined  during  the  course  of  treatment  at  Level  II  that 
a  dependency  exists,    the  patient  will  be  entered  into  the  Level 
III  program  as  soon  as  a  bed  space  becomes  available.  As 
openings  are  limited,    it  can  sometimes  be  several  weeks  before  a 
Marine  begins  treatment . 

(3)  Level  III  Navy  Residential  Treatment  Programs  are: 

(a)  Navy  Alcohol  Rehabilitation  Services    (ARS) . 

(b)  Navy  Rehabilitation  Centers    (NRC) . 

(c)  Navy  Drug  Rehabilitation  Centers    (NDRC) . 

(4)  Upon  completion  of  Level  II  or  Level  III,  Marines 
will  be  entered  into  a  180  day  follow-up  program.  These 
follow-up  programs  consist  of: 

(a)  Commanding  officer  interview  within  one  week  of 
completion  of  treatment  where  the  commander  will: 

[1]   Discuss  recommendations  of  treatment 

facility . 

[2]   Discuss  follow  up  programs. 

[3]   Advise  Marine  of  performance  and  conduct 
(both  expected  and  at  intervals  during  follow-up  program) . 

(b)  Counseling  and  participation  in  a  follow-up 
program  that  will  help  encourage  Marines  to  avoid  alcohol. 


8-11 


(5)   Relapse.     Relapse  is  expected,  but  if  during  the 
relapse  the  Marine  violates  the  UCMJ,   he/she  will  be  held 
accountable  for  his  or  her  actions.     If  the  Marine  makes  little 
attempt  to  remain  alcohol  free  following  treatment,  then 
administrative  separation  will  occur.     Leaders  should  recognize 
the  danger  of  relapse  and  show  an  active  interest  in  the  progress 
of  Marines  attempting  to  kick  an  alcohol  habit.     This  can  be 
especially  difficult  considering  the  prevalence  of  alcohol  around 
military  crowds. 

Transition .     During  this  portion  of  the  class,    introduce  a 
progressive  scenario  which  allows  decisions  at  various  stages  of 
the  scenario. 

j.     You  have  a  Marine  by  the  name  of  Corporal  Hansen.  His 
last  proficiency/conduct  marks  were  the  highest  you  recommended 
in  the  platoon  -4.9/5.0.     He  is  presently  serving  in  a 
sergeant's  billet  and  seems  to  possess  the  knowledge  and  maturity 
required  for  that  billet. 

(1)   You  notice  in  the  battalion  OOD  logbook  that  he  was 
logged  in  for  arguing  with  another  corporal  at  the  NCO  club  that 
resulted  in  a  shoving  match.     The  incident  was  eventually  broken 
up  by  the  NCO  club  manager.     Corporal  Hansen  had  three  beers 
prior  to  the  incident.     Choose  one  of  the  following  courses  of 
action : 

(a)  Do  nothing.     Ignore  the  situation. 

(b)  Call  in  Corporal  Hansen  and  give  a  verbal 

counseling . 

(c)  Call  in  Corporal  Hansen  and  log  in  your  verbal 
counseling  guidance  in  your  platoon  commander  notebook. 

(d)  Produce  a  written  counseling  sheet  which  includes 
specifics  of  the  incident,  consequences  of  further  incidents,  and 
guidance  for  the  future. 

(e)  Make  an  administrative  entry  on  page  11  of  the 
Marines'    SRB . 

(f)  Send  Corporal  Hansen  to  Level  I  for  evaluation 
after  written  counseling. 


8-12 


(2)  Two  months  pass  and  Corporal  Hansen  applies  for  the 
Marine  Security  Guard  Program,  a  highly  competitive  program  for 
Marines  to  serve  in  American  Embassies  and  Consulates  worldwide. 

(a)  If  you  chose  A,   B,   C,    or  D  above,   Corporal  Hansen 
will  be  accepted  into  the  program. 

(b)  Option  E  requires  a  waiver  from  the  Battalion 
Commander  stating  that  the  Marine  is  highly  qualified.     You  vouch 
for  the  Marine's  character  and  explain  the  page  11  entry. 

(c)  If  you  chose  option  F,   Corporal  Hansen  will  be 
found  not  eligible  for  the  MSG  program  based  upon  Level  I 
treatment . 

(3)  Three  months  pass  and  you  have  deployed  to  Okinawa, 
Japan.     After  a  month  on  the  island,   Corporal  Hansen  gets  into  a 
fight  with  a  corporal  assigned  to  the  "ville"  patrol.  Corporal 
Hansen  had  eight  beers  prior  to  the  fight.     Make  the  same  choices 
(A  -  F)   available.     Once  choice  is  made,    read  the  following: 

(4)  Your  company  commander  has  referred  Corporal  Hansen 
to  battalion  commander's  NJP  for  fighting.     If  you  chose  after 
the  first  incident : 

(a)  A  or  B,    the  battalion  CO  brings  you  into  NJP  to 
ask  you  about  Corporal  Hansen's  past  performance.     You  bring  up 
the  prior  incident,   however  ,   you  are  unprepared  to  provide 
details . 

(b)  C,   you  can  provide  some  detail  to  the  battalion 

commander . 

(c)  D  or  E,   you  provide  exactly  the  information  that 
the  battalion  CO  needs  to  determine  punishment,   but  the  battalion 
CO  asks  why  Corporal  Hansen  wasn't  sent  to  Level  I  upon  the  first 
incident . 

(d)  F,   battalion  commander  compliments  you  on  sending 
him  to  Level  I  treatment  upon  the  first  incident  -  OR  -  asks  you 
why  you  didn't  send  him  upon  first  incident  which  was  alcohol 
related . 

(5)  For  those  who  chose  not  to  send  Corporal  Hansen  to 
Level  I  upon  first  alcohol  related  incident,    the  scenario 
continues.     Corporal  Hansen  was  sent  to  Level  II  and  subsequently 


8-13 


to  Level  III.     He  was  treated  for  his  alcoholism  which  did  not 
relapse.     Corporal  Hansen  was  discharged  at  the  end  of  his  5  year 
service  contract  because  he  was  no  longer  competitive  with  the 
Battalion  Commander's  NJP  on  his  record. 

(6)   For  those  sending  Corporal  Hansen  to  Level  I 
immediately:     Corporal  Hansen  was  not  accepted  into  the  MSG 
program,   but  reenlisted  after  a  complete  recovery  at  Level  III 
and  continues  his  stellar  performance. 

6.  Appendices .     Not  applicable. 


8-14 


9 


< 


I 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

SEXUAL  HARASSMENT 

1.  Introduction .     All  Marines  share  responsibility  for 
maintaining  the  proper  environment  of  mutual  respect  and 
confidence  within  their  units.     Teamwork,    esprit  de  corps,  and 
identity  with  a  common  purpose  are  the  key  aspects  which  make  our 
Marine  Corps  what  it  is  today;   a  proud,   effective  military  force. 
Sexual  harassment  is  one  type  of  discriminatory  behavior  that 
erodes  morale  and  discipline  and  is  capable  of  destroying  unit 
readiness . 

2.  Overview.  The  purpose  of  this  discussion  is  to  understand  the 
problems  of  sexual  harassment  to  include: 

a.  The  nature  of  sexual  harassment. 

b.  Marine  Corps  policy  concerning  sexual  harassment. 

c.  How  to  deal  with  sexual  harassment. 

3 .  References 

DoD  Directive  1350.2 

SECNAVINST  5300.26 

MCO  5300. 10A 

MCO  P5354.KC) 

Manual  for  Courts  Martial 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.  Sexual  harassment  is  a  form  of  discriminatory  behavior 
that  erodes  morale  and  discipline  and,    if  not  eliminated,  can 
have  an  adverse  effect  on  mission  readiness.     The  Secretary  of 
Defense  has  issued  policy  guidance  which  defines  sexual 
harassment  and  emphasizes  the  Department's  policy  that  sexual 
harassment  will  not  be  condoned  or  tolerated. 

b.  The  Marine  Corps  policy  on  sexual  harassment  is  based 
upon  the  references.     Sexual  harassment  is  unacceptable  behavior 
for  military  or  civilian  personnel.     Such  behavior  will  be  dealt 


9-1 


with  immediately  through  the  leadership/ supervisory  structures 
of  the  Marine  Corps,    to  include  the  Uniform  Code  of  Military 
Justice . 


(1)   Before  we  begin  our  discussion,    let's  define  sexual 
harassment . 


(a)    Sexual  harassment  is  a  form  of  sex  discrimination 
that  involves  unwelcomed  sexual  advances,    requests  for  sexual 
favors,   and  other  verbal  or  physical  conduct  or  a  sexual  nature 
when : 


[1]    submission  to  or  rejection  of  such  conduct  is 
made  either  explicitly  or  implicitly  a  term  or  condition  of  a 
person's  job,  pay,   career,  or 

[2]    submission  to  or  rejection  of  such  conduct  by 
a  person  is  used  as  a  basis  for  career  or  employment  decisions 
affecting  that  person,  or 

[3]    such  conduct  interferes  with  an  individual's 
performance  or  creates  an  intimidating,   hostile,   or  offensive 
environment . 


(b)   This  definition  emphasizes  that  workplace 
conduct,    to  be  actionable  as   "abusive  work  environment" 
harassment,   need  not  result  in  concrete  psychological  harm  to  the 
victim,   but  rather  need  only  be  so  severe  or  pervasive  that  a 
reasonable  person  would  perceive,   and  the  victim  does  perceive, 
the  work  environment  as  hostile  or  abusive.      {Note:  "workplace" 
is  an  expansive  term  for  military  members  and  may  include  conduct 
on  or  off  duty,    24  hours  a  day} . 


(c)   Any  person  in  a  supervisory  or  command  position 
who  uses  or  condones  any  form  of  sexual  behavior  to  control, 
influence,    or  affect  the  career,   pay,    or  job  of  a  military  member 
or  civilian  employee  is  engaging  in  sexual  harassment. 
Similarly,   any  military  member  or  civilian  employee  who  makes 
deliberate  or  repeated  unwelcomed  verbal  comments,   gestures,  or 
physical  contact  of  a  sexual  nature  in  the  workplace  is  also 
engaging  in  sexual  harassment. 

(2)   To  ensure  an  understanding  of  the  definition,  let's 
discuss  the  key  terms.     Have  the  group  discuss  each  key  term 
individual ly . 


9-2 


(a)  Career  or  employment  decisions.  The  decision 
must  concern  some  aspect  of  the  employment,  career,  pay,  duty 
assignment,   benefits,   or  privileges  of  another. 


(b)  Condition.     To  make  some  aspect  of  another's 
employment,   career,   pay,   duty  assignment,   benefits,   or  privileges 
contingent  upon  fulfillment  of  some  requirement  the  maker  thereof 
has  no  right  to  impose. 

(c)  Discrimination.     For  purposes  of  this 
instruction,   discrimination  means  the  illegal  treatment  of  a 
person  or  group  based  on  handicap,    race,    color,   national  origin, 
age,   religion,   or  sex.     Sex  discrimination  refers  to  the  practice 
of  wrongfully  treating  men  and  women  differently  in  the 
workplace,    solely  because  of  their  sex.     The  Supreme  Court  has 
held  that  sexual  harassment  of  both  men  and  women  is  a  form  of 
sex  discrimination. 

(d)  Hostile  environment.     A  type  of  sexual  harassment 
that  occurs  when  the  unwelcome  sexual  behavior  of  one  or  more 
persons  in  a  workplace  produces  a  work  atmosphere  which  is 
offensive,    intimidating,    or  abusive  to  another  person  using  the 
reasonable  standard. 

(e)  "Quid  Pro  Quo"  or  "this  for  that."     A  type  of 
sexual  harassment  that  occurs  when  submitting  to  or  rejecting 
such  behavior  is  used  as  a  basis  for  decisions  affecting  any 
person's  employment,    job,   pay,    or  career.     This  could  be  a 
promise  of  employment,   a  promotion,   a  threat  of  or  an  actual 
demotion,   a  duty  assignment,    or  a  positive  or  negative 
performance  evaluation. 

(f)  Reasonable  person  standard.     An  objective  test 
used  to  determine  if  behavior  constitutes  sexual  harassment. 
This  standard  considers  what  a  reasonable  person's  reaction  would 
have  been  under  similar  circumstances  and  in  a  similar 
environment.     The  reasonable  person  standard  considers  the 
recipient's  perspective  and  not  stereotyped  notions  of  acceptable 
behavior.     For  example,   a  work  environment  in  which  sexual  slurs, 
the  display  of  sexually  suggestive  calendars,   or  other  offensive 
sexual  behavior  abound  can  constitute  sexual  harassment  even  if 
other  people  might  deem  it  to  be  harmless  or  insignificant. 

(g)  Recipient.     Anyone  subjected  to  sexual  harassment 
as  defined  in  this  instruction. 


9-3 


(h)  Reprisal.     The  wrongful  threatening  or  taking  of 
either  unfavorable  action  against  another  or  withholding 
favorable  action  from  another  solely  in  response  to  a  report  of 
sexual  harassment  or  violations  of  this  instruction. 

(i)  Severe  or  pervasive.     These  terms  derive  their 
meaning  in  the  context  of  the  conduct  engaged  in  and  the 
surrounding  facts  and  circumstances.     Obvious  examples  of  severe 
conduct  include  indecent  assaults  or  offensive  requests  for 
sexual  favors.     Pervasive  conduct  is  that  which  is  repeated  or 
widespread,   or  evidences  a  pattern. 

(j)   Sexual  favors.     Sexual  privileges  that  are 
granted  or  conceded  in  the  work  environment. 

(k)    Sexual  nature.     Conduct  that  a  reasonable  person 
would  find  sexual  in  nature  in  light  of  the  relevant  facts  and 
circumstances.     Behavior  does  not  need  to  be  overtly  sexual  if  it 
creates  an  offensive  work  environment.     Examples  include  but  are 
not  limited  to  sexist  remarks  or  slurs,    sexual  advances,  displays 
of  pornographic  material,    touching,    language,  gestures, 
mannerisms,   and  similar  behavior. 

(1)   Unwelcome  advances.     Conduct  that  is  not 
solicited  and  which  is  considered  objectionable  by  the  person  to 
whom  it  is  directed  and  which  is  found  to  be  undesirable  or 
offensive  using  a  reasonable  person  standard. 

(m)   Work  environment.     The  workplace  or  any  other 
place  that  is  work-connected,   as  well  as  the  conditions  or 
atmosphere  under  which  people  are  required  to  work.  (An 
expansive  term  for  military  members  and  may  include  conduct  on  or 
off  duty,    24  hours  a  day. ) 

(3)   Refer  back  to  the  definition  and  have  the  group 
discuss  the  two  types  of  sexual  harassment. 

(a)  Subparagraphs  1  and  2  of  the  definition  are  " quid 
pro  quo "   sexual  harassment.     A  violation  of  these  paragraphs 
means  a  person  had  made  an  employment  decision  based  on  whether  a 
person  submitted  or  refused  to  summit  to  sexual  advances, 
requests  for  sexual  favors,   or  other  conduct  of  a  sexual  nature. 

(b)  Subparagraph  3  is  referring  to  creating  an 
intimidating,   hostile,    or  offensive  work  environment.     This  type 
of  harassment  interferes  with  the  individual's  work  performance. 


9-4 


(4)   Discuss  the  three  types  of  sexual  harassment  and  have 
the  group  give  examples. 

(a)  Verbal  Sexual  Harassment.     Requires  conscious 
effort,    such  as: 

[1]  Whistling  or  making  cat  calls  at  someone. 

[2]  Sexual  comments  about  clothing  or  body. 

[3]  Personal  sexual  questions. 

[4]  Telling  jokes  or  stories. 

[5]  Turning  discussions  into  sexual  topics. 

[6]  Using  sexual  connotations  or  innuendoes. 

[7]   Telling  lies  or  spreading  rumors  about  a 
person's  personal  sex  life. 

(b)  Nonverbal  sexual  harassment.     Like  verbal 
behaviors,   nonverbal  behaviors  that  constitute  sexual  harassment 
take  on  many  forms.     Some  examples  are: 

[1]     Paying  unwanted  attention  to  someone  by 
staring  at  their  body. 

[2]   Displaying  sexually  suggestive  visuals 
(centerfolds,   calendars,    cartoons,  etc.). 

[3]   Ashtrays,    coffee  cups,    figurines,   and  other 
items  depicting  sexual  parts  of  the  anatomy  through  actuality  or 
innuendo . 

[4]    Sexually  oriented  entertainment  in 
organizations,   base  facilities,   or  officially  sanctioned 
functions . 

[5]   Making  sexually  suggestive  gestures  with 
hands  or  through  body  movement    (blowing  kisses,    licking  lips, 
winking,    lowering  pants,    raising  skirt,    etc.) . 

(c)  Physical  Sexual  Harassment.     Must  be  unwelcome 
and  of  a  sexual  nature  to  constitute  a  violation  or  policy. 


9-5 


[1]   Hanging  around,    standing  close  to  or  brushing 
against  a  person. 


[2]  Touching  a  person's  clothing,   hair,   or  body. 

[3]  Hugging,   kissing,   patting,    or  stroking. 

[4]  Touching,   pinching,   bumping,   or  cornering. 

[5]  Blocking  a  passageway. 

(5)  Sexual  remarks  from  subtle  hints  to  direct 
propositions  for  sexual  favors  constitute  sexual  harassment  and 
include,   but  are  not  limited  to: 

(a)  Invitations  by  a  senior  to  a  subordinate  to 
lunch,   drinks,   dinner,   having  an  implied   (perceived)   purpose  of 
leading  to  sexual  favors. 

(b)  Threats  from  hints  such  as:    "Your  life  would  be 
easier  here  if  you  were  friendlier,"   to  blunt  statements:    "If  you 
want  that  training  or  assignment,   maybe  we'd  better  get  to  know 
each  other  better  this  evening." 

(6)  What  is  the  Marine  Corps  policy  on  sexual  harassment? 

Sexual  harassment,   as  defined  above,    is  unacceptable 
behavior  for  military  or  civilian  personnel.     Such  behavior  will 
be  dealt  with  immediately  through  the  leadership/ supervisory 
structures  of  the  Marine  Corps,    to  include  the  Uniform  Code  of 
Military  Justice.     Leaders  and  supervisors  have  a  responsibility 
to  create  an  environment  of  mutual  respect  in  which  all  personnel 
can  work  toward  mission  accomplishment. 

(7)  What  is  the  responsibility  of  the  commander?  (Have 
the  group  discuss  the  commander's  responsibility  and  the  type  of 
sexual  harassment  training  received  in  their  unit.) 

(a)  One  of  the  responsibilities  of  all  commanders  is 
to  ensure  the  contents  of  MCO  5300. 10A  are  brought  to  the 
attention  of  all  military  members  and  civilian  employees. 

(b)  Another  responsibility  of  the  commander  is  to 
conduct  training  to  promote  an  understanding  of  sexual  harassment 
and  its  potential  adverse  impact  on  mission  readiness. 


i 

9-6 


(8)   Have  the  group  discuss  the  responsibility  of  the 
individual  Marine. 


Every  Marine  shares  responsibility  for  maintaining 
proper  behavior  with  one  another  so  that  everyone  can  contribute 
their  best  efforts  to  the  accomplishment  of  the  unit  mission. 

(9)   Discuss  the  responsibilities  of  the  leader  in  the 
event  of  a  sexual  harassment  situation. 

(a)  The  leader  must  take  some  form  of  action.  The 
action  taken  will  be  appropriate  for  the  individual  situation. 

(b)  Inform  the  chain  of  command,    if  appropriate. 

(c)  It  may  be  possible  to  refer  parties  involved  to 
support  services,    such  as: 

[1]  Legal  Office 

[2]  Employee  Employment  Opportunity  Counselor 

(civilians ) 

[3]  Family  Service  Center 

[4]  Medical  Treatment  Facility 

[5]  Chaplains 

[6]  Equal  Opportunity  Advisors 

(d)  Complaints  of  sexual  harassment  will  be  dealt 
with  by  the  leader  in  the  same  manner  as  any  complaint  of 
violation  of  the  UCMJ.     It  is  the  responsibility  of  the  leader  to 
maintain  proper  standards  of  behavior  by  all  Marines  in 
accordance  with  the  Marine  Corps '    traditional  requirement  for 
good  order  and  discipline. 

(e)  Most  importantly,    the  leader  is  responsible  for 
ensuring  that  subordinates  do  not  suffer  any  repercussions  for 
reporting  sexual  harassment . 

(f)  Overall,    "PREVENTION"   of  sexual  harassment  is  a 
leadership  responsibility.   Such  behavior  is  degrading  to  the 
individual,   destructive  of  morale,   and  is  punishable  under  the 
Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice. 


9-7 


(10)   Discuss  with  the  group,    the  Informal  Resolution 
System,    (IRS) .     Each  student  should  have  a  copy  of  the  Resolving 
Conflict  pamphlet    (original  copy  or  reproduced)    for  this  portion 
of  the  discussion.      (Resolving  Conflict  pamphlets  can  be  obtained 
for  the  unit  Equal  Opportunity  Advisor's  Training  Information 
Resources  Library,    (TIR) . 

(a)  Discuss  the   "behavior  zones"  of  sexual 

harassment . 

(b)  Also,   have  the  group  discuss  the  responsibilities 

of  the: 

[1]  Recipient 

[2]   Offending  Person 

[3]   Other  Person 


[4]  Supervisor 


(11)   What  is  the  impact  of  sexual  harassment  on  the 
individual? 


a) 

Detachment 

b) 

Denial 

c ) 

Relabeling 

d) 

Avoidance 

e ) 

Affects  their  work  performance 

f ) 

General  psychological  well  being 

g) 

Physical  health 

(12)    "The  only  reason  the  United  States  of  America  needs  a 
Marine  Corps  is  to  fight  and  win  wars.     Everything  else  is 
secondary. "     Keep  this  quote  in  mind  from  Leading  Marines 
(FMFM1-0)   when  discussing  the  impact  that  sexual  harassment  has 
on  the  mission. 


(a)   Low  morale . 


9-8 


(b)  Loss  of  cohesion. 

(c)  Undermines  readiness  and  interpersonal  work 
relationship ' s . 

(d)  Detracts  from  the  mission. 

(13)  The  best  way  to  prevent  sexual  harassment  is  to  stop 
it  before  it  occurs.  Have  the  group  discuss  "proactive"  ways  to 
prevent  sexual  harassment. 

(a)  Conduct  training. 

(b)  Talk  about  situations. 

(c)  Outline  policies. 

(d)  Use  the  Training  Information  Resource  Library 


tir: 


e)   Use  bulletin  boards  to  post  regulations  and 


policies . 

6 .     Appendices . 

Appendix  A:     Extracts  from  The  Uniform  Code  of  Military 
Justice 


9-9 


APPENDIX  A 

THE  UNIFORM  CODE  OF  MILITARY  JUSTICE  (UCMJ) 
SEXUAL  HARASSMENT 


The  discussion  leader  may  find  it  useful  at  this  point  to 
utilize  the  following  chart  showing  types  of  sexual  harassment 
and  the  appropriate  violation  of  the  UCMJ  which  relates  to  the 
conduct.     Select  a  few  sample  behaviors  previously  mentioned  and 
ask  the  members  if  they  can  identify  whether  the  behavior  is  an 
offense  punishable  under  the  UCMJ;   if  so,    can  they  identify  the 
article.     The  impact  of  this  exercise  should  be  immediately 
apparent  as  the  discussion  members  begin  to  realize  the 
seriousness  of  this  type  of  conduct. 

UNIFORM  CODE  OF  MILITARY  JUSTICE  ARTICLES  RELATING  TO 

SEXUAL  HARASSMENT 


If  The  Sexual 
Harasser : 

Influences  or  offers 
to  influence  the 
career,   salary  or  job 
of  another  in  exchange 
for  sexual  favors 


He/She  May  Be  found 
Guilty  Of:  

Extortion 


In  Violation  of 
UCMJ  Article: 

Article  127 


Makes  threats  to 
elicit  sexual  favors 


Communicating  a 
threat 


Article  134 


Offers  rewards  for  or 
demands  for  sexual 
favors 


Bribery  and  graft 


Article  134 


Makes  sexual  comments 


Indecent,  insulting 
or  obscene  language 
or  conduct  prejudicial 
to  good  order  and 
discipline 


Article  134 


9-10 


Makes  sexual  comments 


Provoking  speech  or  Articles  89 
gestures  or  disrespect  91,   and  117 


Makes  sexual  contact 


Engages  in  sexual 
harassment  to  the 
detriment  of  job 
performance 

Is  an  officer 


Is  Commanding  Officer 


Assault 

Assault  &  Battery 

Indecent  liberties 
with  a  female 

Rape 

Dereliction  of  duty 


Article  128 
Article  128 
Article  134 

Article  120 
Article  92 


Conducting  unbecoming  Article  13  3 
an  officer 

Wrong  committed  by  the  Article  13  8 
Commanding  Officer 


9-11 


I 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY 

1.  Introduction .  You  will  discuss  and  review  the  Marine  Corps' 
Equal  Opportunity  Program  to  gain  insight  into  ways  of  enhancing 
Marine  Corps  unity,    efficiency,   and  mission  readiness. 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  instruction  is  to  understand 
the  Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  Program  to  include: 

a.  Marine  Corps'   equal  opportunity  policy. 

b.  The  scope  and  objectives  of  the  Marine  Corps  Equal 
Opportunity  Program. 

c     The  role  of  the  Equal  Opportunity  Advisor 

3 .  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
the  Marine  Corps'   equal  opportunity  program. 

DoD  Directive  1350.2 

DoD  Human  Goals  Charter 

SECNAVINST  53  0  0.2  6B 

MCO  P5354.1C 

Marine  Corps  Manual 

FMFM  1-0,   Leading  Marines 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.  As  the  discussion  leader,   you  should  be  familiar  with  the 
MCO  P5354.1C. 

b.  Appendices  should  be  distributed  and  read  by  the  group 
prior  to  discussion. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.     This  discussion  topic  is  recognized  as  a  contemporary 
leadership  issue.     All  Marines  should  understand  that  adherence 
to  our  basic  leadership  traits  and  principles  provides  for  the 
fundamentals  that  equal  opportunity  addresses.     We  also  must 
recognize  that  discrimination  based  upon  race,   color,  religion, 


10-1 


gender,   age,    or  national  origin,   consistent  with  the  law  and 
regulations  and  the  requirements  for  physical  and  mental 
abilities  are  alien  to  the  basic  values  of  the  Marine  Corps.  The 
Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  Program  is  one  method  of 
"personnel  preventive  maintenance." 

(1)   This  discussion  guide  is  just  that,   a  guide,   and  is 
not  meant  to  be  the  "end-all"  of  leadership  instruction  on  the 
subject.     However,    it  does  provide  basic  information  and  areas  of 
concern  within  the  Marine  Corps.     As  the  leader  in  a  unit,    it  is 
your  responsibility  to  be  aware  of  what  your  unit  needs  most. 
Therefore,   you  must  evaluate,   modify,   and/ or  expand  on  what  needs 
to  be  emphasized. 

b.  The  Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  policy  is  based  upon 
DoD  Directive  13  50.2,    the  Department  of  Defense  Military  Equal 
Opportunity  Program  and  the  Department  of  Defense  Human  Goals 
Charter.     Provide  a  few  moments  for  everyone  to  read  Annex  A. 

(1)  How  many  of  you  have  read  that  before? 

(2)  What  do  you  think  of  it?      (Pause  for  responses  and 
try  to  get  discussion  going.) 

c.  Having  read  the  DoD  Human  Goals  Charter,   we  readily 
recognize  that  leaders  must  translate  these  goals  into  positive 
actions . 

(1)  How  can  we  accomplish  that? 

(2)  One  way  of  accomplishing  this  is  through  conducting 
leadership  training  that  promotes  harmonious  interactions  among 
Marines  across  barriers  of  race,   ethnic  group,   grade,   age  and 
gender  and  that  provides  fair  treatment  for  all  Marines. 

d.  Though  there  are  Equal  Opportunity  Advisors  in  the  Marine 
Corps,    our  philosophy  of  leadership  incorporates  and  emphasizes 
good  relations  and  equal  opportunity.     To  this  end,    the  leader  of 
Marines  must  take  an  active  and  visible  role  in  the  support  of 
the  equal  opportunity  program. 

(1)   Define  and  analyze  equal  opportunity. 

(a)   Distribute  appendices  B  and  C.     Provide  a  few 
moments  for  everyone  to  read  the  policy   (paragraph  0003)  in 
appendix  B,    or  read  it  to  them. 


10-2 


(b)  In  your  own  words,   what  does  equal  opportunity 
(EO)   mean?      (List  the  one-word  or  two-word  responses  on  a 
chalkboard. ) 

(c)  It  means  every  Marine  will  be  treated  fairly  and 
equally,   and  have  equality  of  opportunity  regardless  of  race, 
color,   religion,   gender,   age,   or  national  origin.       Treat  all 
Marines  with  respect  and  recognize  their  aspirations,   needs  and 
capabilities . 

(d)  This  is  a  very  basic  principle  of  leadership; 
know  your  Marines  and  look  out  for  their  welfare.     The  leader 
must  concern  himself /herself  with  the  human  needs  (food, 
clothing,   housing,   recreation,   education,   and  a  chance  for 
advancement)   of  their  Marines.     A  leader  must  encourage 
individual  development  and  self -improvement .     Perhaps  most 
importantly,   a  leader  must  ensure  that  channels  of  communication 
are  kept  open. 

(2)   Discuss  the  Marine  Corps'    equal  opportunity  policy. 

(a)   Equal  Opportunity  is  embodied  in  the  basic 
philosophy  of  Marine  Corps  leadership.     Accordingly,  paragraph 
1100  of  the  Marine  Corps  Manual  provides  the  following  standards 
to  be  maintained  by  leaders .      (As  discussion  leader  you  can 
discuss  these  five  standards  individually  or  list  them  first  and 
then  go  back  to  solicit  feedback  from  the  group.) 

[1]    Strive  for  forceful  and  competent  leadership 
throughout  the  entire  organization. 

[2]    Inform  the  troops  of  plans  of  action  and 
reasons  whenever  it  is  possible  and  practical  to  do  so. 

[3]   Endeavor  to  remove  on  all  occasions  those 
causes  which  make  for  misunderstanding  or  dissatisfaction. 

[4]  Assure  that  all  members  of  the  command  are 
acquainted  with  procedures  for  registering  complaints,  and  the 
process  of  action  taken  thereafter. 

[5]   Build  a  feeling  of  confidence  which  will 
ensure  the  free  approach  by  subordinates  for  advice  and 
assistance  not  only  in  military  matters,   but  for  personal 
problems  as  well. 


10-3 


(3)  Discuss  the  objectives  of  the  Marine  Corps'  Equal 
opportunity  Program   (EOP) . 

(a)  The  primary  objective  of  the  Marine  Corps'   EOP  is 
to  integrate  equal  opportunity  into  every  aspect  of  Marine  Corps 
life. 

(b)  To  understand  the  effects  of  past  discriminatory 
practices  in  order  to  formulate  specific  equal  opportunity 
objectives  and  to  initiate  affirmative  actions  to  eliminate 
existing  deficiencies. 

(c)  To  identify,   eliminate,   correct,   or  prevent 
adverse  or  illegal  institutional  and  individual  discriminatory 
practices . 

(d)  To  promote  harmonious  relationships  among  Marines 
through  the  elimination  of  prejudice  and  harassment. 

(e)  To  ensure  the  opportunity  and  encouragement  for 
personal  and  professional  advancement  of  individual  Marines 
without  regard  to  age,    race,    color,   religion,   gender,    or  national 
origin . 

(4)  Discuss  the  scope  of  the  Marine  Corps'  Equal 
Opportunity  Program   (EOP) . 

(a)  The  EOP  operates  through  and  impacts  upon  all 
existing  programs  and  actions  within  every  aspect  of  command. 
The  commander  must  ensure  that  equal  opportunity  is  applied  in 
every  command  policy,   action,   and  program. 

(b)  In  keeping  with  the  Marine  Corps  leadership 
philosophy,    the  responsibility  for  accomplishing  equal 
opportunity  goals  is  not  dependent  on  authority  and  is  not  the 
function  of  any  special  staff  officer.     Rather,   all  Marines  are 
expected  to  exert  proper  leadership  by  promoting  harmonious 
interactions  among  individuals,    regardless  of  age,   race,  color, 
religion,   gender,    or  national  origin,   by  exemplifying  fair 
treatment  for  all  Marines,   and  identifying  unfair  practices  to 
higher  authority  via  the  chain  of  command. 

(c)  Using  your  own  words,   what  is  the  Equal 
Opportunity  Program? 


10-4 


It  is  the  combination  of  actions  used  to  achieve 
equal  opportunity. 

(d)  What  is  Affirmative  Action? 

Methods  used  to  achieve  the  objectives  of  the  EO 
program.     Processes,   activities,   and  systems  designed  to  prevent, 
identify,   and  eliminate  unlawful  discriminatory  treatment  as  it 
affects  the  recruitment,    training,   assignment,  utilization, 
promotion,   and  retention  of  military  personnel. 

(e)  What  is  the  Affirmative  Action  Program   (AAP) ? 

[1]   A  management  document  consisting  of 
formalized  affirmative  actions  with  quantifiable  goals  and 
milestones,   used  to  bring  about  the  accomplishment  of  equal 
opportunity  program  objectives. 

(5)  Discuss  contemporary  issues  affecting  equal 
opportunity.    (Use  local  newspapers,   Navy  Times    (Marine  Corps 
Edition),    or  local  libraries.) 

(6)  What  issues  of  EO  must  you  be  concerned  with? 

This  part  of  the  discussion  may  center  around 
prejudices  and  discrimination.     Make  sure  the  group  members  know 
the  definitions  before  you  discuss  this. 

(7)  How  can  a  prejudicial  attitude  affect  EO?     If  the 
prejudicial  attitude  is  displayed  through  the  individual's 
behavior,    that  prejudicial  attitude  could  affect  EO .   The  five 
levels  of  intensity  in  acting  out  prejudice  are  listed  below: 

(a)  Antilocution .     Most  people  who  have  prejudices 
talk  about  them. 

(b)  Avoidance.     Prejudice  that  leads  the  individual 
to  avoid  members  of  the  disliked  racial  group,    even  perhaps  at 
the  cost  of  considerable  inconvenience. 

(c)  Discrimation .     Here  the  prejudiced  person  makes 
detrimental  distinctions  of  an  active  sort.     Literally  acting  out 
the  prejudicial  expression. 

(d)  Physical  Attack.     Under  conditions  of  heightened 
emotion,   prejudice  may  lead  to  acts  of  violence  or  semi-violence. 


10-5 


(e)   Extermination.     This  is  the  ultimate  degree  of 
violent  expression  of  prejudice. 


(8)  Can  you  give  examples?  (Discuss  as  appropriate. 
Attempt  to  draw  out  some  examples  that  can  directly  affect  a 
unit . ) 

(9)  Discuss  methods  and  techniques  for  ensuring  equal 
opportunity . 

(a)  Be  proactive.     Emphasize  team  work. 
Discrimination  in  any  form  is  adverse  to  mission  accomplishment, 

(b)  Publicize  Marine  Corps  and  local  command  policy, 
Stress  leadership  accountability. 

(c)  Ensure  all  Marines  are  aware  of  the  avenues  of 
filing  EO  complaints  and  actions  that  will  be  taken  against 
personnel  in  substantiated  cases. 

6 .     Appendices : 

Appendix  A:  DoD  Human  Goals  Charter 

Appendix  B:  Extract  From  Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity 
  Manual 


Appendix  C:  Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  Manual  (Annex  F) 
Appendix  D:  Scenario 


10-6 


APPENDIX  A 


EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY 

DoD  HUMAN  GOALS  CHARTER 

"Our  nation  was  founded  on  the  principle  that  the  individual  has 
infinite  dignity  and  worth. "     The  Department  of  Defense,  which 
exists  to  keep  the  nation  secure  and  at  peace,  must  always  be 
guided  by  this  principle.     In  all  that  we  do,   we  must  show 
respect  for  the  serviceman,    the  service  woman  and  the  civilian 
employee,   recognizing  their  individual  needs,   aspirations  and 
capabilities . 

THE  ATTAINMENT  OF  THESE  GOALS  REQUIRES  THAT  WE  STRIVE 

To  attract  to  the  defense  service  people  with  ability, 
dedication,   and  capacity  for  growth; 

To  provide  opportunity  for  everyone,   military  and  civilian,  to 
rise  to  as  high  a  level  of  responsibility  as  possible,  dependent 
only  on  individual  talent  and  diligence; 

To  make  military  and  civilian  service  in  the  Department  of 
Defense  a  model  of  equal  opportunity  for  all  regardless  of  race, 
color,    sex,   religion  or  national  origin,   and  to  hold  those  who  do 
business  with  the  Department  to  full  compliance  with  the  policy 
of  equal  employment  opportunity; 

To  help  each  service  member  in  leaving  the  service  to  readjust  to 
civilian  life;  and 

To  contribute  to  the  improvement  of  our  society,  including  its 
disadvantaged  members,  by  greater  utilization  of  our  human  and 
physical  resources  while  maintaining  full  effectiveness  in  the 
performance  of  our  primary  mission. 


10-7 


APPENDIX  B 


EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY 


EXTRACT  FROM  MARINE  CORPS  EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY  MANUAL 

0001.     PURPOSE.     The  purpose  of  the  Marine  Corps  Equal 
Opportunity  Manual  is  as  follows: 

1.  To  delineate  and  identify  the  general  concepts,  principles 
and  objectives  of  equal  opportunity. 

2 .  To  provide  guidance  and  instructions  for  the  continued 
implementation  and  management  of  the  Marine  Corps  Equal 
Opportunity  Program. 

3 .  To  provide  implementing  instructions  for  a  Marine  Corps  Equal 
Opportunity  Affirmative  Action  Plan   (AAP) . 

4 .  To  consolidate  the  guidance  for  the  Marine  Corps  Equal 
Opportunity  Program. 

0002.  APPLICABILITY.     The  provisions  of  this  Manual  apply  to 
Marines,   all  other  Armed  Forces  personnel  assigned  to  or  serving 
with  Marine  Corps  units,   civilian  supervisors  of  military 
personnel,    civilian  employees  and  nonappropriated  fund  employees 
providing  services  to  military  personnel.     The  policies  and 
provisions  of  the  Equal  Employment  Opportunity   (EO)  Program 
concerning  civilian  personnel  employed  by  the  Marine  Corps  are 
provided  in  separate  Department  of  the  Navy  EEO  regulations  and 
will  not  be  addressed  in  this  Manual.     The  provisions  of  Chapter 
4,   Equal  Opportunity  in  off -Base  Housing,   are  applicable  to  all 
Department  of  Defense   (DoD)    civilian  personnel,   assigned  to  or 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  Marine  Corps  commands  outside  of  the 
United  States  and  who  live  in  the  civilian  community. 

0003.  POLICY.     The  Marine  Corps  will  provide  equal  opportunity 
for  all  military  members  without  regard  to  race,    color,  religion, 
sex,   age  or  national  origin,    consistent  with  requirements  for 
physical  and  mental  capabilities.     Marines  must  recognize  the 
importance,   dignity,   needs  and  aspirations  of  the  individual. 
There  must  be  a  fully  integrated  Marine  Corps  in  which  all 
personnel  are  striving  for  the  common  goals  of  maintaining  high 
standards  of  discipline,    law  and  order,   and  excellence  in 
performance  of  duty  as  well  as  one  permitting  and  requiring  both 


10-8 


men  and  women  to  exercise  all  professional  and  leadership 
responsibilities  of  their  military  occupational  specialty,  grade 
and  assigned  duties.     Further,    there  is  a  need  for  the 
development  of  each  individual  to  the  highest  degree  of 
responsibility  possible,   dependent  only  upon  individual  talent 
and  diligence.     The  achievement  and  maintenance  of  these  goals  i 
integral  to  full  development  of  the  esprit  de  corps,   pride  and 
individual  readiness  that  are  essential  to  combat  readiness. 
Ensuring  that  fairness  and  equality  of  opportunity  are  extended 
to  all  personnel  in  each  and  every  action  that  affects  the 
individual  Marines  is  an  inherent  function  of  leadership  and  wil 
be  given  appropriate  consideration  in  performance  evaluation. 
Commanders  are  responsible  for  both  military  and  civilian  equal 
opportunity  programs. 


10-9 


APPENDIX  C 


EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY 

MARINE  CORPS  EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY  MANUAL    (Annex  F) 

DEFINITIONS 

1000.     DEFINITIONS.     To  ensure  uniformity     of  understanding  of 
the  terms  that  have  special  significance  and/or  meaning  relative 
to  the  Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  Program  and  the  provisions 
of  the  Manual,    the  following  definitions  are  provided.  (Terms 
that  have  special  meaning  relative  to  specific  chapters  of  this 
Manual  are  defined  in  those  chapters . ) 

1.  Action  Steps.     Task-oriented  steps;  manageable  and  logically 
sequenced  tasks;   the  effort  required  to  achieve  the  objective. 

2.  Affirmative  Action   (AA) .     Any  action  directed  toward  the 
implementation  and  advancement  of  the  concept  of  equal 
opportunity . 

3 .  Affirmative  Action  Plan   (AAP) .     A  management  document 
consisting  of  formalized  affirmative  actions  that  contain 
quantifiable  goals  and  milestones,   utilized  to  create  movement 
towards  the  accomplishment  of  equal  opportunity  program 

obj  ectives . 

4.  Analysis  of  Variance.     Summary  of  specific  problems 
encountered,   actions  taken  during  the  reporting  period  to  counter 
problems,   and  additional  resources  needed  for  goal  achievement. 

5.  Bias .     A  mental  leaning  or  inclination;  partiality; 
prejudice . 

6.  Category .     A  specifically  defined  division  in  a  system  of 
classification . 

7.  Discrimination .  An  act,   policy  or  procedure  that  arbitrarily 
denies  equal  opportunity  because  of  race,   color,   religion,  sex, 
age  or  national  origin  to  an  individual  or  group  of  individuals. 

8.  Equal  Employment  Opportunity   (EEO)    Program.     The  comprehensive 
program  through  which  the  Marine  Corps  implements  its  policy  to 
provide  equal  opportunity  in  employment  for  all  qualified 
civilian  personnel . 


10-10 


9.  Equal  Opportunity.     A  concept  which  requires  that  the 
objectives  of  fair  and  equal  treatment  and  equality  of 
opportunity  for  all  be  applied  to  all  management  functions  and 
leadership  actions . 

10.  Equal  Opportunity  in  Off -Base  Housing.     The  portion  of  the 
Marine  Corps  Equal  Opportunity  Program  that  supports  the 
Department  of  Defense   (DoD)   and  the  Marine  Corps  goal  to 
eliminate  discrimination  against  military  and  DoD  civilian 
personnel  in  off -base  housing  worldwide. 

11.  Equal  Opportunity  Program.     The  cumulative  efforts  and 
actions  of  Marines  to  achieve  equal  opportunity.     These  efforts 
range  from  positive  and  planned  actions  to  attain  stated  equal 
opportunity  objectives,   goals  and/or  milestones  outlined  in  a 
formalized  Affirmative  Action  Plan  to  the  integration  of  equal 
opportunity  considerations  in  to  the  decision  making  process  of 
management  and  command  actions . 

12 .  Ethnic  Group.     A  segment  of  the  population  that  possesses 
common  characteristics  and  a  cultural  or  national  heritage 
significantly  different  from  that  of  the  general  population. 

13.  Human  Relations .     The  social  relations  between  human  beings; 
a  course,    study  or  program  designed  to  develop  better 
interpersonal  and  intergroup  adjustments. 

14.  Individual  Actions .  Voluntary  efforts  by  Marines  to  apply 
their  leadership  training  outside  the  classroom,  beyond  what  is 
normally  expected  of  their  grades  and  duty  assignments. 

15.  Institutional  Discrimination.     Policies,   procedures  and 
practices  which,    intentionally  or  unintentionally,    lead  to 
differential  treatment  of  selected  identifiable  groups,  and 
which,    through  usage  and  custom,   have  attained  official  or 
semi-official  acceptance  in  the  routine  functioning  of  the 
organization/institution . 

16.  Milestones .     Measurements  of  projected  progress  in  terms  of 
quantifiable  values  or  points  in  time  when  a  task  should  be 
accomplished . 

17 .  Minority.  A  group  differing  from  the  predominant  section  of 
a  larger  group  in  one  or  more  characteristics:   e.g.,  ethnic 


10-11 


background,    language,   culture  or  religion,   and  as  a  result  often 
subjected  to  differential  treatment.     Race  and  ethnic  codes  of 
minorities  are  published  in  the  current  edition  of  MCO  P1080.20 
( JUMPS /MMS CODE SMAN) .     For  the  purpose  of  implementing  the 
provisions  of  this  Manual,   minorities  are  specifically  identified 
by  race  and  race  ethnic  code  in  notes  3  through  6  of  figure  3-1. 

18.  Obi ective .     Defines  the  basic  result  desired. 

19.  Prejudice .     The  holding  of  a  judgment  or  opinion  without 
regard  to  pertinent  fact  typically  expressed  in  suspicion,  fear, 
hostility,    or  intolerance  of  certain  people,   customs,   and  ideas. 

20.  Proposed  Corrective  Action.     Identifiable  corrective  plan 
for  the  achievement  of  a  goal. 

21.  Race .     Any  of  the  major  biological  divisions  of  mankind 
distinguished  by  color  and  texture  of  hair,   color  of  skin  and 
eyes,    stature,   bodily  proportions,   or  other  genetically 
transmitted  physical  characteristics. 

22.  Sexual  Harassment.     Influencing,    offering  to  influence,  or 
threatening  the  career,   pay,   or  job  of  another  person  in  exchange 
for  sexual  favors;   or  deliberate  or  repeated  offensive  comments, 
gestures,   or  physical  contact  of  a  sexual  nature  in  a  work  or 
work-related  environment. 


10-12 


APPENDIX  D 


EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY  SCENARIO 


1.  You  have  three  male  lance  corporals  and  three  female  lance 
corporals,   and  can  promote  only  two  to  corporal. 

a.  Does  this  mean  that  you  must  promote  one  male  and  one 
female?  Why?  or  Why  not? 

No,   Marines  should  not  be  promoted  based  on  gender  or 

race . 

b.  What  should  the  promotions  be  based  on? 

(1)  Marines  should  be  promoted  based  on  merit.  Marines 
who  meet  the  minimum  eligibility  criteria   (time  in  grade,    time  in 
service,    etc.   in  accordance  with  MCO  P1400.20)   are  not 
necessarily  ready  for  promotion.     In  order  to  be  recommended  for 
promotion,   a  Marine  should:     display  desire  to  advance  and  show 
enthusiasm  and  potential  for  increased  responsibility;  have 
mastered  the  professional  and  technical  requirements  of  his 
current  grade;   have  demonstrated  initiative,   maturity,  moral 
courage,    self -discipline ,   and  good  judgment;   have  demonstrated 
ability  to  lead  and  train  Marines  as  a  team. 

(2)  Marines  must  recognize  each  individual's  importance, 
dignity,   needs,   and  aspirations.       There  must  be  a  fully 
integrated  Corps  in  which  every  Marine  will  strive  for  the  same 
common  goals  of  maintaining  high  standards  of  discipline,    law  and 
order,   and  excellence  in  performance  of  duty. 

SCENARIO 

2 .  If  you  had  a  black  male  Marine  lance  corporal  with  no 
previous  offenses,    should  he  get  the  same  punishment  for  the  same 
offense  as  a  white  Marine  with  three  page  12  entries? 

No.     There  is  a  judgment  factor  which  has  to  be  exercised  in 
the  maintenance  of  standards  of  discipline.     There  are  many 
conditions  that  will  affect  your  decisions,   and  generally  no  hard 
and  fast  rules  can  be  written  to  cover  every  situation. 


10-13 


3.  In  your  opinion,   do  male  leaders  correct  women  Marines  as 
readily  as  they  do  male  Marines?     If  not,   why?     Is  this  fair 
treatment? 

a.  They  should  be  corrected,   disciplined,   and  looked  out  for 

by  their  leaders  with  equal  fervor.     Women  Marines  want  to  be 
treated  like  Marines  but  some  often  feel  left  out    (excluded) .  A 
male  leader  may  fail  to  correct  a  particular  woman  Marine  because 
he  perceives  that  most  women  have  a  tendency  to  cry  and  the 
leader  is  confused  as  to  how  to  handle  the  situation,   so  he 
avoids  making  the  correction. 

b.  All  Marines    (both  male  and  female)   generally  resent  it. 
The  leader  has  an  obligation  to  enforce  standards  of  discipline 
for  all  Marines;   it's  one  way  of  showing  that  you  care.     It's  a 
leader's  duty  to  help  all  Marines;   in  a  situation  such  as  this,  a 
leader  sows  seeds  of  discontent  which  disrupt  unit  integrity  and 
affect  mission  accomplishment.     Everyone  must  carry  their  share 
of  the  load,   and  Marines  want  to  do  so.     If  any  Marine  cries 
(males  are  not  exempt)  when  being  corrected  or  counseled,  pause 
to  allow  the  Marine  to  regain  proper  composure  and  complete  the 
session.     The  leader  must  be  fair  and  consistent,   which  is  so 
important  in  maintaining  standards  of  behavior  and  performance, 
and  in  gaining  the  respect  of  subordinates . 

c .  Leaders  must  develop  each  individual  to  the  highest 
degree  of  responsibility  possible,   dependent  only  upon  individual 
talent  and  diligence. 

d.  Ensuring  that  fairness  and  equality  of  opportunity  are 
extended  to  all  personnel  in  every  action  that  affects  individual 
Marines  is  an  inherent  function  of  leadership. 

e.  Only  by  the  achievement  and  maintenance  of  these  goals 
can  the  Marine  Corps  fully  develop  the  esprit  de  corps,  pride, 
and  leadership  that  are  essential  to  combat  readiness.  The 
achievement  of  these  goals  must  be  an  objective  of  every  leader. 

4.  What  is  the  commander's  role  in  the  unit  EO  program 

and  the  role  of  the  individual  Marine  in  the  unit  EO  program? 

a.     All  commanders  will  establish  policies  and  procedures  to 
ensure  the  periodic  assessment  and  update  of  their  EOP ' s .  EOP 
requirements  will  vary  with  the  level  of  command.     Commanders  are 
responsible  for  publicizing,    implementing,   and  enforcing  the 


10-14 


Marine  Corps  policy  on  equal  opportunity  to  include  sexual 
harassment . 

5.     What  is  the  individual  Marine's  responsibility  in  ensuring 
equal  opportunity? 

a.  An  individual's  responsibility  is  not  dependent  upon 
authority.     Marines  are  expected  to  exert  proper  influence  upon 
their  comrades  by  setting  examples  of  obedience,    courage,  zeal, 
sobriety,   neatness  and  attention  to  duty. 

b.  Treat  each  Marine  as  a  Marine. 

c.  Support  your  command's  EO  program  and  activities. 


10-15 


( 


* 


♦ 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

FRATERNIZATION 

1 .  Introduction 

a.  Fraternization  is  the  term  used  to  describe  improper 
personal  and  business  relationships  among  Marines  of  different 
ranks  or  positions. 

b.  Fraternization  was  not  mentioned  in  the  Uniform  Code  of 
Military  Justice  when  it  was  first  enacted;  improper 
relationships  between  seniors  and  subordinates  were  prosecuted  as 
conduct  unbecoming  an  officer.     In  1984,   however,  fraternization 
was  explicitly  recognized  as  an  offense  under  military  law. 

c.  When  contact  and  relationships  exceed  these  standards  and 
become  those  of   "buddies"   or  peers,    then  fraternization  exists. 
Look  at  the  facts  and  circumstances  of  each  case: 

(1)  Is  there  a  compromise  of  the  chain  of  command? 

(2)  Is  there  an  appearance  of  partiality?  (REMEMBER: 
when  dealing  with  the  subject  of  fraternization,   perceptions  are 
as  deadly  as  reality. ) 

(3)  Is  there  the  potential  for  good  order,  discipline, 
morale,   or  authority  to  be  undermined? 

2.  Overview .     The  Marine  Corps  policy  regarding  fraternization 
is  the  product  of  naval  service  customs.     The  Marine  Corps 
specifically,   and  military  society  in  general,   has  historically 
imposed  social  constraints  on  personal  relationships  between 
individuals  of  different  rank,   grade,    or  position.     It  is 
important  to  keep  in  mind  that  because  customs  vary  between 
branches  of  the  armed  forces,    the  Marine  Corps'   view  of 
fraternization  can  be  different    (stricter)    than  that  of  the  Air 
Force  or  the  Army. 

3.  References .  The  following  provide  guidelines  and  information 
on  fraternization: 

Uniform  Code  of  Military  Justice 


11-1 


JAG  Manual 


4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Included  in  this  guide  are  two 
scenarios  to  generate  discussion  within  your  unit.     You  are 
highly  encouraged  to  develop  or  use  scenarios  that  draw  from 
personal  experience.     These  will  increase  the  quality  of  your 
discussion . 

5 .  Discussion 

a.     Rules  concerning  fraternization 

(1)  Fraternization  rules  date  back  to  the  time  of  the 
Roman  army.     The  purpose  of  such  constraints  is  to: 

(a)  Maintain  good  order  and  discipline. 

(b)  Promote  relationships  of  mutual  respect  and 
confidence  between  juniors  and  seniors. 

(c)  Prevent  adverse  impact  upon  a  junior's  response 
to  orders,    the  senior's  exercise  of  command,    or  the  perception  o 
others  regarding  the  senior's  impartiality. 

(d)  Preserve  the  integrity  of  the  chain  of  command. 

(2)  Definition.     Fraternization  is  a  social  or  business 
relationship  between  Marines  of  different  grades  in  violation  of 
a  custom  of  the  naval  service  which,    in  the  eyes  of  one 
experienced  in  military  leadership,    impacts  adversely  on  good 
order  and  discipline,    or  degrades  or  at  least  threatens  to 
degrade  the  character  or  status  of  the  position  that  a  Marine 
holds.     Let  us  examine  the  parts  of  this  definition  in  detail. 

(a)    "...a  social  or  business  relationship  between 
Marines  of  different  grades. ..." 

[1]    Some  possible  examples  of  activities 
encompassed  by  the  term  "fraternization"  are: 

[a]  Playing  cards  or  gambling  together. 

[b]  Going  to  private  homes  or  clubs  together 
...[c]   Dating  or  engaging  in  sexual  activities. 


11-2 


[d]   Engaging  in  commercial  transactions, 
except  for  one  time  sales  or  leases . 


[e]  Showing  favoritism  or  partiality. 

[f]  Using  one's  authority  for  personal  gain. 

[2]   Military  court  decisions  and  the  Manual  for 
Courts -Martial  make  clear  that  fraternization  can  occur  between 
enlisted  Marines.     The  classic  case  involves  an  officer-enlisted 
relationship,   but  it  is  not  the  only  case. 

[3]   The  key  issue  is  whether  a  relationship  has 
developed  in  which  mutual  respect  of  grade  is  ignored. 

[4]   The  relationship  need  not  be  male-female. 

[5]   Though  not  a  rigid  test,   normal  social  or 
business  relationships  between  Marines  within  the  following  six 
divisions  do  not  constitute  fraternization.      (However,   under  some 
instructor-student  relationship,    even  relationships  within  a 
particular  group,   would  be  considered  fraternization.) 

[a]  General  officers. 

[b]  Field  grade  officers. 

[c]  Company  grade  officers    (to  include 

warrant  officers) . 

[d]  Staff  noncommissioned  officers. 

[e]  Noncommissioned  officers. 

[f]  Junior  enlisted  Marines. 

[6]   While  improper  relationships  within  the  same 
chain  of  command  are  the  most  obvious,    there  is  no  blanket 
requirement  under  the  UCMJ  that  the  relationship  be  within  the 
same  chain  of  command  to  be  improper. 

(b)    " ...  in  violation  of  a  custom  of  the  naval 

service . . . . " 


11-3 


[1]    "Custom"   is  a  long-established  practice 
which,   by  common  consent,   has  attained  the  force  of  law  within 
the  military. 

[2]   The  relevant  custom  within  the  Marine  Corps 
is  that   "duty,    social,   and  business  contacts  among  Marines  of 
different  grades  will  be  consistent  with  traditional  standards  of 
good  order  and  discipline  and  the  mutual  respect  that  has  always 
existed  between  Marines  of  senior  grade  and  those  of  lesser 
grade . " 

( c )    " . . .which  in  the  eyes  of  one  experienced  in 
military  leadership,    impacts  adversely  on  good  order  and 
discipline  or  degrades  or  at  least  threatens  to  degrade  the 
character  or  status  of  the  position  a  Marine  holds." 

[1]    Improper  personal  relationships  between 
Marines  occupying  different  positions  may  influence  the  senior's 
judgment  as  to  mission  accomplishment. 

[2]   The  threat  to  discipline  and  order  need  not 
be  perceived  by  the  parties  involved  in  the  fraternization.  It 
is  enough  that  the  ill  effects  could  be  perceived  by  a  reasonably 
prudent  Marine  experienced  in  military  leadership.     Thus,  each 
case  must  be  scrutinized  by  applying  this   "hypothetical  leader" 
test . 

[3]   This  final  section  of  the  definition  not  only 
defines,   but  also  explains,    the  policy  behind  the  rules 
prohibiting  fraternization.     The  policy  is  further  described  in 
the  Court  of  Military  Appeals  case  of  U.   S.  v  Free. 

b.     The  military  services  demand  a  regard  for  authority  by 
juniors  towards  their  seniors  which  experience  has  shown  is 
enhanced  by  the  observance  of  decorum,    tradition,    custom,  usage, 
and  conventions  which  are  peculiar  to  the  services  alone.  The 
unquestioned  obedience  mandated  in  time  of  battle  rests  on  regard 
and  respect  for  authority.     This  respect  is  lessened  by  the 
failure  to  observe  niceties  of  military  courtesy  and  other 
traditions  and  customs. 

6 .     Marriage:     a  special  problem 

a.     The  Marine  Corps  cannot  legally  act  to  prevent  marriages 
between  service  members.     A  marriage  between  Marines  of  differing 


11-4 


grades  will  constitute  fraternization  when  the  impact  of  the 
marriage  detracts  or  tends  to  detract  from  the  respect  due  a 
senior,   or  is  perceived  by  others  to  do  so. 

b.  A  marriage  stemming  from  a  previously  existing  improper 
relationship  does  not  excuse  those  involved  from  responsibility 
for  their  activities  prior  to  the  marriage. 

7 .     Avenues  for  prosecution 

a.     Article  134,   UCMJ . 

(1)  Fraternization  has  been  a  listed  offense  under  the 
UCMJ  since  1984. 

(2)  Maximum  punishment  is  dismissal,    forfeiture  of  all 
pay  and  allowances,   and  confinement  for  two  years. 


b.  Article  133,  UCMJ. 

(1)  Whenever  a  commissioned  officer,   cadet,    or  midshipman 
engages  in  behavior  which  dishonors  or  disgraces  the  officer, 
such  as  dishonesty,   unfair  dealing,    indecency,  lawlessness, 
injustice,   or  cruelty,    that  officer  may  be  prosecuted  under 
Article  133. 

(2)  Maximum  punishment  is  dismissal,    forfeiture  of  all 
pay  and  allowances,   and  confinement  for  a  period  usually  not 
longer  than  one  year. 

c .  Article  92,  UCMJ. 

(1)  Whenever  a  local  command  has  established  regulations 
or  orders  as  to  the  conduct  of  relationships  or  fraternization,  a 
Marine  may  be  subject  to  prosecution  for  fraternization  as  a 
violation  of  an  order. 

(2)  Published  orders  are  often  used  by  commands  to  define 
acceptable  conduct  in  the  context  of  officer-officer  and 
enlisted-enlisted  relationships. 

(3)  If  the  order  is  a  general  order  or  regulation,  actual 
knowledge  is  not  required   (knowledge  of  the  order  is  implied) . 


11-5 


(4)  If  the  order  does  not  constitute  a  general  order  or 
regulation,  specific  knowledge  must  be  shown  for  a  violation  to 
occur . 

(5)  Maximum  punishment  is  a  dishonorable  discharge, 
forfeiture  of  all  pay  and  allowances,   and  confinement  for  two 
years . 

8 .  Remedies 

a.  Non-punitive  administrative  remedies. 

(1)  Formal  or  informal  counseling. 

(2)  Transfer  of  one  or  both  parties. 

(3)  Fitness  report  comments. 

b.  Non-judicial  punishment    (often  followed,    in  the  case  of 
officers,   by  processing  for  administrative  separation). 

c.  Court-martial. 

9 .  Solution 

a.  The  responsibility  for  maintaining  the  customary  and 
traditional  standards  of  conduct  lies  with  the  senior.     The  line 
between  acceptable  conduct  and  fraternization  will  not  be  crossed 
unless  the  senior  allows  it  to  happen. 

b.  The  leader  must  be  careful  to  avoid  even  the  perception 
of  fraternization  without  destroying  the  traditional  fraternal 
bond  between  Marines  of  all  grades. 

c.  Educate  your  Marines  about  both  the  Marine  Corps  policy 
on  fraternization  and  the  reasons  behind  it.     Talk  examples. 

10 .  Scenarios 

Scenario  1 

a.     IstLt  Blank,   a  legal  officer  with  Legal  Team  E,  Marine 
Corps  Base  Camp  Pendleton,   conducted  a  PFT  for  the  Marines  in  his 
section  and  several  of  them  did  not  perform  up  to  standards.  He 
organized  a  remedial  program  for  his  Marines,   having  all  five  of 


11-6 


them  run  with  him  every  day  from  1100-1200.     Are  there  any 
perceived  problems  with  improper  relations  between  senior  and 
subordinates  ? 

b.     As  the  month  continues,    the  PT  group  dwindles  to  the 
female  LCpl  running  with  the  lieutenant.     The  runs  have  increased 
to  two  hours  and  now  are  through  wooded  running  trails. 

(1)  Is  there  a  compromise  of  the  chain  of  command? 

(2)  Is  there  an  appearance  of  partiality? 

(3)  Is  there  the  potential  for  good  order,  discipline, 
morale,    or  authority  to  be  undermined? 

Scenario  2 

a.  GySgt  Wrench,    the  squadron  maintenance  chief,   has  been 
with  the  section  for  three  years.     He  is  a  gruff  and  impersonal 
Marine.     Over  the  past  few  weeks,   you   (the  section  OIC)  have 
noticed  a  slight  change  in  his  behavior.     Whenever  the  new 
avionics  tech,    PFC  Jones,    is  in  the  office  he  seems  much  more 
pleasant  to  be  around.     In  addition,   he  has  been  frequenting  the 
E-Club  after  hours,    saying  "the  troops  keep  inviting  me." 
However,    the  talk  in  the  shop  is  that  he  has  been  seen  with  the 
PFC  frequently  at  the  Club  and  has  been  leaving  with  her. 

b.  Her  work  performance  as  of  late  has  been  slipping. 
However,    this  week  she  was  recommended  for  a  squadron  commander's 
meritorious  mast  for  continued  outstanding  performance  of  duty  by 
the  maintenance  chief.     This  morning,   you  saw  the  gunny  and  PFC 
Jones  arrive  to  work  together. 

(1)  Is  there  a  compromise  of  the  chain  of  command? 

(2)  Is  there  an  appearance  of  partiality? 

(3)  Is  there  an  the  potential  for  good  order,  discipline, 
morale,   or  authority  to  be  undermined? 

(4)  What  should  you,   as  the  section  OIC,  do? 
11 .  SUMMARY 


11-7 


a.  The  regulations  and  customs  that  we  have  against 
fraternization  are  not  meant  to  prevent  us  from  associating  with 
our  Marines.     In  fact,    just  the  opposite  is  true.  The 
regulations  against  fraternization  are  meant  to  ensure  that  the 
relationships  we  maintain  with  our  Marines  are  of  the  most 
professional  and  productive  nature. 

b.  If  we  expect  our  Marines  to  respect  us,    there  can't  be 
even  the  hint  of  favoritism.     Fraternization  gives  the  appearance 
of  favoritism  whether  or  not  any  instance  of  favoritism  has  taken 
place.     The  negative  effect  on  morale  and  unit  cohesion  is 
obvious . 

c.  Additionally,  we  must  demand  an  obedience  to  lawful 
orders  that  is  unhesitating.     If  the  chain  of  command  is  allowed 
to  be  weakened  by  a  lax  attitude  toward  fraternization,   we  will 
not  be  able  to  depend  on  our  traditional  levels  of  discipline 
when  it  counts  the  most. 


11-8 


9 


i 


0 


4 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

CUSTOMS,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS 

1.  Introduction .     The  Marine  Corps  is  the  finest  fighting 
organization  in  the  world.     As  a  member  of  the  Corps,   you  should 
have  an  appreciation  of  the  customs  and  traditions  that  helped 
shape  the  Corps  we  know  today. 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  discussion  is  to  explain  the 
customs  and  courtesies  of  the  United  States  Marine  Corps. 

The  traditions  of  the  Marine  Corps,    its  history,    its  uniforms, 
the  Marine  Corps  way  of  doing  things,   make  the  Corps  what  it  is 
and  set  it  apart  from  any  other  military  organization.  These 
traditions  are  closely  guarded  by  Marines,   and  it  is  the 
responsibility  of  all  Marines  to  carry  on  with  these  traditions 
and  pass  them  on  to  the  Marines  who  follow.     Marines  should  do 
more  than  just  know  these  traditions;   they  should  make  these 
attitudes  and  traditions  part  of  their  personal  code.     To  do  so 
is  to  carry  on  the  traditions  of  the  Marines  who  went  before. 

3.  References .  The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
customs  and  courtesies  of  the  Marine  Corps : 

Handbook  for  Marine  NCOs 

NAVMC  2  691,   Marine  Corps  Drill  &  Ceremonies  Manual 
Marine  Battle  Skills  Training  Handbook  1 
MCO  P10520.3,    Flag  Manual 
Marine  Corps  Museum  Historical  Pamphlets 
Marine  Corps  Manual 
MCO  P1020.34,   Uniform  Regulations 

SECNAVINST  1650.1,   Navy  and  Marine  Corps  Awards  Manual 
MCO  P1560.27,   Marine  Corps  Unit  Awards  Manual 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.     Traits  of  the  Marine  Corps.     The  qualities  that  the 
Marine  Corps  stands  for  may  seem  old-fashioned,   but  these 
qualities  have  shaped  the  Corps  since  1775. 


12-1 


(1)  Quality  and  competence.     It  is  expected  that  the 
performance  of  Marines,   both  individuals  and  units,   will  be 
outstanding  in  both  garrison  and  in  combat. 

(2)  Discipline .     Of  all  of  the  principles  of  the  Marine 
Corps,    its  insistence  on  discipline  is  the  most  uncompromising 
and  most  important. 

(3)  Valor .  After  the  seizure  of  Iwo  Jima,  Fleet  Admiral 
Nimitz  characterized  the  performance  of  the  Marines  who  took  the 
island  when  he  stated  that  "Uncommon  valor  was  a  common  virtue." 
The  rich  history  of  the  Corps  is  highlighted  by  the  acts  of  over 
3  00  Marines  who  have  received  the  Medal  of  Honor.  Valor  and 
courage  are  hallmarks  of  Marines. 

(4)  Pride .     Every  Marine  is  intensely  proud  of  Corps  and 
Country  and  does  his/her  utmost  to  build  and  uphold  the 
reputation  of  the  Corps. 

(5)  Loyalty .     "Semper  Fidelis"   is  the  motto  of  the  Corps. 
Loyalty  to  the  Corps,   and  loyalty  to  each  other,   is  required  of 
every  Marine . 

(6)  The  infantry.     The  Corps  is  unique  in  that,   no  matter 
what  MOS  a  Marine  eventually  pursues,   each  is  first  a  rifleman, 
and  every  officer  is  trained  to  function  as  an  infantry  officer. 

(7)  Conduct  in  action.     Courage  is  expected  of  every 
Marine  in  battle.     It  is  expected  that  no  wounded  or  dead  Marine 
will  ever  be  left  on  the  field  of  battle  or  left  unattended. 
Marines  never  surrender  unless  they  have  been  cut  off  entirely 
and  can  no  longer  make  use  of  their  weapons. 

(8)  Core  values .     Honor,   courage,  commitment. 
Generations  of  American  men  and  women  have  given  special  meaning 
to  the  term  United  States  Marine.     They  have  done  so  by  their 
performance  on  and  off  the  battlefield.     In  order  for  us  to 
maintain  this  great  reputation,  we  must  continue  to  keep  these 
core  values  ingrained  in  our  hearts  and  our  minds.  Reaffirm 
these  core  values  and  ensure  they  guide  your  performance, 
behavior,   and  conduct  every  minute  of  every  day. 

b.     Uniforms  and  personal  grooming.     The  Marine  Corps  has 
always  prided  itself  on  the  appearance  of  individual  Marines.  As 
a  Marine,    it  is  your  responsibility,   on  and  off  duty,    to  maintain 


12-2 


the  Marine  Corps  reputation  for  smart,   professional,  and 
correctly  worn  uniforms.     Although  you  may  see  other  service 
members  doing  things  such  as  removing  blouses  or  loosening  ties 
at  social  functions,   Marines  don't  do  that.     The  Marine  Corps 
Uniform  Regulations  is  the  "bible"   on  uniforms,    insignia,  and 
grooming.     You  are  responsible  for  knowing  these  regulations, 
setting  the  example  through  strict  compliance,   and  enforcement  of 
these  regulations.     MCO  P1020.34  is  the  order  on  Marine  Corps 
uniform  regulations. 

c.  Bearing .     While  in  uniform  never  put  your  hands  in  your 
pockets,   chew  gum,   whistle,    smoke  while  walking,    embrace  or  hold 
hands  or  hold  an  umbrella,   not  even  as  an  escort.  Additionally, 
Marines  never  wear  a  cover  while  indoors,   unless  under  arms.  You 
should  always  wear  your  cover  while  riding  in  a  vehicle.     The  way 
you  carry  yourself  as  a  Marine  says  as  much  about  the  Marine 
Corps  as  any  tradition  or  honor.     You  are  judged  daily  by  your 
subordinates,   peers,    seniors  and  the  American  people  by  the  way 
you  carry  yourself  and  the  bearing  you  project. 

d.  Military  courtesy.     Military  courtesy  is  the  traditional 
form  of  politeness  in  the  profession  of  arms.     Military  courtesy 
embraces  much  more  than  the  salute  or  any  other  ritual.  Courtesy 
is  a  disciplined  state  of  mind.     It  must  be  accorded  to  all  ranks 
and  on  all  occasions.     Courtesy  to  a  senior  indicates  respect  for 
authority,   responsibility,   and  experience.     Courtesy  towards 
juniors  expresses  appreciation  and  respect  for  their  support  and 
for  them  as  fellow  Marines.     Courtesy  paid  to  the  Colors  and  the 
National  Anthem  expresses  loyalty  to  the  United  States.  Military 
courtesy  is  a  prerequisite  to  discipline.     The  Marine  Corps  has 
always  stood  at  the  top  of  the  services  in  its  full  and  willing 
observance  of  the  twin  virtues  of  soldierly  courtesy  and 
discipline . 

(1)   The  military  salute.     Over  the  centuries,  men-at-arms 
have  rendered  fraternal  and  respectful  greetings  to  indicate 
friendliness.   In  early  times,   armed  men  raised  their  weapons  or 
shifted  them  to  the  left  hand   (while  raising  the  empty  right 
hand)    to  give  proof  of  their  friendly  intentions.     During  the 
Middle  Ages,   knights  in  armor  on  encountering  friendly  knights 
raised  their  helmet  visors  in  recognition.     In  every  case,  the 
fighting  man  made  a  gesture  of  f riendliness--the  raising  of  the 
right  hand.     This  gesture  survives  as  today's  hand  salute,  which 
is  the  traditional  greeting  among  soldiers  of  all  nations. 


12-3 


(a)  Individuals  entitled  to  a  salute.     As  a  service 
member,   you  will  salute  all  officers  who  are  senior  to  you  in 
rank  in  any  of  the  Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States  or  of 
friendly  foreign  governments,   officers  of  the  Coast  Guard, 
Geodetic  Survey,   and  of  the  Public  Health  Service  who  are  serving 
with  the  armed  forces  of  the  United  States . 

(b)  In  addition  there  are  certain  appointed  or 
elected  civilian  members  of  both  our  National  and  State 
governments  who  are  so  honored.     Among  the  individuals  of  the 
United  States  you  customarily  salute  are  the  following. 

President  of  the  United  States 
Vice  President  of  the  United  States 
State  Governors 
Secretary  of  Defense 
Deputy  Secretary  of  Defense 
Senators  and  Congressmen 

Secretaries  of  the  Army,   Navy  and  Air  Force 
Assistant  Secretaries  of  the  Army,   Navy  and  Air 

Force 

(c)  Among  the  members  of  the  friendly  foreign 
governments  whom  you  salute  are: 

Heads  of  State 
Ambassadors 

Ministers  of  Defense  or  other  civilian  leaders  of 
defense  establishments  and  their  assistants  at  or  above  the 
Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Army,   Navy  and  Air  Force 

(d)  When  not  to  salute.     In  some  situations,  the 
salute  is  not  appropriate.     In  general,   you  do  not  salute  when: 

[1]   Engaged  in  routine  work  when  a  salute  would 

interfere . 

[2]    Indoors,   except  when  under  arms. 

[3]   Carrying  articles  with  both  hands  or  being 
otherwise  so  occupied  as  to  make  saluting  impractical . 

[4]   The  rendition  of  the  salute  is  obviously 

inappropriate . 


12-4 


[5]   Engaged  in  driving  an  automobile.  However, 
whenever  practical,   you  should  return  the  salutes  of  others 
providing  the  vehicle  can  be  driven  safely. 

[6]    In  places  of  public  assemblage  such  as 
theaters  or  churches,   and  in  public  conveyances. 

[7]   You  are  in  the  ranks  of  a  formation. 
However,    if  at  ease  in  a  formation,   you  come  to  attention  when 
addressed  by  a  senior. 

[8]   When  within  sight  of  enemy  soldiers. 

( e )    Special  situations. 

[1]   Enlisted  Marines  may  give  and  receive  salutes 
from  other  enlisted  Marines  when  in  formation  and  rendering 
reports . 

[2]   After  a  senior  has  been  saluted,    if  he 
remains  nearby  and  no  conversation  takes  place,   no  further 
salutes  are  necessary.     On  the  other  hand,    if  directed  to  report 
to  a  senior  in  the  same  area,   you  should  salute  when  reporting 
and  again  when  taking  your  leave. 

[3]   A  Marine  salutes  indoors  only  when  under 
arms.     This  normally  means  a  duty  status  with  a  weapon.     In  this 
situation,    the  Marine  remains  covered  and  should  salute;  Marines 
not  under  arms  do  not  salute  indoors.     In  an  office,   Marines  need 
not  cease  work  when  an  officer  enters  unless  called  to  attention. 
When  addressed  by  an  officer,    the  person  so  addressed  should 
rise . 

[4]    In  the  naval  services,   protocol  does  not  call 
for  saluting  when  uncovered  except  for  the  return  of  uncovered 
salutes  rendered  first  by  Army  and  Air  Force  personnel.  The 
exception  in  this  case  follows  the  general  rule  that,  "social 
customs  or  military  courtesy  should  always  be  interpreted  so  as 
to  prevent  awkward  situations."     Therefore,    the  naval  service 
establishes  an  exception  whereby  an  uncovered  salute  may  be 
returned.     When  uncovered,   naval  officers  initiate  salutes  by 
coming  to  a  position  of  attention. 

(d)   Rules  for  saluting  officers  and  uncased  colors 


12-5 


[1]   Out-of-doors .     Salute  in  the  open  air,  the 
interior  of  such  buildings  as  drill  halls  and  gymnasiums  when 
used  for  drill  or  exercises  of  Marines,   on  the  weather  decks  of  a 
man-of-war,   or  under  roofed  structures  such  as  covered  walks  and 
shelters  open  at  one  or  both  sides  to  the  weather. 

[2]   Under  arms .     A  Marine  is  under  arms  when  he 
has  a  weapon  in  his/her  hand,    is  equipped  with  sidearms,   or  when 
wearing  equipment  pertaining  to  arms,    such  as  sword  sling,  pistol 
belt,    or  cartridge  belt.     Any  Marine  wearing  an  "MP"  or  "SP" 
brassard  is  considered  under  arms. 

[3]   When  not  in  formation.     When  an  officer 
approaches  enlisted  Marines  who  are  not  in  a  formation,    the  first 
to  recognize  the  officer  calls  the  group  to  attention  as  soon  as 
the  officer  comes  within  six   (6)   paces.     The  salute  is  held  until 
returned.     The  Marines  remain  at  attention  until  the  officer  has 
passed  or  until  he/she  commands   "carry  on." 

[4]   Overtaking .     When  you  overtake  an  officer 
proceeding  in  the  same  direction,   draw  abreast  on  the  left, 
render  a  hand  salute  and  say  "By  your  leave,    Sir/Ma'am."  The 
officer  acknowledges  the  salute  and  replies   "granted. "     When  you 
overtake  a  Marine  junior  to  you,   pass  on  the  right  if  possible. 

[5]    Saluting  distance.     The  maximum  distance 
within  which  salutes  are  rendered  and  exchanged  is  prescribed  as 
3  0  paces.     The  salute  should  be  rendered  when  six  paces  from  the 
person   (or  color)    to  be  saluted. 

[6]   Uncased  colors.     Colors  and  standards  not 
cased  are  saluted  when  either  you  or  they  approach  or  pass  within 
six  paces.     Hold  your  salute  until  the  colors  have  passed  or  you 
have  passed  the  colors  by  six  paces. 

[7]    Prisoner  chaser.     An  exception  to  the  normal 
saluting  practice  is  in  the  case  of  the  prisoner  chaser.  A 
prisoner  chaser  does  not  salute  an  officer  except  when  addressed 
by  an  officer  in  the  line  of  duty. 

[8]   Morning  and  evening  colors .     Members  of  the 
color  detail  render  the  hand  salute  as  appropriate  during  raising 
the  flag  at  morning  colors.     Members  of  the  color  detail  render 
the  hand  salute  as  appropriate  during  the  lowering  of  the  flag  at 
evening  colors . 


12-6 


( 2 )   Forms  of  address 


(a)  General .     Although  the  Marine  Corps  is  an 
integral  part  of  the  naval  service,    its  rank  structure  is  similar 
to  the  Army.     In  written  correspondence,   both  formal  and  social, 
full  rank  precedes  the  name  and  is  written  out.     In  conversation, 
all  generals  are  General;   all  colonels  are  Colonel,    etc.  Full 
rank  precedes  the  name  of  commissioned  officers;  customarily, 
rank  may  be  abbreviated  in  routine  correspondence  of  an  official 
nature  but  is  written  out  in  business  or  social  correspondence. 
The  rank  also  precedes  the  names  of  warrant  officers.     When  in 
civilian  dress,   a  captain  and  a  lieutenant  are  introduced  as  "of 
the  Navy"   to  distinguish  the  rank  from  other  services.  In 
conversation,   all  admirals  are  Admiral.     All  chaplains  are 
introduced  by  rank. 

(b)  Addressing  officers  and  enlisted  men 

[1]   General .     It  is  appropriate  and  strongly 
recommended  that  a  person  be  greeted  by  name  and  grade;  e.g., 
"Good  morning,   Captain  Jones,"  or  "Good  evening,   Corporal  Clark." 
If  you  are  unsure  of  an  enlisted  Marine's  name  or  grade,  "Good 
morning,   Marine"   is  appropriate  as  is   "Good  morning,    Sir, "  or 
"Good  Morning,   Ma'am"   in  the  case  of  an  officer.      In  your 
everyday  relationships  with  other  Marines,    it  is  imperative  that 
you  be  familiar  with  the  common  courtesies  extended  to  officers 
and  enlisted  Marines. 

[2]   Addressing  officers.     Use   "Sir"   or  "Ma'am" 
whenever  addressing  officers  more  senior;   however,    if  acquainted 
with  the  officer,    it  is  preferable  to  use  both  grade  and  name; 
e.g.,    "Good  afternoon  Colonel  Sands."     Whenever  addressing  a 
general  officer,    it  is  customary  to  use  "General"   in  lieu  of 
"Sir"  or  "Ma'am."     When  verbally  addressing  generals,  lieutenant 
colonels,   and  first  and  second  lieutenants,   use  their  short 
title;   i.e.,    "how  are  you,   Lieutenant?"   or  "Good  morning, 
Colonel."     It  is  an  old   (although  not  required)    tradition  that, 
when  you  address  a  senior  officer,   you  speak  in  the  third  party; 
for  example,    "Would  the  Captain  care  to  check  the  rifles,  now?" 
or  "Sir,   Lieutenant  Janson  reporting  for  duty." 

[3]    Speaking  to  enlisted  Marines.     To  promote 
pride  and  respect  among  your  juniors,   address  them  by  name  and 
grade.     Avoid  casual  use  of  first  name  or  nicknames.  Senior 


12-7 


enlisted  Marines  should  also  be  addressed  by  their  full  grade 
and  name.     Such  terms  as   "trooper"  and  "EMs"   should  never  be 
used.     Always  refer  to  a  Marine  by  grade,   not  pay  grade.  A 
sergeant  is  a  "sergeant,"  not  an  "E-5." 

[4]    Informal  situations.     First  names  and 
nicknames  are  proper  with  contemporaries  or  junior  officers 
during  social  functions,   during  business  hours  in  the  privacy  of 
the  office,   and  in  the  Club. 

[5]   Miscellaneous .     A  common  word  in  reference  to 
a  Marine  captain  is   "Skipper";  however,    it  is  more  proper  when 
used  in  addressing  a  captain  company  commander   ("Skipper"  is 
reserved  for  the  Captain  of  the  ship  when  at  sea) .     It  should 
also  be  noted  that  a  Marine  warrant  officer  wearing  the  bursting 
bomb  insignia  may  be  called  "Gunner." 

[6]   Rank  abbreviations .     In  official 
correspondence,   rank  and  ratings  are  abbreviated  and  fully 
capitalized  in  the  naval  services,   and  are  partially  capitalized 
in  the  other  services.     The  relative  ranks  of  commissioned 
officers'   abbreviations  differs  slightly  from  service  to  service. 
A  good  example  would  be  our  abbreviation,    2ndLt,   and  the  Army's 
version,    2LT.     As  you  can  see  there  are  exceptions  to  the  rule. 

[ 7 ]     Addressing  prominent  civilians .  The 
"Honorable"   is  the  most  preferred  form  for  addressing  most 
American  officials.     This  phrase  is  always  used  with  the  full 
name  and  never  any  other  title,    (i.e.,   The  Honorable  John  Dalton 
vice  The  Honorable  Mr.  Dalton  or  The  Honorable  Secretary  of  the 
Navy) . 

( 3 )    Service  Afloat 

(a)   Nautical  terms.     Many  Marine  Corps  customs  are 
derived  from  many  years  of  service  afloat.     Even  ashore,  Marines 
customarily  use  nautical  terms.     Floors  are  commonly  referred  to 
as  "decks,"  walls  are  "bulkheads,"  ceilings  are  "overheads,"  and 
corridors  are   "passageways."     The  order  "Gangway!"   is  used  to 
clear  the  way  for  an  officer  ashore  just  as  it  is  afloat.  Among 
other  terms  in  common  usage  are  " two-block, " to  tighten  or  center 
(a  necktie);    "head;"    " scuttlebutt " a  drinking  fountain,   or  an 
unconfirmed  rumor.     In  the  Marine  Corps,    the  expression  "Aye, 
aye,    Sir"   is  used  when  acknowledging  a  verbal  order.      "Yes,  Sir" 
and  "No,    Sir"  are  used  in  answer  to  direct  questions.      "Aye,  aye, 


12-8 


Sir"   is  not  used  in  answer  to  questions  as  this  expression  is 
reserved  solely  for  acknowledgment  of  orders. 

( b )  Boarding  a  small  boat  or  entering  a  car .  When 
boarding  a  small  boat  or  entering  a  car,    juniors  enter  first  and 
take  up  the  seats  or  the  space  beginning  forward,    leaving  the 
most  desirable  seat  for  the  senior.     Seniors  enter  last  and  leave 
first . 

(c)  Last  to  leave  ship.     Marines  are  always  or  should 
be  the  last,   other  than  the  ship's  captain,    to  leave  a  ship  being 
decommissioned.     Although  the  tradition  is  an  old  one,    it  first 
appears  in  Navy  Regulations  of  1825.      "Where  a  vessel  is  to  be 
put  out  of  commission,    the  Marine  officer  with  the  guard  shall 
remain  on  board  until  all  the  officers  and  the  crew  are  detached 
and  the  ship  regarded  turned  over  to  the  officers  of  the  navy 
yard  or  stations . " 

(d)  Boarding  ship .     When  boarding  a  U.S.   Navy  ship, 
face  aft  and  salute  the  national  Ensign.     Then,    face  the  Officer 
of  the  Deck,    salute,   and  request  permission  to  come  aboard. 
Reverse  the  process  when  debarking. 

( 4 )  Ceremony 

(a)  Parades  and  ceremonies.     Another  custom  which  you 
will  be  directly  involved  with  is  that  of  holding  a  parade  or 
review  to  mark  important  events  such  as  the  presentation  of 
awards,   a  change  of  command,    or  a  retirement.     During  an  official 
visit,    the  visiting  dignitary  is  usually  received  by  rendering 
"Honors."     These  usually  consist  of  a  gun  salute,    "Ruffles  and 
Flourishes"  and  other  martial  music.     The  Marine  Officer's  Guide 
outlines  exactly  what  honors  are  rendered  to  what  dignitary.  As 
a  participant  or  spectator,   you  are  required  to  stand  and  salute. 
Remember,   when  participating  in  parades  or  ceremonies,    the  Drill 
and  Ceremonies  Manual  contains  the  proper  procedures  to  be  used 
during  these  events . 

(b)  "First  of  foot  and  right  of  the  line. "  Marines 
form  at  the  place  of  honor--at  the  head  of  column  or  on  right  of 
line--in  any  naval  formation.     This  privilege  was  bestowed  on  the 
Corps  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  on  9  August  1876. 

( c )  National  Anthem  and  the  Marines '  Hymn 


12-9 


[1]  National  Anthem.     When  the  National  Anthem  is 
played  or  "To  the  Colors"  or  "Retreat"    (Evening  Colors)  is 
sounded,   all  military  personnel  come  to  attention,    face  toward 
the  music  and  salute.     You  hold  your  salute  until  the  last  note 
of  the  music,   but  remain  at  attention  until  "Carry  On"  is 
sounded.     If  the  National  Anthem  is  being  played  incident  to  a 
ceremony  involving  the  colors,    face  toward  the  colors  rather  than 
the  music. 

[a]  Marines  in  formation.     Formations  are 
halted  and  brought  to  attention,   and  the  commander  salutes  facing 
in  the  direction  of  his  unit's  original  front. 

[b]  Personnel  in  vehicles.     During  playing  of 
the  National  Anthem,   all  vehicles  within  sight  or  hearing  of  the 
ceremony  stop.     Passengers  do  not  debark,   but  remain  seated  at 
attention . 

[c]  In  civilian  clothing.     Come  to  attention, 
and  if  wearing  headgear,   remove  it  and  place  it  over  your  left 
breast  with  your  right  hand.     Otherwise,  place  your  right  hand 
over  your  left  breast. 

[2]  Marines'   Hymn.     The  history  of  the  Marines' 
Hymn  is  very  sketchy;  however,   the  melody  was  written  by  Jacques 
Offenbach  and  was  performed  for  the  first  time  on  November  19, 
1859.     Although  there  is  no  record  of  the  hymn's  author,  the 
words  appeared  on  a  recruiting  poster  in  1898.     When  the  Marines' 
Hymn  is  being  played  outdoors,    stop  and  come  to  attention.     If  it 
is  played  indoors,   stand  up  and  come  to  attention.     You  should 
memorize  all  three  stanzas  of  the  Hymn  and  be  prepared  to  sing  it 
out  loud  at  any  time. 

e .     The  Marine  Corps  Birthday 

(1)   The  United  States  Marine  Corps  of  today  has  had  a 
continual  existence  since  1798,  when  President  John  Adams  signed 
into  law  an  act  reestablishing  the  Corps.     However,  the 
traditional  and  official  founding  date  of  the  Marine  Corps  is 
celebrated  on  10  November.     On  this  day  in  1775,    the  Continental 
Congress,   meeting  in  Philadelphia,   authorized  the  raising  and 
enlistment  of  two  battalions  of  Marines  for  service  with  the 
newly  formed  naval  forces  of  the  colonies.     This  all  started  at 
Tun  Tavern  in  Philadelphia,    Pennsylvania,  making  it  the 
birthplace  of  the  Corps. 


12-10 


(2)   Marine  Corps  Birthday  celebration  customs.  All 
Marine  Corps  activities,    if  at  all  practical,    shall  provide  for 
suitable  observance  of  the  Marine  Corps  birthday  on  10  November. 
When  10  November  falls  on  a  Sunday,    the  birthday  will  be 
celebrated  on  the  preceding  Saturday.     Such  observances  shall  be 
appropriate  to  the  size  and  mission  of  the  activity  concerned  -  - 
in  accordance  with  the  local  conditions  and  within  financial 
means  of  personnel  of  the  host  activity.     The  Drill  and 
Ceremonies  Manual  outlines  procedures  for  Birthday  observances. 

(a)  Troop  formations,    to  include  parades,   are  to  be 
held  when  practical.   The  reading  of  General  John  A.  Lejune's 
birthday  message  should  be  included. 

(b)  Social  observances  to  include  the  birthday  ball 
and  the  traditional  cake-cutting  ceremony. 

(c)  The  first  piece  of  cake  to  honor  the  oldest 
Marine  present . 

(d)  The  second  piece  of  cake  to  honor  the  youngest 
Marine  present . 

f.  Colors  of  the  Corps.     The  official  colors  of  the  United 
States  Marine  Corps  are  scarlet  and  gold.     These  colors  are 
displayed  on  such  items  as  our  official  standards,   unit  guidons, 
insignia,   and  uniforms.     Scarlet  and  gold  were  adopted  as  the 
official  colors  of  the  Marine  Corps  in  1921,   by  order  of  the 
Commandant,   Major  General  John  A.  Lejeune. 

g .  Marine  Corps  Emblem 

(1)  The  basic  design  of  the  emblem  was  officially  adopted 
in  1868.     It  is  a  symbolic  representation  which  Americans,  both 
civilian  and  military,    immediately  identify  as   "Marines."  Prior 
to  1868,    the  Marines  wore  various  emblems  based  mainly  on  the 
spread  eagle  and  fouled  anchor.     In  18  68,    the  seventh  Commandant, 
General  Zeilin,   decided  on  a  single,   distinctive  emblem  centered 
around  the  globe. 

(2)  The  emblem  represents  what  we  stand  for,    our  past, 
and  our  future.     There  are  three  basic  components  of  the  Marine 
Corps  emblem: 


12-11 


(a)  Anchor .     The  first  part  of  the  emblem  is  the 
anchor.     It  is  not  just  a  plain  anchor  but  a  "fouled"  anchor. 
The  anchor  emphasizes  the  close  ties  of  the  Marine  Corps  with  the 
U.S.  Navy . 

(b)  Globe .     Emphasizing  the  close  ties  between  the 
U.S.  Marine  Corps  and  the  British  Royal  Marines,    the  idea  of  a 
globe  as  part  of  the  emblem  was  borrowed  from  the  emblem  of  the 
Royal  Marines.     However,    the  Royal  Marines'   emblem  shows  the 
Eastern  Hemisphere,   whereas  the  U.S.  Marine  Corps'   emblem  shows 
the  Western  Hemisphere.     This  was  only  natural  since  the  United 
States  is  located  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  and  many  of  the  early 
Marine  combat  operations  and  noncombatant  duties  were  in  the 
Western  Hemisphere.     Today,   of  course,    the  globe  can  also 
symbolize  the  "global"  Marine  Corps  commitments  and 
responsibilities  which  have  evolved  in  the  2  0th  century. 

(c)  Eagle.     The  third  part  of  the  emblem  is  the 
eagle.   The  eagle  is  the  national  symbol  of  the  United  States,  and 
is  the  one  part  of  the  emblem  which  readily  identifies  the  Marine 
Corps  with  the  United  States.     The  eagle  proudly  carries  a 
streamer  in  its  beak  which  bears  the  motto  of  the  Corps,  "Semper 
Fidelis .  " 

h.  Marine  Corps  Seal .     On  22  June  1954,    President  Eisenhower 
signed  Executive  Order  105.38   "Establishing  a  Seal  for  the  United 
States  Marine  Corps."     General  Lemuel  C.   Shepard,   Jr.,  20th 
Commandant  designed  the  seal  which  consists  of  the  Marine  Corps 
emblem  in  bronze,    the  eagle  holding  in  its  beak  a  scroll 
inscribed,    "Semper  Fidelis,"  against  a  scarlet  and  blue 
background,   encircled  by  the  words,    "Department  of  the  Navy  - 
Unites  States  Marine  Corps." 

i .  Flags  and  colors 

(1)   Colors/standards .     Specialized  flags  carried  by 
military  units.     Each  arm  or  branch  of  the  service  has  its  own 
colors.     The  Marine  Corps  colors/standards  are  scarlet  with  gold 
fringe  trim.     The  Marine  emblem  is  centered  on  the  flag  with  a 
white  scroll  below.     Marine  Colors  are  carried  beside  the 
National  Colors.     Standards  are  Marine  Colors  that  are  mounted, 
such  as  flags  mounted  in  the  Commanding  Officer's  office. 


12-12 


(a)  Organizational  standards/colors.     Carried  by 
supporting  establishment  commands.     Scroll  on  the  flag  says 
"United  States  Marine  Corps". 

(b)  Battle  Colors/Standards.     Carried  by  Fleet  Marine 
Force  units    (FMF) .     The  scroll  has  the  unit's  name  followed  by 
FMF  on  it.     Battle  streamers  that  have  been  awarded  to  the  unit 
are  displayed  just  below  the  mast  head. 

(2)   Guidons .     Guidons  are  small  rectangular  flags,  made 
in  Marine  Corps  colors.     They  are  carried  by  companies, 
batteries,   or  detachments. 

j .     Awards  and  Decorations 

(1)  Personal  decorations .     Personal  decorations  are 
awarded  to  individual  Marines  for  heroism,   gallantry,    or  valor. 
Examples  include  the  Medal  of  Honor,    Purple  Heart  and  the  Navy 
Cross.     Personal  decorations  can  also  be  awarded  for  meritorious 
service,    such  as,    the  Meritorious  Service  Medal  and  the 
Navy-Marine  Corps  Achievement  Medal . 

(2)  Unit  decorations.     Unit  decorations  are  awarded  to  a 
Marine  unit  for  outstanding  performance,    inside  or  outside  the 
United  States.     The  French  Fourragere  is  one  such  example.     It  is 
the  senior  unit  award,   and  the  first  collective  award,   won  by  the 
U.S.  Marines.     Other  examples  of  unit  awards  include  the  Navy 
Unit  Commendation  and  the  Meritorious  Unit  Commendation. 

(3)  Campaign  or  service  medals  and  ribbons .     These  awards 
are  issued  to  "all  hands"  who  take  part  in  a  particular  campaign, 
or  serve  during  a  specific  time  period  for  which  the  award  is 
authorized.     An  award  can  also  be  earned  for  notable  achievement 
in  a  non-combat  environment.     An  example  would  be  the  Antarctica 
Service  Medal . 

(4)  Marksmanship  badges  and  trophies .     Badges  are  awarded 
to  individuals  who  demonstrate  special  proficiency  or  skill  in 
marksmanship.     Trophies  are  awarded  at  various  levels  to  include: 

United  States  and  international  distinguished  shooter 
competitions,   and  Marine  Corps  rifle  and  pistol  championships. 

k .     The  Marine  Corps  Uniform 


12-13 


(1)  The  scarlet  trouser  stripe.     A  red  stripe  first 
appeared  on  uniform  trousers  in  1798,   and  reappeared  in  1840  and 
1859,  partly  as  a  result  of  the  military  fashions  of  the  day. 
The  popular  story,   which  cannot  be  supported  by  fact,    is  that  the 
red  stripe  commemorates  the  blood  shed  by  Marines  in  the  Battle 
of  Chapultepec  in  1846. 

(2)  The  quatrefoil.     The  quatrefoil  is  an  interwoven 
braid  in  the  shape  of  a  cross  of  figure  eights  found  on  top  of 
the  Marine  officer's  barracks  covers.     Officially,    the  quatrefoil 
first  became  an  authorized  part  of  the  uniform  in  1859.  The 
quatrefoil  was  the  fashionable  military  style  of  the  era. 
Popular  belief  tells  us  that  the  quatrefoil  was  worn  on  the  caps 
of  Marines  fighting  on  the  decks  of  ships  in  order  that  they 
might  be  easily  recognized  by  the  Marine  sharpshooters  located 
above  in  the  ship's  rigging. 

(3)  Mameluke  sword.     Until  the  invention  of  gunpowder, 
the  sword  was  once  one  of  the  primary  combat  weapons  used  by  the 
military.     The  association  of  the  Marine  Corps  with  the  Mameluke 
sword  began  in  the  early  19th  century.     The  "Mamelukes"  were  an 
elite  Muslim  military  force  from  Eastern  and  Northern  Africa. 
They  used  a  sword  that  had  a  gold  hilt,    ivory  handle,   and  a 
curved  blade.     Tradition  states  that  in  recognition  of  Lieutenant 
Presley  0 ' Bannon ' s  heroic  actions  in  the  Tripoli  expedition, 
Prince  Hamet  Bey  presented  him  a  Mameluke  sword. 

(4)  The  NCO  sword.     Noncommissioned  officers  of  the 
Marine  Corps  are  the  only  NCOs  in  any  branch  of  the  regular 
United  States  Armed  Forces  who  still  have  the  privilege  of 
carrying  what  is  considered  to  be  a  commissioned  officer's 
weapon.     The  Marine  NCO  sword  rates  as  one  of  the  oldest  U.  S. 
weapons  still  in  use   (second  only  to  the  Mameluke  sword) .  While 
limited  by  regulation  to   "when  in  charge  of  troops  on  ceremonial 
occasions,"   the  sword  is  part  of  our  intangible  esprit  de  corps. 

(5)  Field  hat.   This  was  the  rugged,  picturesque, 
expeditionary  headgear  of  the  Corps  from  1898  until  1942  and 
became  a  universal  favorite.     As  a  result,   although  the  hat 
became  outmoded  during  World  War  II,   General  Cates ,   the  19th 
Commandant,   authorized  its  use  on  the  rifle  range  in  1948  and 
took  steps  to  issue  field  hats  to  all  medalist  shooters  in  the 
Marine  Corps  matches.     Subsequently,    in  1956,   General  Pate,  the 
21st  Commandant,   directed  that  field  hats  be  worn  by  all  recruit 


12-14 


drill  instructors,   and  the  hat  has  become  a  symbol  of  Marine 
Corps  recruit  training. 

1 .     Common  Terms,    Sayings,   and  Quotations 

(1)   First  to  Fight.     Marines  have  been  in  the  forefront 
of  every  American  war  since  the  founding  of  the  Corps.  They 
entered  the  Revolution  in  1775,    even  before  the  Declaration  of 
Independence  was  signed!     Marines  have  carried  out  more  than  3  00 
landings  on  foreign  shores.     They  have  served  everywhere,  from 
the  Arctic  to  tropics;   their  record  for  readiness  reflects  pride, 
responsibility,   and  challenge. 

(2)   Leatherneck .     This  nickname  goes  back  to  the  leather 
stock  or  neckpiece,   which  was  part  of  the  Marine  Corps  uniform 
from  1775  to  1875.     The  leather  collar  was  designed  to  protect 
the  jugular  vein  from  saber  slashes.     It  also  insured  that 
Marines  kept  their  heads  erect  and  maintained  military  bearing. 
Although  no  longer  used,    it  is  commemorated  by  the  standing 
collar  on  the  dress  blue  and  dress  white  uniform. 

(3)  Uncommon  valor  was  a  common  virtue.     Refers  to  the 
victories  in  World  War  II,    especially  at  Iwo  Jima,    the  largest 
all-Marine  battle  in  history.     Admiral  Nimitz ' s  ringing 
characterization  of  Marines  fighting  on  Iwo  Jima  was  applied  to 
the  entire  Marine  Corps  in  World  War  II:      "Uncommon  valor  was  a 
common  virtue." 

(4)  Devil  Dogs.     In  the  Belleau  Wood  fighting  in  1918, 
the  Germans  received  a  thorough  indoctrination  into  the  fighting 
ability  of  Marines.     Fighting  through  supposedly  impenetrable 
woods  and  capturing  supposedly  untakeable  terrain,    the  men  of  the 
4th  Marine  Brigade  struck  terror  in  the  hearts  of  the  Germans, 
who  referred  to  Marines  as  the  Teuf elhunden,   meaning  "fierce 
fighting  dogs  of  legendary  origin"   or  as  popularly  translated, 
"Devil  Dogs . " 

(5)  The  Marine  Corps  Motto.     That  Marines  have  lived  up 
to  their  motto,    Semper  Fidelis   (always  faithful),    is  proven  by 
the  fact  that  there  has  never  been  a  mutiny  among  U.S.  Marines. 
This  motto  was  adopted  about  1883.     Before  that,    there  had  been 
three  mottoes,   all  traditional  rather  than  official.     The  first, 
Fortitudine   (with  fortitude),   appeared  about  1812.     The  second, 
By  Sea  and  by  Land,   was  obviously  a  translation  of  the  Royal 
Marines'    Per  Mare,   Per  Terrem.     Until  1848,    the  third  motto  was 


12-15 


"To  the  Shores  of  Tripoli,"   in  commemoration  of  0 1 Bannon ' s 
capture  of  Derne  in  1805.     In  1848,   after  the  return  to 
Washington  of  the  Marine  battalion  which  took  part  in  the  capture 
of  Mexico  City,    this  motto  was  revised  to   "From  the  Halls  of 
Montezuma  to  the  Shores  of  Tripoli."     The  current  Marine  Corps 
motto  is  shared  with  England's  Devonshire  Regiment. 

(6)  The  President's  Own.     Established  by  an  act  of 
Congress  in  July  1798    (more  than  a  century  before  the  bands  of 
the  other  three  services) ,   the  Marine  Band  has  performed  at  White 
House  functions  for  every  president  except  George  Washington. 
Thomas  Jefferson  was  especially  fond  of  the  band.     Because  of  its 
traditional  privilege  of  performing  at  the  White  House,   the  band 
is  spoken  of  as   "the  President's  Own." 

(7)  Retreat,   Hell!     We  just  got  here!     Fighting  spirit 
and  determination  against  heavy  odds  is  a  sound  tradition  in  the 
Marine  Corps.     Nowhere  is  there  a  more  graphic  illustration  than 
an  incident  which  occurred  in  World  War  I.     Legendary  or  true,  it 
personifies  the  aggressive  attitude  of  Marines.     The  occasion  was 
the  third  great  German  breakthrough  of  1918,  when  the  4th  Marine 
Brigade  and  its  parent  2d  Infantry  Division  were  thrown  in  to 
help  stem  the  tide  in  the  Belleau  Wood  sector.     The  2d  Battalion, 
5th  Marines  had  just  arrived  at  its  position  when  an  automobile 
skidded  to  a  stop  and  a  French  officer  dashed  out  and  approached 
the  commanding  officer.     He  explained  that  a  general  retreat  was 
in  progress  and  that  orders  were  for  the  Marines  to  withdraw. 
The  Marine  officer  exclaimed  in  amazement,    "Retreat  Hell!  We 
just  got  here!"     The  Marines  proceeded  to  prove  their  point.  The 
battalion  deployed  and  took  up  firing  positions.     As  the  Germans 
approached,    they  came  under  rifle  fire  which  was  accurate  at 
ranges  beyond  their  comprehension.     Not  in  vain  had  the  Marine 
Corps  long  stressed  in  its  training  the  sound  principles  of 
marksmanship.     The  deadly  fire  took  the  heart  out  of  the  German 
troops,   and  the  attack  was  stopped. 

m.  Military  etiquette.  There  are  several  Marine  Corps 
customs  and  courtesies,  which  while  possibly  unwritten,  are 
important  for  you  to  know. 

(1)   The  CP's  wishes.     When  the  commanding  officer  states 
"I  wish,"    "I  desire,"  or  similar  expressions,    these  have  the 
force  of  a  direct  order  and  should  be  complied  with  on  that 
basis . 


12-16 


(2)  Reporting  to  seniors.     Juniors  must  report 
immediately  in  correct  uniform  when  requested  by  a  senior.     If  in 
the  field,   on  the  drill  field,   or  on  a  parade  ground,    it  is 
necessary  for  juniors  to  proceed  and  report  on  the  double. 

(3)  Walking  with  a  senior.     When  walking  with  a  senior, 
walk  to  the  left,   one  pace  back,   and  in  step  with  that  senior. 

n .     Social  Occasions 

(1)  Bosses'   Night.     At  periodic  intervals  the  staff 
noncommissioned  officers  of  a  company,    squadron,   battery,  or 
similar  size  unit  invite  the  officers  of  the  unit  to  the  SNCO 
mess  for  an  evening  get-together  known  as   "Bosses'   Night."  Some 
important  ground  rules  that  make  for  a  good  "Bosses'  Night"  are: 

(a)  Always  set  a  reasonable  time  limit.     Do  not  stay 

"all  night . " 

(b)  Do  not  turn  Bosses'   Night  into  a  grievance 

session . 

(c)  Do  not  drink  to  excess. 

(2)  Hail  and  farewell.     When  you  become  attached  to,  or 
depart  from  a  unit,  you  may  be  "hailed  or  farewelled. "     That  is 
your  unit's  way  of  saying  "Welcome  aboard"  or  "thanks  for  a  job 
well  done."     At  a  hail  you  and  your  spouse  will  be  introduced. 
At  a  farewell,  you'll  normally  receive  a  memento  and  be  asked  to 
say  a  few  words . 

(3)  Wetting  Down.     After  a  promotion,   it  is  customary  to 
celebrate  by  spending  your  first  pay  raise  on  your  fellow  Marines 
at  your  favorite  tavern.     Tradition  has  it  that  the  new  grade 
insignia  was  placed  in  the  bottom  of  a  glass  of  spirits,   and  the 
Marine  drank  the  glass  dry.     Remember...  alcoholic  beverages  must 
be  consumed  with  moderation. 

(4)  Dining  In/Out.     This  event  is  a  variation  of  the 
traditional  mess  night.     "Dining  in"  means  that  the  mess  is  open 
to  guests  from  within  the  unit,   while  "dining  out"  opens  the  mess 
to  honored  guests  outside  the  unit. 

o.     Social  do's  and  don'ts.  Common  sense,   tact,   and  ordinary 
courtesy  are  the  fundamentals  of  social  success  in  the  Marine 


12-17 


Corps.     First  impressions  are  most  important.     Remember,  you 
don't  get  a  second  chance  to  make  a  first  impression. 

(1)  Be  on  time.     One  of  the  most  valuable  habits  that  you 
can  acquire  is  that  of  being  on  time.     Promptness  and 
responsibility  go  hand  in  hand. 

(2)  Exhibitionism.     Exhibitionism  means  drawing  attention 
to  yourself  in  a  public  place.     Shouting,   whistling,  clowning, 
loud  laughter,   booing,    or  doing  something  foolish  or  unusual,  is 
unacceptable  conduct,    especially  at  a  social  function.     Do  not 
draw  undue  attention  to  yourself.     If  there  is  any  chance  that 
you  will  be  recognizable  as  a  Marine,   your  conduct  must  be 
impeccable . 

(3)  In  the  company  of  ladies .     A  man  offers  his  arm  only 
to  give  assistance  when  needed,    as  an  escort  at  a  formal  dinner 
or  as  an  usher  at  a  wedding.     Never  grasp  or  take  hold  of  the 
woman's  arm,   unless  an  accident  is  to  be  avoided.     She  will  take 
your  arm,   you  do  not  take  hers.     When  in  uniform  and  covered,  use 
your  left  arm  to  escort  so  that  you  may  render  or  return  salutes . 

(a)  On  the  Street .     A  man  walks  on  the  curb  side, 
outboard  of  a  lady,    thus  sheltering  her.     In  a  crowd,  when  she 
needs  assistance,   or  in  heavy  traffic,   or  going  up  steps,    the  man 
gives  her  his  arm.     Aboard  a  train,   aircraft,    or  bus,   a  woman  is 
offered  the  window  seat.     On  a  bus  or  street  car,   a  Marine  always 
gets  up  and  offers  his  seat  to  a  woman  with  packages  or  children, 
an  elderly  lady,   or  a  pregnant  woman. 

(b)  Decorum.     When  you  are  with  a  lady,  don't 
embarrass  her  by  off -color  jokes,    loud  talking,   violent  gestures, 
or  other  actions  that  may  attract  undue  attention.     Except  in 
crowded  situations  where  the  man  obviously  has  to  "run 
interference,"  you  should  let  the  lady  precede  you,   as  when 
boarding  a  bus  or  going  down  a  theater  aisle. 

(c)  Assistance .     If  a  lady  seems  to  need  help,  you 
should  offer  your  assistance.     But  don't  presume  on  your  act  of 
courtesy  or  helpfulness  by  imposing  on  the  lady  or  trying  to 
strike  up  an  unwanted  acquaintance  with  her. 

(d)  On  your  feet .     At  a  social  occasion,    such  as  a 
dinner  party,  men  should  stand  when  a  woman  enters  the  room, 
remain  standing  until  she  sits  down,   and  rise  again  upon  her 


12-18 


departure.     A  man  is  not  expected  to  stand  every  time  a  hostess 
reenters  or  leaves  a  room.     Stand  up  for  introductions, 
greetings,   and  farewells.     When  a  senior  officer,   dignitary,  or 
elderly  person  comes  to  your  table,  stand. 

(e)    Seating  a  lady.     A  man  assists  the  woman  to  his 
right  with  her  chair  when  she  sits  down  at  the  dining  table,  and 
when  she  rises. 


p.     Reporting  to  a  New  Command.     Report  to  a  new  command  in 
the  service  "A"  uniform.     Ensure  that  you  have  your  original 
orders,   medical  and  dental  records,   OQR  or  SRB,   and  all  receipts 
pertaining  to  lodging  and  transportation. 

q.     Summary .     Always  remember  that  you  are  a  United  States 
Marine.     You  are  representing  the  legions  of  Marines  who  have 
preceded  you  and  built  the  traditions  and  reputations  of  the 
Corps  with  their  blood  and  at  times  their  lives.     Never  do 
anything  to  bring  shame  or  discredit  upon  our  Corps  or  disgrace 
the  honor  of  those  who  have  gone  before.     You  are  the  future  of 
the  Corps,   and  upon  your  shoulders  rests  the  reputation  of  the 
greatest  fighting  force  the  world  has  ever  seen. 


6 .  Appendices 


Appendix  A 
Appendix  B 
Appendix  C 
Appendix  D 


Glossary  of  Traditional  Marine  Corps  Terms 
Significant  Events  in  Marine  Corps  History 
Noteworthy  Individuals  in  Marine  Corps  History 
Significant  Battles  in  Marine  Corps  History 


12-19 


TERM 

ADRIFT 

AFT 

ALL  HANDS 
ASHORE 

AS   YOU  WERE 
AWEIGH 

AYE,   AYE,  SIR 

BELAY 

BELOW 

RRTTAKOTIT 


BRIG 

BROWN  BAGGER 
BOW 

BRIDGE 

3  ROW 

BUTTKIT 
C.  P. 
CARRY  ON 
CHIT 
FAN  TAIL 
FIELD  DAY 
FIELD  SCARF 
FORECASTLE 

GALLEY 


CUSTOMS ,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS 
Appendix  A 

GLOSSARY  OF  TRADITIONAL  MARINE  CORPS  TERMS 
MEANING 

Loose  from  towline  or  moorings;   scattered  about; 
not  in  proper  stowage 

Referring  to  or  toward  the  stern  (rear)  of  a  vesse 
All  members  of  a  command 

Any  place  outside  of  a  naval  or  Marine  Corps 
reservation 

Resume  former  activity 

Said  of  the  anchor.     As   soon  as  the  anchor  has 
broken  away  from  and  :_s  no  longer  fastened  to  the 
bottom 

Required  official  acknowledgment  of  an  order 
out  the  order  cr  instructions 

To  make  fast  or  to  secure,  as  Lik  "belay  the  line,  " 
to   cancel  cr  to  disregard  a  statement  just  made 

Downstairs;   lower  deck 

A  place  cf  confinement;   a  prison 
A  married  man 

The  front  portion  cf  a  ship 

The  portion  cf  a  ship's  structure  from  which  it  is 
controlled  when  underway 

A  portable  walkway  from  the  pier  cr  jetty  to  the 
ship's  quarterdeck 

An  ashtray 

Command  Post  in  the  field 

The  order  to  resume  previous  activity 

A  receipt  or  authorization;   a  piece  of  paper 

The  main  deck  of  a  ship  at  the  stern 

Barracks  cleanup 

Regulation  Marine  Corps  uniform  neck  tie 

The  upperdeck  at  the  bow  on  which  the  ground 
tackle  is  located 

Shipboard  kitchen;   kitchen  of  a  mess  hall; 
mobile  field  mess 


12-20 


GANGWAY 

GATOR 

GEEDUNK 

HATCH 
HEAD 
LADDER 
LIBERTY 

OVERHEAD 

PASSAGEWAY 

PETTY ^OFFICER 

POLICE 

PORT 

QUARTERDECK 


RATE 

SCUTTLEBUTT 

SEABAG 

SECURE 

SHIPPING  OVER 
SICK  BAY 
SKIPPER 
SKYLARK 
SMOKING  LAMP 
SQUARE  AWAY 

STARBOARD 

STERN 

SWAB 

TOPSIDE 

TURN  TO 

WARDROOM 


An  opening  in  the  rail  giving  access  to  the  ship. 
A  command  announcement  to  stand  aside  to  let 
someone  through 

An  amphibious  ship;   one  who  serves  in  the 
amphibious  Navy 

The  place   (aboard  ship)   where  candy,   ice  cream, 
soda,   and  smokes  can  be  purchased 

Door  or  doorway 

Latrine  or  toilet 

Stairs 

Absence  of  enlisted  from  the  ship  or  command  for 
less  than  96  hours   for  purposes  of  rest  and 
recreation  which  is  not  charged  as  leave 

Ceiling 

A  hallway 

A  Navy  N'CO,  E-4  through  E-9 
To  straighten  or  to  tidy  up 
Left 

The  ceremonial  location  on  board  ship  when  the  ship- 
is  moored  cr  az  anchor   (It  is  located  close  to  the 
brow  cr  accommodation  ladder  and  is  the  -watch 
station  for  the  Officer  of  the  Deck) . 

A  sailer's  occupational  specialty 

Gossip  cr  unfounded  rumor;   also  a  drinking  fountain 

The  bag  used  to  stow  personal  gear 

Stop;   finish;   end;  make  fast;  put  away  in  storage 

Reenlisting 

Hospital  or  dispensary 
Commanding  Officer 
Goof-off;   to  loiter 

When  smoking  lamp  is  lit,   smoking  is  authorized. 

To  straighten,   make  ship-shape,   or  to  get  settled, 
inform  or  admonish  someone  in  an  abrupt  manner. 


rear)    of  a  ship 


Right 

The  blunt  end 
A  mop 

Upstairs;   upper  deck 
Begin  work;  get  started 

On  board  ship,   the  officer's  living  room  and  dining 
area;  also  used  to  signify  all  of  the  officers 
serving  on  the  ship 


12-21 


CUSTOMS ,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS 
Appendix  B 

SIGNIFICANT  EVENTS   IN  MARINE  CORPS  HISTORY 


The  Marine  Corps  was  created  on  10  November  1775,   in  Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania,   at  Tun  Tavern,   by  a  resolution  of  the  Continental  Congress  which 
"raised  two  battalions  of  Marines."     In  1834,   the  Marines  came  under  the 
Department  of  the  Navy.     The  National  Security  Act  of  1947,   amended  in  1S52, 
states  the  present  structure,   missions,   and  functions  of  the  Marine  Corps. 


a.  1775  -  The  Continental  Congress  authorized  the  formation  of  two 
battalions  of  Marines,   under  Captain  Samuel  Nicholas,   who  is  traditionally 
considered  the  first  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps. 

b.  1776  -  The  first  Marine  landing  took  place  during  the  Revolutionary 
War.     Marines  invaded  New  Providence  Island  in  the  Bahamas  and  seized  guns  and 
supplies.     The  uniform  cf  the  day  had  a  stiff  leather  stock  that  was  worn 
around  the  neck,   thus  the  nickname  "Leatherneck." 


c.      1795  -  Congress  recreated  the  Marine  Corps  as  a  separate  military 
service . 


d.  18C5  -  Marines   stormed  the  Earbary  pirates'    stronghold  at  Derna  on 
the  "shores  cf  Tripoli."     Marines   raised  the  "Stars  and  Stripes"  for  the  first 
time  in  che  Eastern  Hemisphere. 

e.  1847  -  During  the  Mexican  War,   Marines  occupied  the  "Halls  of 
Montezuma"  during  the  Battle  cf  Chapul tepee  in  Mexico  City.     The  royal  palace 
fell  to  invading  Marines,   who  were  among  the  first  United  States  troops  to 
enter  the  capital.     Marines  also  helped  take  California. 


f.  1859  -  Marines,   under  the  command  of  Colonel  Robert  E.   Lee,   U.  S. 
Army,   stormed  the  United  States  arsenal  at  Harper's  Ferry  to  put  down  an 
attempted  slave  revolt  lead  by  abolitionist,   John  Brown. 

g.  1861  -  Marines  saw  limited  acticn  during  the  Civil  War.     Due  to 
resignations,    an  aging  officer  corps,   and  inadequate  personnel,  effectiveness 
was  hindered.     Marines  served  primarily  with  naval  detachments  at  sea,  rarely 
conducting  operations  ashore,   manning  ship's  guns. 

h.  1868  -  An  emblem  consisting  of  an  eagle,   a  globe,   and  an  anchor  was 
adopted  by  the  Marine  Corps.     Brigadier  General  Jacob  Zeilin,   7th  Commandant, 
modified  the  British   (Royal)   Marine  emblem  to  depict  the  Marines  as  both 
American  and  maritime.     The  globe  and  anchor  signify  worldwide  service  and  sea 
traditions.     The  spread  eagle  is  a  symbol  of  the  Nation  itself. 

i.  1898  -  In  response  to  a  declaration  of  war  against  Spain,  Marines 
conducted  offensive  operations  in  the  Pacific  and  Cuba.     Marine  actions  led  to 
the  establishment  of  several  naval  installations  overseas. 

j .      1900  -  In  support  of  foreign  policy,   Marines  from  ships  on  the 
Asiatic  station  defended  the  American  Legation  in  Peking,   China  during  the 
Boxer  Rebellion.     The  Marines  were  part  of  a  multinational  defense  force  that 
protected  the  Legation  Quarter  against  attack.     This  small  defense  force  held 


12-22 


out  against  the  Boxers  until  a  relief  force  was  able  to  reach  Peking  and  end 
the  rebellion. 

k.      1901  -  During  the  years  1901  to  1934,   the  Marine  Corps  was 
increasingly  used  to  quell  disturbances  throughout  the  world.     From  the  Far 
East  to  the  Caribbean,  Marines  landed  and  put  down  insurrections,   guarded  and 
protected  American  lives  and  property,   and  restored  order.     Due  to  the 
extensive  use  of  Marines  in  various  countries  and  locations  in  the  Caribbean, 
these  actions  come  to  be  known  as  the  "Banana  Wars." 

1.      1913  -  The  Marine  Corps  established  its  aviation  unit.     Marine  Major 
Alfred  A.   Cunningham  was  the  first  pilot. 

m.      1917  -  Marines  landed  as  part  of  the  American  force  in  France. 
Marines,   participating  in  eight  distinct  operations,   distinguished  themselves 
and  were  awarded  a  number  of  decorations,   among  them  the  French  Fourragere, 
still  worn  by  members  of  the  5th  and  5th  Marines. 

n.      1933  -  The  Marine  Corps  was   reorganized  into  the  Fleet  Marine  Force, 
formally  establishing  the  "command  and  administrative  relations"  between  the 
Fleet  and  the  Marine  Corps .     The  Marine  Corps   Equipment  Beard  was  established 
at  Quafiticc,   Virginia,   and  Marines  began  to  devote  long  hours  to  testing  and 
developing  materials   for  landing  operations  and  expeditionary  service. 

c.      1941  -  The  United  States  was   thrust  into  war  following  the 
devastating  surprise  attack  on  Pearl  Harbor  by  Japanese  forces.  Marines 
defended  against  this  attack  and  similar  attacks  throughout  the  Pacific  during 
the  opening  stages  of  the  war.     The  Marine  Corps  was  the  principal  force 
utilized  by  the  Allies  in  execution  of  a  strategy  of  "island  hopping" 
campaigns.     The  earlier  development  of  amphibious  doctrine  proved  to  be 
invaluable  in  carrying  out  this  strategy.     The  strength  of  the  Marine  Corps 
reached  nearly  500,000  during  World  War  II. 

p.      1950  -  Conflict  in  Korea  tested  Marine  Corps  combat  readiness.  The 
Marines   responded  to  the  attack  by  North  Korean  forces  by  quickly  assembling 
the  First  Marine  Provisional  Brigade  from  the  under-strength  1st  Marine 
Division.     These  Marines  shipped  out  and  were  later  used  to  rescue  the 
crumbling  Pusan  perimeter.     Marine  forces  further  displayed  their  combat 
readiness  and  versatility  by  making  an  amphibious  landing  over  the  seawalls  at 
Inchon.     Marine  aviators   flew  helicopters   for  the  first  time  in  battle. 

q.    1958  -  The  Marine  Corps  completed  reorganizing  the  combat  structure  of 
its  Fleet  Marine  Force.     The  Marines  created  units  equipped  to  conduct  landing 
operations  in  either  atomic  or  nonatomic  warfare.     The  Marine  Corps  had  the 
ability  for  the  Fleet  to  go  where  it  was  needed,   to  stay  there,   and  to  readily 
project  its  power  ashore  as  the  cutting  edge  of  sea  power.     This  concept  was 
put  to  use  when  Marines  landed  near  Beirut,   Lebanon  at  the  request  of  the 
Lebanese  government  to  support  its  army  against  internal  strife.  The  Marines 
helped  stabilize  the  situation  and  were  withdrawn  after  a  few  months. 

r.      1965  -  Marines  landed  in  South  Vietnam,   which  committed  the  Marine 
Corps  to  the  longest  war  in  its  history.     Marines  conducted  numerous  large 
scale  offensive  operations  throughout  the  course  of  the  war,   as  well  as 
participating  in  the  pacification  program  designed  to  win  the  support  of  the 
local  populace.     Also,   in  response  to  an  attempted  coup  of  the  local 
government,   Marines  landed  in  the  Dominican  Republic  to  evacuate  and  protect 
U.   S.   citizens.     The  Marines  formed  the  core  of  a  multinational  force  that 
quickly  restored  the  peace. 


12-23 


s.      1982  -  Marines  deployed  to  Lebanon  as  part  of  a  multinational 
peacekeeping  force  in  an  effort  to  restore  peace  and  order  to  this  war-torn 
country.     This  action  further  displayed  the  Marine  concept  of  a  "Force  in 
Readiness."     On  23  October,    1983,   a  suicide  truck  bomb  attack  on  the 
headquarters  building  killed  241  Americans  and  wounded  70  others.     The  last 
Marine  unit  withdrew  in  July  of  1984. 

t.      1983  -  Following  assassination  of  the  Prime  Minister  and  violent 
overthrow  of  the  government  of  Grenada,   Marines  participated  in  Urgent  Fury, 
joint  military  operation,   in  response  to  a  request  for  intervention  from 
neighboring  Caribbean  nations.     The  Marines'   rapid  response  led  to  the 
securing  of  the  island  and  the  safeguarding  of  hundreds  of  American  citizens 
living  there. 

u.      1989  -  In  response  to  the  increasing  unrest  in  Panama,   the  President 
of  the  United  States  ordered  a  joint  military  operation,   Just  Cause,  to 
overthrow  the  military  government  of  Panama  headed  by  General  Manuel  Noriega. 
United  States   forces,   including  Marines,   accomplished  this  mission  and 
installed  a  civilian  government.     This  same  government  had  been  denied  office 
after  free  elections  were  illegally  declared  invalid  by  Noriega's  government. 
General*  Noriega,   under  indictment  in  the  United  States  for  drug  trafficking 
and  racketeering,   was   arrested  and  sent  to  the  United  States   for  trial. 

v.      199Q  -  Following  the  invasion  of  Kuwait  by  Iraqi  forces,  Operation 
Desert  Shield  was  launched.     This  joint  military  operation  was  designed  to 
halt  the  advance  of  Iraqi   forces  and  to  position  multinational  forces 
assembled  for  possible  offensive  operations  to  expel  the  invading  force.  Thi 
operation  validated  the  Marine  Corps  1  Maritime  Prepositioning  Force  (MPF) 
concept  and  enacted  che  plan  of  tailoring  units  to  accomplish  a  mission  as 
part  of  a  Marine  Air  Ground  Task  Force    (MAGTF; . 

w.      1991  -  Operation  Desert  Storm  was  launched  after  the  Iraqi  governmen 
refused  to  comply  with  United  Nations'   resolutions.     Marine  aviation  was 
heavily  used  when  the  air  phase  commenced  in  January  of  1991.     When  massive 
bombing  failed  to  dislodge  Iraqi  forces,   Marine  ground  forces  swept  into 
Kuwait  and  liberated  the  country,    causing  severe  damage  to  the  Iraqi  military 
capability . 


12-24 


CUSTOMS ,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS 
Appendix  C 


NOTEWORTHY  INDIVIDUALS   IN  MARINE  CORPS  HISTORY 


a.  PRESLEY  NEVILLE  O * BANNON .     First  Lieutenant  O'Bannon  is  remembered 
for  heroism  in  the  battle  for  the  harbor  fortress  of  Derna   (Tripoli)   in  the 
Mediterranean.     O'Bannon's  Marines  were  the  first  U.S.   forces  to  hoist  the 
flag  over  territory  in  the  Old  World.     The  "Mameluke"  sword,   carried  by 
Marines  officers  today,   was  presented  to  O'Bannon  in  1805. 

b.  ARCHIBALD  HENDERSON.     Brevet  Brigadier  General  Archibald  Henderson 
became  Commandant  in  1820  and  held  his  command  until  his  death  in  1859,  a 
period  of  39  years.     General  Henderson  led  the  Corps  through  the  Indian  Wars, 
the  War  with  Mexico,   the  "opening"  of  China,   and  the  disorders  in  Central 
America.      The   "Grand  Old  Man  of  the  Marine  Corps,"   as  he  is  often  called, 
introduced  higher  standards  of  personal  appearance,    training,   discipline,  and 
strived  to  have  the  Marine  Corps  known  as  a  professional  military  force, 
capabl«  of  more  than  just  sea  and  guard  duties. 

c.  JOHN  H.   QUICK.      Sergeant  Major  Quick  is   remembered  for  his 
performance  at  Cuzco  Well    (Guantanamo  Bay,    Cuba),   where  he  participated  in  an 
operation  tc  seize  an  advanced  ba  se  for  the  Atlantic  Fleet  battalion  of 
Marines.     The  Sergeant  Major  won  the  Medal  of  Honor  for  semaphoring  for  an 
emergency  life  of  the  naval  bombardment  while  under  Spanish  and  American 
shellfire.     The  landing  at  Guantanamo  demonstrated  the  usefulness  of  Marines 
as  assault  troops.     When  employed  with  the  fleet,   Marines  gave  added  strength 
for  the     capture  and  defense  of  advanced  bases,   becoming  a  primary  mission  of 
the  Marine  Corps    (1898) . 

d.  DANIEL  DALY.     Sergeant  Major  Daly  is  recognized  for  earning  two 
Medals  of  Honor:      (1)    Chinese  Boxer  Rebellion  and   (2)    First  Caco  War  in  Haiti. 
When  his  unit  had  been  pinned  down  and  their  attack  was  stalled  during  the 
Battle  of  Belleau  Wood,    then  Gunnery  Sergeant  Daly  yelled  to  his  men,  "Come 
on,   you  sons  of  a  b  ,   do  you  want  to  live  forever?" 

e.  SMEDLEY  D.   BUTLER.     Major  Butler  is  recognized  for  earning  two  Medals 
of  Honor:      (1)   Veracruz  and   (2)    First  Caco  War  in  Haiti.     By  the  end  of  1916, 
the  Marine  Corps  was  recognized  as  a  national  force  in  readiness  and  for 
leadership  gained  from  continual  combat  and  expeditionary  experience. 

f.  JOHN  A.   LEJEUNE.     Major  General  Lejeune  served  as  13th  Commandant  of 
the  Marine  Corps,    1920-1929.     LeJeune  was  the  first  Marine  officer  ever  to 
command  an  army  division  in  combat,   in  France  during  World  War  I    (1918)  . 

g.  LEWIS  B.    ("CHESTY")   PULLER.     Lieutenant  General  Puller  served  in 
Nicaragua  through  several  periods  of  political  unrest  and  rebellious  activity. 
Puller  and  a  force  of  about  32  Marines  became  famous  for  their  ability  to 
engage  rebel  groups  and  bandits  while  scouring  the  jungles  in  a  wide  area  of 
Nicaragua  to  the  Honduran  border.     Puller  became  known  as  the  "Tiger  of  the 
Mountains"    (1930).     The  Marine  Corps'  mascot,   an  English  bulldog  named 
"Chesty, " ^is  named  for  this  brave  and  fine  Marine  Corps  officer. 

h.  JOSEPH  L.   FOSS.     Captain  Foss  was  a  Marine  pilot  instrumental  in 
taking  the  Japanese  airfield  at  Guadalcanal.     For  his  participation,  the 
Captain  was  awarded  the  Medal  of  Honor.     By  the  end  of  World  War  II,    Foss  was 
the  second-ranking  Marine  ace,   with  26  victories    ("kills'')    to  his  credit 

(1942)  . 


12-25 


i.     GREGORY  R.    ("PAPPY")   BOYINGTON.     Major  Boyington  is  recognized  for 
Marine  prowess  in  aerial  dogfights.      "Pappy"  commanded  VMH-214,   the  "Black 
Sheep,"  during  World  War  II.     By  the  end  of  the  War,   the  Major  was  recognized 
as  the  Marine  Corps'   top  ranking  flying  ace  with  28  victories  ("kills") 
(1945). 

j.     IRA  H.   HAYES.     The  Fifth  Amphibious  Corps  of  Marines,   commanded  by 
Major  General  Harry  Schmidt,   was  assigned  to  take  Iwo  Jima .     Corporal  Ira 
Hayes,   a  Pima  Indian,  was  one  of  the  Marines  immortalized  in  the  now  famous 
photograph   (not  shown)   taken  of  the  second  flag  raising  incident  on  Mount 
Suribachi,    shortly  after  the  Japanese  stronghold  was  taken  on  23  February, 
19  4  5. 

k.      OPHA  MAE  JOHNSON .      Private  Johnson  became  the  Marine  Corps'  first 
enlisted  woman  on  13  August,    1918.     Her  enlistment  was  a  reflection  of  the 
dramatic  changes  in  the  status  of  women  brought  about  by  the  entry  of  the 
United  States  into  World  War  I.     Marine  Reserve    (F)   was  the  official  title  by 
which  the  Marine  Corps'    first  enlisted  women  were  known.     They  were  better 
known  as   "skirt  Marines"  and  "Marinettes . " 
■< 

1.     ANNIE  L.   GRIMES.     CWC  Grimes  was  the  third  black  woman  to  become  a 
Marine  and  the  first  black  woman  officer  to  retire  after  her  "full  20." 

m.     MARGARET  A.    BREWER.     Brigadier  General   Brewer,    then  a  Colonel,  served 
as   the  Director  of  Women  Marines    (WM)    during  the  perioc  1973-1977.      She  was 
the  seventh  and  last  Director  of  WMs ,    the  only  pcst-Wcrid  War  woman  tc  hold 
the  position.     Margaret  Brewer  became  the  Marine  Corps'    first  woman  general 
officer  on   J  j   Mav  1978. 

n.     MOLLY  MARINE.      "Molly,"  a  monument  in  New  Orleans  to  women  who  serve 
and  have  served  as  Marines,   was  dedicated  cn  the  Marine  Corps  birthday  in 
194  3.     The  first  statue  of  a  woman  in  uniform  anywhere  in  the  world  was  that 
of  Joan  D'Arc,    in  full  armor,   in  Orleans,    France;   it  is  only  fitting  that  the 
first  statue  of  a  woman  in  uniform  in  the  United  States  reside  in  New  Orleans. 


12-26 


CUSTOMS,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS 
Appendix  D 

SIGNIFICANT  BATTLES  IN  MARINE  CORPS  HISTORY 


a.  The  BATTLE  OF  BLADENSBURG:     In  August  of  1814,    103  Marines  and  400 
sailors  made  a  vain  attempt  to  block  a  force  of  4,000  disciplined  British 
troops   from  advancing  on  Washington.     The  Marines  stopped  three  headlong 
charges  before  finally  being  outflanked  and  driven  back.     The  British  then 
moved  down  Bladensburg  Road  to  Washington  where  they  burned  a  number  of  public 
buildings  before  retiring  to  their  vessels  in  the  Chesapeake  Bay. 

b.  The  BATTLE  OF  NEW  ORLEANS:      In  January  of  1815,   Marines   under  the 
command  of  General  Andrew  Jackscr.  soundly  defeated  British  Forces  that  were 
attacking  the  city  of  New  Orleans.     The  British  lost  approximately  2,000  men 
while  American  losses  were  less  than  100. 

c.  The  BATTLE  OF  BELLEAU  WOOD:     Marines   fought  one  of  their  greatest 
battles  in  history  at  Belleau  Wood,    France,   during  World  War  I.  Marines 
heiped"*to  crush  a  German  offensive  at  Belleau  Weed  that  threatened  Paris.  In 
honor  of  the  Marines  who  fought  there,   the  French  renamed  the  area   "the  Weed 
ef  the  Brigade  of  Marines.".     German  intelligence  evaluated  the  Marines  as 
"storm  troops"  --  the  highest  rating  on  the  enemy  fighting  scale.  In 
reference  to  the  Marine's   ferocious   fighting  ability,   German  troops  cailec 
their  new  enemy  "Teuf  eihunder."  or  "Devi  I  dogs,  ™  a  nickname  in  which  Marines 
share  pride. 

d.  The  BATTLE  OF  WAKE  IS  LAN-Si     In  1941,    following  the  air  attack  on 
Pearl  Harbor,    the  Japanese  struck  Wake  Island  on  8   December.      Despite  being 
heavily  outnumbered,    the  Marines  mounted  a  courageous  defense  before  finally 
falling  on  23  December.     This  small   force  of  Marines  caused  an  extraordinary 
number  of  Japanese  casualties  and  damage  to  the  invading  force. 

e.  The  BATTLE  OF  GUADALCANAL:      On  7  August   1342,    the   1st  Marine  Division 
landed  on  the  beaches  of  Guadalcanal  in  the  Solomon  Islands  and  launched  the 
first  United  States  land  offensive  of  World  War  II.     This  battle  marked  the 
first  combat  test  of  the  new  amphibious  doctrine,   and  also  provided  a  crucial 
turning  point  of  the  war  in  the  Pacific  by  providing  a  base  to  launch  further 
invasions  of  Japanese-held  islands.     Amphibious  landings  followed  on  the 
remaining  Solomon  Islands  including  New  Georgia,   Choiseul    (Feint),  and 
Bougainville . 

f.  The  BATTLE  OF  TARAWA:     The  Gilbert  Islands  were  the   first  in  the  line 
of  advance  for  the  offensive  in  the  Central  Pacific.     The  prime  objective  was 
the  Tarawa  Atoll  and  Betio  Island  which  had  been  fortified  to  the  point  that 
the  Japanese  commander  proclaimed  that  it  would  take  a  millon  Americans  100 
years  to  conquer  it.     On  20  November  1943,   Marines  landed  and  secured  the 
island  within  76  hours,   but  paid  a  heavy  price  in  doing  so.     Because  of  an 
extended  reef,   landing  craft  could  not  cross  it,   and  Marines  were  offloaded 
hundreds  of  yards   from  the  beaches.     This  led  to  heavy  losses   from  enemy  fire. 
Additionally,   many  Marines  drowned  while  attempting  to  wade  ashore. 

g.  The  BATTLE  OF  THE  MARIANA  ISLANDS:      Due  to  the  need  for  airfields  by 
the  Air  Force  and  advanced  bases  for  the  Navy,   the  Marianas  were  invaded. 
This  was  accomplished  by  landings  on  the  islands  of  Saipan,   Guam,   and  Tinian. 
During  June  and  July  of  1943,   Lieutenant  General  Holland  M.   Smith  led  a 
combined  invasion  force  of  Marines  and  soldiers  that  totaled  over  136,000. 


12-27 


This  was  the  greatest  number  of  troops,  up  to  that  time,   to  operate  in  the 
field  under  Marine  command. 

h.  The  BATTLE  OF  I WO  JIMA:     On  19  February  1945,   Marines  landed  on  I wo 
Jima  in  what  was  the  largest  all-Marine  battle  in  history.     It  was  also  the 
bloodiest  in  Marine  Corps  history.     The  Marine  Corps  suffered  over  23,300 
casualties .     The  capture  of  Iwo  Jima  greatly  increased  the  air  support  and 
bombing  operations  against  the  Japanese  home  islands.     Of  the  savage  battle, 
Admiral  Chester  W.   Nimitz  said,    "Among  the  Americans  who  served  on  Iwo  Island, 
uncommon  valor  was  a  common  virtue." 

i.  The  BATTLE  OF  OKINAWA:     In  April  of  1945,   Marines  and  soldiers  landed 
and  secured  the  island  of  Okinawa.     This  marked  the  last  large  action  of  World 
War  II.      Due  to  the  death  of  the  Army  commander,   Major  General  Roy  S.  Geiger 
assumed  command  of  the  10th  Army  and  became  the  only  Marine  officer  ever  to 
have  commanded  a  field  Army. 

j.      The  BATTLE  OF  THE  CHCSIN  RESERVOIR:     After  pushing  far  into  North 
Korea  during  November  of  195C,   Marines  were  cut  off  after  the  Chinese 
Communist  Forces  entered  the  war.     Despite  facing  a  IC-division  force  sent  to 
annihilate  them,   Marines  smashed  seven  enemy  divisions  in  their  march  from  the 
Chosin  Reservoir.   The  major  significance  of  this   retrograde  movement  was  that 
Marines  brought  cut  all  operable  equipment,   properly  evacuated  their  wounded 
and  dead,   and  maintained  tactical  integrity. 

k.     The  SECOND  BATTLE  OF  KHE  SANK:     In  January  of  1968,   Marines  defended 
the  firebase  at  Khe  Sanh  from  an  attack  force  of  two  North  Vietnamese  Army 
(NVA)    divisions.      Despite  heavy  bombardment,    the  Marines  held  out  for  over  two 

I.      'The  BATTLE  OF  HUE  CITY:      During  the  Vietnamese  holiday  of  Tet  in 
January  of  196S,   Communist  forces  launched  a  surprise  offensive  by 
infiltrating  large  numbers  of  their  troops  into  the  major  population  centers 
of  Hue  Cicy,    South  Vietnam.     A  near  division-size  unit  of  NVA  troops  occupied 
the  city  of  Hue  and  the  Citadel.     Marines   fought  in  built-up  areas  for  the 
first  time  since  the  Korean  War  foregoing  the  application  of  heavy  arms  to 
minimize  civilian  casualties.     Fighting  was  house-to-house  with  progress 
measured  in  yards.     The  city  was  secured  on  25  February  1968. 

RESOURCES: 

Marine  Corps  Museum  Historical  Pamphlets 
Marine  Corps  Manual 


12-28 


I 


< 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

USMC  COUNSELING  PROGRAM 

1.  Introduction .     This  program  was  designed  for  you,    the  leader, 
to  develop  skills  in  communicating  with  your  Marines.     It  also 
addresses  existing  requirements  regulating  the  frequency  and 
conduct  of  interpersonal  communications .     You  as  a  leader  are 
responsible  for  correcting  and  commending  Marines  who  work  under 
you.     To  perform  this  task  effectively  you  will  have  to  use 
communication  skills. 

2.  Overview.     There  are  two  purposes  for  this  lesson.   First,  it 
will  educate  leaders  on  how  to  conduct  a  counseling  session  in 
accordance  with  the  Marine  Corps  order  on  counseling.     Second,  it 
provides  a  basis  to  instruct  your  subordinate  leaders  as  part  of 
developing  your  unit  counseling  program.     We'll  accomplish  those 
goals  by  taking  a  look  at  the  different  types  of  counseling,  the 
frequency  that  counseling  should  occur,   the  parts  of  a  formal 
counseling  session,   and  counseling  techniques. 

3 .  References 

MCO  P1610.12,   Marine  Corps  Counseling  Program 
NAVMC  279  5,   User's  Guide  to  Counseling 

4.  Discussion .     Before  1984,    the  principle  tool  for  counseling 
was  the  fitness  report.     The  report  can  be  a  useful  tool,   but  it 
focuses  on  past  performance:     successes  and  failures  of  duties 
already  accomplished.     How  can  you  improve  future  performance  of 
your  Marines? 

a.     The  Marine  Corps  counseling  program. 

(1)   The  Marine  Corps  counseling  program  consists  of  two 
parts.     The  first  is  performance  evaluation,   contained  in  the 
fitness  report  or  pro/con  marks,   and  is  based  upon  the  documented 
past  performance  of  the  Marine.     The  second  part  and  what  we  are 
going  to  focus  on  today  is  PERFORMANCE  COUNSELING  which  focuses 
on  the  Marine's  future.     These  two  program  parts  are  considered 
to  be  separate  but  complementary. 


13-1 


(2)    Performance  counseling  should  be  a  two-way 
communication  between  the  junior  and  senior  that  is  positive  and 
forward  looking  with  the  ultimate  purpose  of  developing  the 
individual  Marine.     The  aim  is  to  strengthen  an  individual's 
performance,   and  by  so  doing  make  our  unit  more  capable  of  going 
places  and  achieving  objectives. 

b.     The  counseling  process.     The  counseling  process  is 
broken  down  into  three  types  of  counseling  sessions:  initial, 
follow-on,   and  event  related.       Initial  and  follow-on  sessions 
are  considered  FORMAL  counseling.     Event-elated  sessions  are 
defined  as  INFORMAL  counseling. 

(1)  Let's  start  off  by  discussing  the  first  type  of 
counseling-f ormal  counseling.   The  characteristics  of  a  formal 
counseling  session  are  that  it  is  planned: 

(a)  The  senior  evaluates  how  the  Marine  has  been 

doing . 

(b)  The  senior  develops  future  targets. 

(c)  The  Marine  is  informed  of  the  upcoming  session 
and  its  content. 

(d)  The  senior  prepares  an  agenda  ahead  of  time. 

(2)  How  much  time  should  you  set  aside  for  a  formal 
counseling  session?     1  hour?     2  hours?     30  minutes?     The  answer 
is  to  make  sure  you  don't  shortchange  the  Marine.   You  must  allot 
sufficient  time  to  focus  on  the  junior's  overall  performance  and 
SPECIFIC  expected  accomplishments  over  the  next  several  weeks  or 
months . 

(3)  The  initial  counseling  session  is  the  first  time  that 
the  two  of  you  have  formally  sat  down  and  discussed  the  future  of 
the  junior  Marine.     This  session  should  lay  the  ground  work  for 
the  continuing  professional  relationship.     This  is  when  the 
senior  explains  his/her  goals  and  expectations  for  the  unit,  and 
how  they  relate  to  the  junior.     They  should  also  jointly  arrive 
at  targets  for  the  junior  to  meet  before  the  next  session. 

(4)  Any  other  formal  session  that  occurs  after  that 
initial  session  is  considered  to  be  a  FOLLOW-ON  session.  Here 
the  individual ' s  progress  is  monitored,   any  problems  are  worked 


13-2 


on,   and  senior  and  junior  plan  future  targets  for  the  next 
period . 

c.     Frequency  of  counseling. 

(1)  An  initial  counseling  session  must  occur  according  to 
the  Marine  Corps  order  within  3  0  days  of  the  establishment  of  a 
new  senior  subordinate  relationship.     What  do  we  mean  by  a  new 
senior  subordinate  relationship?     Does  this  mean  that  you  have  to 
conduct  a  formal  initial  counseling  session  with  every  Marine  in 
your  platoon  within  3  0  days?  NO. 

(2)  A  platoon  commander  will  normally  only  counsel 
his/her  platoon  sergeant,   and  squad  leaders  formally.  He/she 
would  then  briefly  speak  to  each  of  the  corporals  and  below,  but 
who  will  be  counseling  the  corporals?     That's  right,  the 
sergeants  will,   and  who  will  be  counseling  the  lance  corporals 
and  below?     That's  right,   the  corporals  will.     Thus,  you  must 
also  be  able  to  teach  these  techniques  to  your  subordinate 
leaders . 

(3)  It  is  clear  that  lance  corporals  and  below  must 
receive  a  follow-on  session  every  30  days.     These  Marines  have 
the  most  developing  to  do  and  need  more  frequent  feedback.  For 
corporals  and  above,   once  the  initial  counseling  session  is  done, 
a  follow-on  counseling  session  must  occur  within  90  days.  After 
that  a  follow-on  session  must  be  done  at  least  every  6  months. 

d.     Five  elements  of  a  formal  counseling  session.     Now  let's 
look  at  the  actual  parts  of  a  formal  counseling  session.  These 
are  the  five  elements. 

Preparation 
Opening 
Main  Body 
Closing 
Follow-Up 

(1)   Let's  look  first  at  the  PREPARATION  phase.  The 
preparation  phase  is  where  the  seniors  make  their  money.  They 
should : 

(a)   Review  the  Marine's  current  performance  in 
relation  to  the  previous  targets  that  were  set . 


13-3 


(b)  Give  the  junior  advance  notice  of  the  time  and 
content  of  the  session. 

(c)  Select  an  appropriate  location.     Should  you 
always  use  your  office?     That's  convenient,   but  consider  neutral 
ground,    like  a  conference  room  where  you  are  less  apt  to  be 
interrupted . 

(d)  Make  a  plan,    or  AGENDA,    in  writing  for  the 
session.     Use  this  as  a  guide  to  help  you  conduct  the  session. 

(e)  Decide  what  approach  to  take. 

Directive   (senior  does  the  talking) 
Non-directive   (junior  does  the  talking) 
Collaborative   (both  do  the  talking) 

(2)  Once  the  preparation  phase  is  done  you  are  actually 
ready  to  conduct  the  session.     Which  takes  us  to  the  next  element 
of  a  formal  session,    the  OPENING.     The  Marine  will  formally 
report  to  you  and  you  should  set  him  at  ease  by  making  some  small 
talk,   or  maybe  offering  him  some  coffee. 

(3)  Now  you  are  ready  for  the  MAIN  BODY  of  the  counseling 
session.   This  is  when  you  review  the  Marine's  progress  against 
previous  targets,   and  develop  a  plan  and  targets  for  the  next 
period.     Unless  you  are  using  a  complete  directive  approach, 
ensure  that  you  INVOLVE  THE  MARINE  IN  THE  PROCESS.      If  he  feels 
that  he  has  input  into  his  own  future,   he  will  be  that  much  more 
inclined  to  excel. 

(4)  CLOSING.     At  this  point  you  must  ensure  the  Marine 
understands  the  targets  and  is  committed  to  them.     If  you  don't 
summarize  what  conclusions  have  been  reached,   you  risk  having  the 
Marine  leave  without  being  on  your   "sheet  of  music." 

(5)  FOLLOW-UP.     Two  things  occur  during  this  last  element 
of  a  formal  session:     documentation  and  follow-up.  Documentation 
is  not  mandatory,   but  highly  recommended.     You  can  use  the  forms 
located  in  the  Marine  Corps  guide  for  counseling,   which  contains 
one  example  for  lance  corporals  and  below  and  one  form  for 
corporals  and  above.   Follow-up  is  simply  that.     If  Sgt  White  said 
that  he  was  committed  to  showing  up  with  a  fresh  haircut  on 
Mondays  to  improve  his  military  appearance,    then  next  Monday  you 
should  be  specifically  looking  for  that. 


13-4 


e.  The  informal  counseling  session.     Now  let's  discuss 
informal  sessions.     Judgment  and  common  sense  determine  when 
informal  counseling  is  required. 

(1)  This  counseling  normally  happens  when  the  junior  or 
senior  sees  a  need  for  it,    i.e.    it  is  usually  event  driven.  The 
event  can  be  positive  or  negative,   and  the  session  should  be  kept 
short  and  reinforce  a  specific  aspect  of  performance.    "Sgt  White, 
last  week  you  told  me  you  were  committed  to  making  an  improvement 
in  your  appearance.     It's  Monday  morning,   and  you  look  like  a 
seabag  with  lips.     Find  some  way  to  get  your  melon  scraped  in  the 
next  30  minutes."     Also  remember  that  it  can  and  should  MORE 
OFTEN  be  on  the  positive  side.      "Sgt  White,   you're  looking  sharp 
today,    that's  exactly  what  you  needed  to  do  to  improve  that 
military  presence." 

(2)  Now  that  we've  covered  the  two  types  of  counseling 
which  are  what?    (formal  and  informal),   and  the  three  types  of 
counseling  sessions,   which  are?    (initial,    follow-on,   and  event 
related),    let's  talk  about  some  counseling  techniques.     We  will 
look  at  six  techniques  for  effective  counseling. 

f.  Counseling  techniques. 

(1)    Setting  targets.     Let's  look  at  the  first:  setting 
targets.     Realistic  and  specific  targets  are  set  during  formal 
sessions,   and  should  be  considered  a  motivational  tool  as  well  as 
a  way  to  measure  a  Marine's  progress. 

(a)  Targets  must  be  measurable,  realistic, 
challenging,   and  you  MUST  have  them  in  order  to  effectively 
improve  an  individual's  performance.   They  need  to  be  SPECIFIC. 
Which  is  better?   "Sgt  White,   you  and  I  have  determined  that  if 
you  have  a  better  military  appearance  it  will  add  to  your 
leadership  abilities."     or...    "Sgt  White,   as  part  of  our  plan  to 
improve  your  appearance,    let's  say  that  every  Monday  morning,  you 
will  have  a  fresh  haircut,   and  a  set  of  utilities  straight  from 
the  cleaners.     Do  you  think  you  can  do  that?" 

(b)  These  targets  should  be  limited  in  number  to 
avoid  over-burdening  the  Marine,   and  unless  it  is  a  directive 
session,    they  should  be  jointly  set  by  the  junior  and  senior. 
Only  revise  them  if  circumstances  outside  of  the  person's  control 
change,   not  if  the  Marine  cannot  perform  them. 


13-5 


(2)  Problem  solving.     The  next  counseling  technique  is 
problem  solving.     This  technique  is  used  when  something  has 
occurred  that  is  hindering  the  Marine's  performance.  The 
questions  on  the  slide  are  from  the  counseling  handbook,  and 
although  they  look  wordy,    if  you  ask  each  of  them  according  to 
the  situation,    they  can  help  sort  out  the  problem. 

(a)  Perhaps  when  you  ask  "If  there  is  something  about 
the  junior  that  is  preventing  performance?",   you  might  find  out 
that  he  does  not  have  the  required  mental  or  physical  ability. 
When  you  ask  the  question,    "Is  there  something  outside  his 
control  that  is  hindering  him?",   you  will  find  out  that  he  does 
not  know  that  his  performance  is  not  meeting  expectations.  Does 
he  have  the  necessary  knowledge?     Or  is  he  missing  certain 
necessary  skills?     Perhaps  the  Marine  has  an  attitude  that 
prevents  him  from  progressing. 

(b)  Whatever  the  problem  turns  out  to  be,   we  must 
always  be  willing  to  consider  that  it  might  be  something  outside 
the  junior's  control.     More  often  than  not,   it  is  something  that 
we  have  not  done  correctly.     Confusion  caused  by  poor  targets, 
lack  of  feedback  on  his  performance,   and  lack  of  positive 
reinforcement  are  common  problems.     Others  can  be  conflicting 
demands  on  the  junior's  time,    insufficient  resources,   and  lack  of 
delegated  authority  to  achieve  desired  results. 

(c)  Once  the  problem  is  identified,  we  need  to  start 
looking  at  solutions.     You  must  look  at  these  factors  and  decide 
if  the  solution  you  have  picked  is  the  best  one.     Above  all,  it 
should  be  realistic  and  as  simple  as  possible. 

(3)  Questioning.     The  next  counseling  technique  is 
questioning.     Questioning  is  valuable  as  a  tool  to  bring 
problems,   viewpoints,   and  attitudes  to  the  surface,   and  to 
stimulate  thinking.     There  are  four  types  of  questioning  which 
are  closely  related  to  the  type  of  counseling  approach  you  decide 
to  use. 

(a)  The  closed  ended  question.     Commonly  used  when 
you  want  a  yes  or  no  answer.     What  counseling  approach  would  best 
be  supported  by  this  type  of  counseling?     Yes,    the  direct 
approach . 

(b)  The  open  ended  question.     This  prompts  the 
individual  to  give  an  explanation  and  forces  them  to  open  up  more 
in  order  to  share  their  thoughts.     What  counseling  approach  would 
be  best  served  by  this  kind  of  question?     That's  right,  the 
non-directive  approach. 


13-6 


(c)  The  probing  question.     This  kind  of  question  is 
meant  to  take  the  conversation  further  and  force  the  junior  to 
think.      "What  now,    lieutenant"   is  a  common  one  asked  at  TBS. 

(d)  The  interpretive  question.     This  question  is  one 
where  you  draw  a  conclusion  and  solicit  the  other's  agreement  or 
disagreement.     This  is  a  good  way  to  wrap  up  a  series  of 
questions  and  to  draw  conclusions. 

(4)   Active  listening.     The  next  counseling  technique  is 
active  listening.     When  you  manage  to  get  your  Marines  to  open  up 
to  you,   you  must  be  able  to  listen  to  what  they  are  saying  and 
interpret  it.     There  are  two  barriers  that  can  prevent  you  from 
doing  this;   lack  of  concentration,   and  filters. 

(a)  Lack  of  concentration  is  simply  that.     We  listen 
four  times  faster  than  we  speak,   and  often  we  use  that  extra  time 
to  think  about  something  else,    like  what  we're  going  to  say  next. 
It  is  essential  that  you  give  100%  of  your  attention  to  the 
Marine.     All  the  more  important  that  you  have  scheduled  the 
session  in  a  place  and  time  where  you  will  not  be  interrupted. 

(b)  Filters  occur  when,   because  of  a  bias,   we  refuse 
to  listen  to  a  person.     A  Marine  ignores  directions  because  he 
does  not  like  the  appearance  of  the  person  giving  directions. 
What  would  be  some  other  examples  of  filters?     If  you  think 
someone  is  unintelligent,    out  of  shape,    speaks  differently  or  is 
from  a  different  background. 

(c)  Some  techniques  for  effective  listening: 

[1]   Listen  for  generalizations  or  threads  of 
meaning  that  can  be  deduced  from  the  facts. 

[2]   Listen  for  facts    (Pvt  Jones  was  30  minutes 
late)   and  distinguish  them  from  opinions    (Pvt  Jones  doesn't  care 
about  doing  a  good  job) . 


13-7 


[3]   Listen  for  changes  in  tone  of  voice,    rate  of 
speech,   and  volume.   This  may  indicate  that  the  junior  is  unsure 
about  something  or  may  not  want  to  come  forth  with  some 
information.     Watch  for  non-verbal  cues    (avoiding  eye  contact, 
slumping,   clenched  fists) .     Remember,   active  listening  is  not 
only  hearing  what  is  said,   but  it  is  also  interpreting  the 
meaning  of  what  is  said. 

(5)  Feedback.     The  next  counseling  technique  is  giving 
feedback.     Feedback  is  basically  letting  someone  know  how  they 
are  doing.     Unless  it  is  a  directive  session,   you  should  use  more 
positive  that  negative  reinforcement.     Focus  on  specific  actions 
and  events  and  not  personal  issues.     Relate  the  feedback  to  the 
set  targets  and  the  unit's  targets.     If  the  person  is  silent,  use 
probing  questions  to  get  responses.     Allow  the  junior  to  vent 
emotions,   but  avoid  arguments.     Feedback  is  most  effective  if: 

(a)  It  deals  with  things  that  can  be  changed. 

(b)  It  is  timely   (If  Sgt  White  doesn't  have  his  hair 
cut  on  Monday,    it  is  ineffective  feedback  if  you  don't  speak  to 
him  until  Wednesday) . 

(c)  It  should  be  geared  toward  the  individual's 
needs,   not  yours.     Simply  venting  your  anger  accomplishes 
nothing.     You  are  not  prepared  to  hear  the  junior's  responses. 

(6)  Planning  for  improvement.     The  last  counseling 
technique  is  planning  for  improvement.     The  important  things  to 
remember  here  is  that  the  plan  is  JOINTLY  developed,   and  should 
have  specific  steps  and  a  timetable.     The  plan  then  becomes  part 
of  the  on-going  counseling  process  to  track  progress  and 
problems . 

5.     Summary .     Counseling  your  Marines.   Setting  aside  specific 
periods  of  time  to  discuss  their  future,   and  teaching  your  NCO ' s 
how  to  counsel  their  Marines  is  one  of  the  best  tools  that  a 
leader  can  use  to  develop  trust  and  understanding  in  the  unit. 
In  order  to  do  that,   you  must  understand  the  material  that  we've 
covered  today--the  different  types  of  counseling,    the  frequency 
with  which  counseling  should  occur,    the  parts  of  a  formal 
counseling  session,   and  counseling  techniques.     YOU  are  the  one 
who  will  either  do  it  or  ignore  it.     If  there  is  one  reason  that 
many  of  us  do  not  do  it  well,    it  is  because  we  do  not  practice 


13-8 


it,  and  we  think  we  are  so  busy  that  we  do  not  schedule  the  time 
for  it. 


13-9 


i 


I 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

PROFESSION  OF  ARMS 

1.  Introduction .     Is  the  Marine  Corps  considered  to  be  a  profes- 
sion?    Are  all  Marines  professionals?     What  unique  demands  are 
placed  on  Marines  by  our  society?     These  are  a  few  of  the 
questions  which  will  be  discussed  during  this  seminar  on  profes- 
sionalism . 

2.  Overview.     Military  service  is  a  difficult  profession  and  it 
makes  unique  demands  on  each  individual.     Unless  the  Corps' 
leaders  recognize  and  dedicate  themselves  to  meeting  those 
demands  in  a  professional  manner,    the  Corps  will  not  stand  ready 
to  assist  with  the  important  role  of  the  military  in  keeping  the 
nation  secure. 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
the  Profession  of  Arms: 

FMFM  1 - 0 ,    Leading  Marines 

FM  22-100,   Military  Leadership 

NAVMC  2  5  63,   The  Armed  Forces  Officer 

The  Soldier  and  the  State,   by  Samuel  P.  Huntington 

The  Professional  Soldier,   by  Morris  Janowitz 

Those  Who  Can  Teach,   by  Ryan  and  Cooper 


4 .     Notes  to  The  Discussion  Leader 

a.     In  preparing  to  lead  this  seminar  on  professionalism, 
the  discussion  leader  should  familiarize  himself  with  some  of  the 
literature  and  manuals  available  dealing  with  the  profession  of 
arms  and  the  term  professionalism.     NAVMC  2563,   The  Armed  Forces 
Officer ,   Chapters  1-3,   and  FM  22100,     Military,  Leadership 
Chapter  3,   will  provide  some  additional  insights  into  the  meaning 
of  professionalism  within  the  military  services.  Additionally, 
Samuel  P.   Huntington  deals  with  the  issue  in  his  book  The  Soldier 
and  the  State ,   as  does  Morris  Janowitz  in  his  book  The  Profes- 
sional Soldier . 


14-1 


b.  This  discussion  guide  is  just  that,   a  guide,   and  is  not 
meant  to  be  the  "end-all"  of  leadership  instruction  on  the 
subject,   but  it  does  provide  the  basic  points  for  discussion, 
only  you,   the  leader,   know  what  your  unit  needs  most,   and  there- 
fore, you  must  evaluate  what  needs  to  be  emphasized,  modified,  or 
expanded . 

c.  When  leading  this  discussion,   remember  that  the  effec- 
tiveness of  the  group  learning  experience  is  primarily  dependent 
upon  your  preparation  and  your  ability  to  fulfill  your  duties  as 
the  discussion  leader. 

5.  Discussion .     As  professional  military  leaders  we  have  obliga- 
tions and  responsibilities  to  our  Corps,   to  our  Country,   and  to 
ourselves.     Unless  we  understand  the  full  extent  of  those  respon- 
sibilities,  and  appreciate  the  unique  nature  of  our  profession, 
we  cannot  dedicate  ourselves  to  meeting  those  obligations.  Today 
we  will  discuss  professionalism  within  the  Marine  Corps.     In  so 
doing,  we  hope  to  increase  our  Marines'   awareness  of  the  unique- 
ness of  their  role  as  military  professionals,   and  remind  them  of 
the  responsibilities  associated  with  that  role.     The  agenda  for 
today's  discussion  is: 

a.  Discuss  the  characteristics  of  a  profession. 

b.  Define  the  term  military  professional. 

c.  Discuss  the  need  for  professionalism  in  the  Corps. 

d.  Identify  some  responsibilities  of  being  a  member  of  the 
profession  of  arms. 

e.  Discuss  the  development  of  a  professional  attitude. 

f.  Identify  some  professional  problems  facing  our  Corps. 

6 .  Appendix 

Appendix  A.     Discussion  Leader's  Guide 

Appendix  B.     An  Old  Soldier  to  the  New  Ones:   Duty,   Honor,  and 

Country 


14-2 


APPENDIX  A 

Profession  of  Arms 

1 .     Discuss  the  characteristics  of  a  profession. 

Note:     Your  goal  for  this  portion  of  the  discussion  is  to  point 
out  that  the  Armed  Forces,  and  the  Marine  Corps  in  particular,  is 
not  just  a  job  but  a  profession.     A  profession  which  is  held  in 
esteem  by  their  society  and  considered  a  "calling"  by  many. 

a.     WHAT  IS  A  PROFESSION? 

(1)  Webster's  New  Collegiate  Dictionary  defines  the  word 
profession  as  follows: 

" Profession .     1:   the  act  of  taking  the  vows  of  a 
religious  community     2 :   an  act  of  openly  declaring  or  publicly 
claiming  a  belief,    faith  or  opinion     3:   an  avowed  religious  faith 
4:   a  calling  requiring  specialized  knowledge  and  often  long  and 
intensive  academic  preparation     b:   a  principal  calling,  vocation, 
or  employment  c:    the  whole  body  of  persons  engaged  in  a  calling." 

(2)  These  definitions  are  fine,   but  deal  with  the  subject 
in  a  very  general  way.     Several  authors  have  attempted  to  point 
out  specific  factors  that  help  define  a  profession.     Ryan  and 
Cooper  in  their  book  Those  Who  Can  Teach,   have  established  a 
specific  list  of  such  factors.     We  have  listed  them  below  for 
your  information.     The  seminar  should  discuss  each  of  the  eight 
characteristics,   and  how  they  relate  to  the  Marine  Corps. 

(a)  A  profession  renders  a  unique  social  service. 
The  most  obvious  social  service  rendered  by  the  Corps  is  the 
defense  of  the  nation.     However,    there  are  others  such  as  provid- 
ing technical  skills  used  by  our  society  and  providing  young  men 
and  women  with  experience  in  leading  others. 

(b)  A  profession  relies  upon  intellectual  skills. 
Intellectual  skills  utilized  by  the  Armed  Forces  include  leader- 
ship,  motivation,   ethics,    law,   mechanics,    all  forms  of  engineer- 
ing, etc. 

( c )  Becoming  a  professional  involves  long  periods  of 
specialized  training  and  experience.     Recruit  training,  TBS, 
formal  schools,    career  schools,    civilian  education  programs  and 
intense  periods  of  OJT  and  experience  are  all  utilized  by  the 
Armed  Forces . 


14-3 


(d)  A  profession  has  considerable  autonomy  and 
decision  making  authority.     Although  Congress  and  our  civilian 
leaders  provide  a  great  deal  of  guidance  to  our  Armed  Forces, 
each  service  still  retains  a  large  degree  of  autonomy  in  the 
manner  in  which  it  trains  and  in  establishing  its  own  internal 
regulations  and  standards. 

(e)  Members  of  a  profession  are  held  personally 
responsible  for  their  actions  and  decisions.     This  is  true  for 
all  Marines  but  especially  so  for  leaders  in  the  Marine  Corps. 

We  accept  responsibility  for  our  troops  and  for  our  units,   and  we 
are  held  accountable  for  our  actions.     Society  expects  us  to  do 
what  is  right  and  correct  in  all  situations. 

( f )  Service  is  emphasized  over  financial  rewards .  No 
one  should  associate  themselves  with  the  Marine  Corps  in  antici- 
pation of  personal  reward.     People  who  are  seeking  self- 
aggrandizement  in  our  profession  standout  like  sore  thumbs,  and 
their  actions  tend  to  splinter  our  goals  and  detract  from  esprit 
de  corps .     Being  a  Marine  often  requires  personal  and  family 
sacrifices  not  expected  of  the  average  citizen  or  of  other 
professionals . 

(g)  A  profession  is  self-governing  and  responsible 
for  policing  its  own  ranks.     In  the  Marine  Corps  we  have  both 
general  and  specific  means  of  governing  ourselves.     The  UCMJ,  the 
Code  of  Conduct,   and  Title  10  of  the  U.S.   Code  apply  to  all  of 
the  Armed  Forces,   yet  each  branch  of  service  administers  unto 
itself  and  establishes  its  own  standards  and  regulations  to  meet 
its  peculiar  needs. 

(h)  Professions  have  their  own  code  of  ethics  which 
establishes  acceptable  standards  of  conduct  for  its  members.  In 
general  the  Armed  Forces  have  the  UCMJ,    the  Code  of  Conduct,  and 
Title  10  of  the  U.S.   Code  as  well  as  other  governmental  decrees 
which  help  to  establish  our  code  of  ethics.     Each  service  ampli- 
fies those  documents  in  written  and  unwritten  form  to  establish 
its  own  particular  code  of  ethics.     In  the  Marine  Corps  we 
achieve  this  through  Marine  Corps  regulations  and  to  a  great 
extent  through  customs,   courtesies,   and  traditions  upon  which  our 
Corps  was  established  and  continues  to  grow. 


I 

14-4 


b.      ARE  THERE  OTHER  CRITERIA  WHICH  ESTABLISH  THE  MARINE  CORPS 
AS  A  PROFESSION? 


(1)   Yes.     In  the  history  of  our  civilization  the  military 
has  held  a  position  of  respect.     Along  with  medicine,    law,  and 
the  priesthood,    it  has  been  recognized  since  at  least  the  eighth 
century  in  Western  civilization,   and  since  2500  BC .   in  Asia,   as  a 
special  calling. 


( 2 )   Define  the  term  military  professional. 


(a)   WHAT  IS  A  MILITARY  PROFESSIONAL? 


(b)   FM  22100,   Military  Leadership   (1973  Rev) ,  states: 

"A  military  professional  is  a  person  who  has  undergone 
special  preparation  and  training.  A  professional  possesses  the 
knowledge  on  which  professional  actions  are  based  and  the  ability 
to  apply  this  knowledge  in  a  practical  way.     The  profession  is  a 
means  of  earning  a  living,   but  wages  do  not  become  the  primary 
purpose  of  their  work." 

C.      WHAT  DO  YOU  HAVE  TO  DO/BE  TO  BE  CALLED  A  PROFESSIONAL 
MARINE? 


(Have  the  group  identify  and  list  characteristics  of  a 
professional  Marine.     The  list  should  include  those  listed 
below. ) 

(1)   To  be  a  professional  a  Marine  must  be: 

(a)  Competent .     To  be  competent  Marines  must  study 
and  work  to  become  expert  in  their  field  while  continually  striv- 
ing to  improve  their  knowledge  and  expertise  in  all  military 
related  skills  appropriate  for  their  rank  and  assignment. 

(b)  Responsible .     To  be  responsible  Marines  must 
first  make  sure  that  they  know  what  is  expected  of  them,   and  then 
they  must  work  to  fulfill  those  expectations.     These  expectations 
come  from  their  immediate  supervisor,   but  also  are  associated 
with  holding  a  particular  rank  within  the  Corps. 

(c)  Dedicated .     To  be  dedicated  Marines  must  be 
willing  to  make  personal  sacrifice.     They  must  put  themselves  and 


14-5 


their  personal  needs  secondary  to  the  needs  of  the  Corps.  As 
pointed  out  in  Annex  A,   Duty,   Honor,   and  Country  are  the  guide- 
posts  for  a  military  professional  and  without  dedication  a  Marine 
will  not  put  these  ahead  of  personal  desires. 

d.  SINCE  WE  HAVE  ESTABLISHED  THE  MARINE  CORPS  AS  A  PROFES- 
SION DOES  THAT  MEAN  THAT  EVERY  MARINE  IS  A  PROFESSIONAL? 

(1)  Some  authors  insist  that  only  officers  and  SNCOs  are 
professionals.     This  type  of  thinking  is  contrary  to  the  Marine 
Corps  philosophy  of  leadership.     Every  Marine  can  be  a  profes- 
sional to  the  extent  that  he/she  practices  the  previously  listed 
characteristics  of  a  professional.     However,   it  must  be  pointed 
out  that  like  all  the  other  professions,    the  Marine  Corps 
possesses  some  members  who  are  not  as  professional  as  others  and 
their  lack  of  professionalism  adversely  impacts     the  Corps. 

(2)  These  individuals  put  their  personal  needs  ahead  of 
the  Corps.     They  shirk  responsibility  while  continually  placing 
blame  elsewhere.     They  usually  lack  ambition  and  are  indifferent 
toward  improving  their  knowledge  and  skill  level . 

e.  WHAT  CAN  YOU,    THE  INDIVIDUAL  MARINE,    DO  TO  IMPROVE 
PROFESSIONALISM  IN  THE  CORPS? 

(1)   Do  your  job  24  hours  a  day  to  include  but  not  be 
limited  to  the  following: 

(a)  Execute  all  orders  immediately,   to  the  best  of 
your  ability,   working  thoroughly  and  conscientiously. 

(b)  Maintain  a  positive  attitude  in  your  approach  to 
all  tasks,   requirements,   desires,   disappointments,  etc. 

(c)  Adhere  to  basic  principles  of  leadership  as 
appropriate  to  your  rank  and  job  assignment. 

(d)  Carry  out  the  6  troop  leading  steps  as  appropri- 
ate to  your  rank  and  job  assignment  with  particular  emphasis  on 
the  supervisory  aspects;  pay  attention  to  detail. 

(e)  Strive  for  excellence  in  all  that  you  endeavor  or 
in  that  which  is  demanded  of  you. 


14-6 


(f)  Set  a  definite  goal  for  yourself  NOW  and  continu- 
ously and  persistently  work  toward  that  goal.     Waiting  until  you 
are  in  the  promotion  zone  or  a  civilian  is  too  late  to  start. 
Develop  a  strong  desire  to  obtain  what  you  want  from  life  and 
take  the  initiative   (don't  procrastinate)    to  attain  it.  "A 
quitter  never  wins  and  a  winner  never  quits." 

(g)  Maintain  yourself  in  the  best  physical  condition 
and  realize  the  importance  of  physical  conditioning  to  a  success- 
ful life. 

(h)  Don't  be  satisfied  or  complacent  with  that  which 
you  have  but  strive  continuously  to  improve  yourself  in  all  areas 
(i.e.,   education,   habits,    spiritual,   mental  and  physical 
well-being) . 

(i)  Maintain  an  immaculate  and  well  groomed  appear- 
ance at  all  times  and  realize  the  importance  and  the  psychologi- 
cal effects  a  favorable  impression  has  on  others,   your  job,  your 
unit,  etc. 

(j)   Realize  the  tremendous  importance  of  the  quality 
of  loyalty,   and  be  loyal  to  yourself,   your  unit,   your  Corps,  and 
your  Country,     always  rendering  faithful  and  willing  service 
under  any  and  all  circumstances. 

(k)   Realize  that   "no  one  is  an  island"  and  that  it  is 
extremely  important  to  cooperate  with  and  live  and  work  in 
harmony  with  others.     That  which  one  does  or  fails  to  do  today 
has  a  tremendous  effect  on  others  and  on  his/her  own  personal 
long  range  goals. 

(1)    Follow  the  Golden  Rule:      "Do  unto  others  as  you 
would  have  them  do  unto  you . " 

(m)   Resist  the  temptation  to   "keep  up  with  the  Jones' 
"  and  don ' t  get  into  debt  by  exceeding  your  income.   Live  within 
your  means  and  program  for  the  future.     Be  aware  of  the  pitfalls 
of  buying  on  credit,    and  establish  a  savings  program. 

(n)  Develop  a  sense  of  humor .  Quite  often  this  is 
the  saving  grace  between  complete  despair  and  triumph.  "Smile 
and  the  world  smiles  with  you,   cry  and  you  cry  alone." 


14-7 


himself 
must . 


(o)   Develop  self  control.     The  man  who  cannot  control 
cannot  expect  to  control  others.   Self -discipline  is  a 


(p)   Develop  self-confidence .     If  you  are  not  confi- 
dent that  you  can  do  a  task,   no  one  else  will  be.     Sell  yourself. 

  (q)   Analyze  yourself  to  the  point  that  you  know 

yourself,     your  traits,   strong  points  and  weak  points,   and  work 
continually  to  strengthen  or  eliminate  the  weak  points.  Know  that 
the  physical,  mental  and  spiritual  aspects  should  complement  each 
other  for  best  performance  and  success  in  life. 

2 .     Discuss  the  need  for  professionalism  in  the  Marine  Corps 

a.      WHY  IS  PROFESSIONALISM  IMPORTANT  IN  THE  CORPS? 

(1)   Answers  should  include: 

(a)  Marines  are  public  servants  and  are  responsible 
for  the  defense  of  the  nation.     They  performs  a  necessary  service 
which  the  civilian  public  needs,   and  when  that  service  is 
required  the  public  expects  and  deserves  nothing  less  than  a 
professionally  trained  and  motivated  force. 

(b)  A  leader  is  responsible  for  the  lives  of  his 
Marines.     In  combat  a  leader  may  have  to  take  risks  which  endan- 
ger their  lives  in  order  to  accomplish  a  mission.     If  a  leader  is 
careless,   and  has  not  conditioned  himself  and  trained  his  follow- 
ers to  act  professionally,   a  unit  may  suffer  needless  casualties. 

4 .     Identify  some  responsibilities  of  being  a  member  of  the 
profession  of  arms. 

Read  or  display  the  following  quote. 

"What  you  have  chosen  to  do  for  your  country  by 
devoting  your  life  to  the  service  of  your  country 
is  the  greatest  contribution  that  any  man  could 

make . " 

John  F .  Kennedy 

35th  President  of  the  United  States 
6  June  1961 


14-8 


Note:     This  quote  is  indicative  of  the  esteem  which  many- 
civilians  hold  for  members  of  the  military.     However,  with  that 
esteem  come  certain  expectations. 

a.      AS  MILITARY  PROFESSIONALS  WHAT  UNIQUE  DEMANDS  ARE  PLACED 
ON  US  BY  OUR  SOCIETY? 

(1)   Because  of  the  type  of  work  and  its  responsibilities, 
there  is  a  great  need  for  the  development  and  maintenance  of  high 
standards  of  conduct  among  the  members  of  our  profession.  A 
Marine  just  as  other  members  of  the  Armed  Services  must  follow  a 
unique  value  system  which  sets  him  a  part  from  the  rest  of 
society.     This  value  system  is  based  upon  obedience,  courage, 
discipline,    selflessness,   and  honor;     the  principle  ingredients 
of  the  military  ethic. 

5 .     Discuss  the  development  of  a  professional  attitude. 

a.  WHAT  LEADERSHIP  QUALITIES   SHOULD  MARINE  LEADERS  DEVELOP 
IN  ORDER  TO  ENHANCE  THEIR  PROFESSIONALISM? 

(1)   Have  the  group  list  the  qualities  on  a  flip  chart, 
chalkboard,   or  other  aid  so  all  can  see  the  list.   The  list  should 
include : 

(a)  Technical  Competence.     You  must  know  your  job  and 
do  it  well  in  order  to  lead  others. 

(b)  Values .     To  develop  professional  values  and 
attitudes,   you  simply  resolve  to  let  nothing  be  more  important  to 
you  than  the  welfare  of  your  Marines,    the  accomplishment  of  your 
mission,   and  your  personal  integrity.      (Values  are  covered  in 
more  detail  in  "Instilling  and  Developing  Values.") 

(c)  Ethical  conduct     Your  values  include  what  you 
want,   but  your  ethics  are  more  involved  with  the  way  you  get  what 
you  want.     In  getting  what  you  want  a  leader  must  be  concerned 
with  proper  conduct  and  the  distinction  between  right  and  wrong. 
Nothing  must  sway  him/her  from  choosing  a  course  of  action  which 
is  right,    i.e.,   conforming  to  ethical  and  moral  standards. 
(Ethics  are  covered  in  "Ethical  Leadership.") 

b.  WHAT  STEPS   SHOULD  A  LEADER  TAKE  TO  FOSTER  PROFESSIONALISM 
IN  SUBORDINATES? 


14-9 


(1)   Again,   use  an  aid  to  display  the  listing.   The  list 
should  include: 

(a)  Being  a  professional  Marine.     Setting  the 

example . 

(b)  Letting  subordinates  know  what  it  means  to  be  a 
professional.     Defining  professionalism  in  specific  terms. 

(c)  Stressing  the  uniqueness  of  the  profession  and 
explaining  the  responsibilities  associated  with  being  a  Marine. 

(d)  Wearing  the  uniform  with  pride  and  insisting  on 
the  same  from  subordinates . 

(e)  Cultivating  in  each  Marine's  heart  a  deep, 
abiding  love  of  Corps  and  Country  by  historical,   educational,  and 
patriotic  address. 

6 .     Identify  some  professional  problems  facing  our  Corps. 

Note;     The  discussion  leader  should  point  out  that  the  Corps 
faces  two  problems  which  are  hurting  the  professional  image  the 
Marine  Corps  has  developed  in  over  220  years  of  service  to  this 
country.     These  problems  are:     Careerism  and  a  perception  among 
Marines  that  they  work  at  an  ordinary  job  with  ordinary  responsi- 
bilities   (occupationalism) . 

a.     WHAT  ARE  SOME  INDICATORS  OF  THESE  PROBLEMS? 

( 1 )  Careerism 

(a)  Marines  seeking  advancement  for  its  own  sake  and 
seeing  it  exclusively  as  a  goal  rather  than  an  opportunity  to  do 
something  of  greater  value  for  their  nation  and  the  Marine  Corps. 
These  individuals  accept  promotion  just  for  the  additional  recog- 
nition and  compensation  while  trying  to  avoid  increased 
responsibility . 

(b)  Marines  more  concerned  with  "ticket  punching"  and 
less  concerned  with  the  contributions  they  make  for  the  Marine 
Corps.     These  individuals  avoid  certain  billets  because  they  are 
not  "career  enhancing. "     They  attempt  to  get  a  highly  responsible 
billet  for  a  minimal  amount  of  time.     During  this  time  they  are 


14-10 


looking  for  recognition,   but  do  not  want  to  make  waves.  They 
want  in  and  out,      taking  all  but  contributing  little. 

(c)   Marines  who  accept  credit  for  successes,   but  are 
quick  to  blame  others  when  things  go  wrong.     When  things  are 
going  well  these  individuals  are  at  the  front  of  the  line  for 
recognition.     However,    if  something  goes  wrong,    they  are  the 
first  to  point  fingers. 

( 2 )   Occupation  rather  than  profession . 

(a)  Money  becomes  more  of  a  motivation  than  the 
nature  of  the  profession  and  its  associated  responsibilities. 
This  individual  is  more  concerned  with  enhancing  his  take  home 
pay  and  if  a  higher  paying  opportunity  presents  itself  outside 
the  Corps  he  will  take  it. 

(b)  A  feeling  among  some  officers  and  enlisted 
personnel  that  what  they  do  in  their  off  duty  hours  is  of  no 
concern  to  the  Marine  Corps.     This  is  what  we  call  the  "0800-1600 
syndrome"  and  is  demonstrated  by  an  individual's  insistence  on 
"my  time"  versus  the  Corps'    time.     He  is  less  concerned  with 
getting  the  job  accomplished  and  more  interested  in  quitting 
time.     This  individual  lacks  a  sense  of  responsibility  and  deep 
commitment  to  the  Corps. 

(c)  A  tendency  in  many  specialist  fields  to  play  down 
and  in  some  cases  ignore  the  responsibility  to  develop  a  wider 
military  expertise.     Also,    identifying  more  strongly  with  their 
"specialty"   than  with  their  unit  or  with  the  Corps.  This 
individual  takes  a  very  narrow  view  of  his/her  duties  within  the 
Corps.     Outside  his  specialty,     he/she  does  just  the  minimum 
required  to  stay  out  of  trouble  and  refuses  to  develop  his 
overall  abilities. 

b.      REALIZING  BOTH  PROBLEMS  ARE  HARMFUL  TO  UNIT  READINESS  AND 
THE  INDIVIDUAL'S  ABILITY  TO  PERFORM  IN  COMBAT,    WHAT  CAN  A  LEADER 
DO  TO  ATTACK  BOTH  ISSUES? 

(1)  Leaders  must  render  objective  evaluations  on  subordi- 
nates and  counsel  them  accordingly. 

(2)  Leaders  must  set  the  example  for  subordinates  and 
live  a  life  according  to  the  military  ethic.     Keep  in  mind  the 
principal  ingredients  of  the  military  ethic  are  obedience, 


14-11 


courage,   discipline,   selflessness  and  honor.     These  are  not  only- 
desired  traits;   they  are  essential  characteristics  of  a  profes- 
sional fighting  force. 

(3)  Leaders  must  continually  emphasize  the  important  and 
essential  function  we  perform  as  Marines     keeping  the  nation 
secure . 

(4)  Leaders  must  set  and  enforce  standards  which  will  not 
tolerate  the  actions  of  careerists  and  those  who  view  the  Corps 
as  something  less  than  a  profession. 

8 .  Summary 

a.  Summarize  the  main  points  of  the  discussion. 

b.  Sir  John  Hackett  in  his  book,   The  Profession  of  Arms, 
points  out  that  military  professionals  are  expected  to  "get  out 
there  and  get  killed  if  that's  what  it  takes."     Although  somewhat 
simply  stated,   this  quote  does  point  out  the  extent  of  the 
dedication  necessary  to  be  called  a  military  professional. 

c.  Professionalism  must  be  the  heart  of  every  Marine  leader. 
The  leader  must  not  only  conduct  himself /herself  in  a  profes- 
sional manner,   but  must  also  develop  a  spirit  of  professionalism 
in  all  Marines. 

d.  Remember,   on  becoming  a  Marine  you  have  entered  upon  one 
of  the  oldest  and  most  honorable  professions.     However,  with  this 
prestige  comes  the  responsibility  of  conducting  yourself  in  a 
manner  consistent  with  the  thousands  of  proud,   dedicated,  coura- 
geous Marines  who  have  served  our  Corps  well  and  made  tremendous 
sacrifices  for  our  country. 


14-12 


9 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 

1.   Introduction .     What  do  things  such  as  leadership  traits  and 
principles;   authority,   responsibility  and  accountability;  morale, 
"esprit  de  corps,"  discipline  and  motivation  mean  to  us  as 
Marines,   or  more  specifically,    as  leaders  of  Marines?     It  is 
important  that  we  understand  not  only  the  definitions,   but  also 
how  these  various  elements  fit  together  so  that  they  may  be 
effectively  utilized  by  leaders  of  Marines  at  all  levels.  During 
this  section,   we  will  review  these  concepts  and  their  relation- 
ships,  and  focus  on  how  they  may  be  employed. 

2  .    Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
ensure  each  Marine  understands  the  foundations  of  Marine  Corps 
leadership . 

3 .  References 

FMFM  1-0,    LEADING  MARINES 
FM  22-100,    MILITARY  LEADERSHIP 
THE  MARINE  OFFICERS  GUIDE 
THE  GUIDEBOOK  FOR  MARINE  NCOS 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.  This  session  seeks  to  provide  the  student  with  a  compre- 
hensive understanding  of  the  foundations  of  Marine  Corps  leader- 
ship.    Developing  this  foundation  is  essential  for  further 
development  of  effective  leadership  skills.     This  methodology  is 
considered  appropriate  for  groups  having  a  level  of  experience 
that  facilitates  an  exchange  of  ideas  and  stimulates  discussion 
to  improve  leadership  within  the  unit.     Training  for  Marines 
lacking  such  experience  may  be  more  appropriate  using  another 
methodology,    such  as  lectures. 

b.  This  discussion  guide  is  just  that,   a  guide.     It  is  not 
meant  to  be  the  definitive  manual  on  leadership  instruction. 
Instead,    it  provides  the  basic  points  for  discussion.     Only  you, 
the  leader,   know  what  your  unit  needs  most;   therefore,   you  must 
evaluate  what  needs  to  be  emphasized,   modified  or  expanded. 


15-1 


c.  Appendices  A,   B  and  C  are  for  use  by  the  discussion 
leader  only.     Appendices  A  and  B  may  be  reproduced  and  distrib- 
uted after  the  discussion.     Appendix  C  should  not  be 
disseminated . 

d.  Appendix  D  should  be  distributed  to  every  Marine  in  the 
unit . 

5 .  Discussion 

a.   Traits  and  principles.     The  traits  and  principles  of 
leadership  are  the  basic  fundamentals  that  Marines  use  to  develop 
their  own  leadership  abilities  and  that  of  their  subordinates. 
Discuss  these  key  factors  in  detail  to  ensure  that  all  Marines 
fully  understand  what  they  mean. 

(Note:     The  discussion  leader  should  display  first  the  traits, 
then  principles  slide,   utilizing  appendices  A  and  B  to  conduct 
the  discussion  as  follows.     For  each  trait,   ask  the  group  for  a 
definition  of  the  trait,   discuss  the  significance  of  the  trait, 
and  identify  examples  of  the  trait  demonstrated  in  action.  For 
each  principle,    follow  the  same  general  procedure:  define, 
discuss  and  elicit  examples  of  how  an  effective  leader  might 
apply  each . ) 

(1)  Leadership  traits 


(a) 

Bearing 

(b) 

Courage   (both  physical  and  moral) 

(c) 

Decisiveness 

(d) 

Dependabi 1 i  ty 

(e) 

Endurance 

(f ) 

Enthusiasm 

(g) 

Initiative 

(h) 

Integrity 

(i) 

Judgment 

(j) 

Justice 

(k) 

Knowledge 

(1) 

Loyalty 

(m) 

Tact 

(n) 

Unselfishness 

(2)  Leadership  principles 

(a)  Know  yourself  and  seek  self -improvement . 


15-2 


(b)  Be  technically  and  tactically  proficient. 

(c)  Develop  a  sense  of  responsibility  among  your 
subordinates . 

(d)  Make  sound  and  timely  decisions. 

(e)  Set  the  example. 

(f)  Know  your  Marines  and  look  out  for  their  welfare. 

(g)  Keep  your  Marines  informed. 

(h)  Seek  responsibility  and  take  responsibility  for 
your  actions. 

(i)  Ensure  tasks  are  understood,    supervised  and 
accomplished . 

(j)  Train  your  Marines  as  a  team, 
(k)  Employ  your  command  in  accordance  with  its 
capabilities . 

(3)  The  results  of  failure  to  apply  these  fundamentals  are 
obvious.     For  example,   a  leader's  lack  of  knowledge  or  judgment, 
or  failure  to  look  after  his/her  Marines'   welfare  or  to  make 
sound  and  timely  decisions  could  result  in  the  unnecessary  loss 
of  Marines'    lives.     Our  profession  is  deadly  serious  when  it 
comes  to  the  requirements  for  effective  leadership  by  all 
Marines . 

(4)  It  is  important  to  realize  that  knowledge  of  these 
basic  tenets  of  leadership  is  not  enough;   the  leader  of  Marines 
must  instinctively  apply  them  personally,   as  well  as  earnestly 
develop  them  in  his/her  subordinates. 

(Note:     Appendix  C  contains  leadership  exercise  problems.  The 
discussion  leader  should  select  a  few  problems  that  are  appropri 
ate  for  the  group.     Read  or  relate  the  situation  and  discuss  a 
proper  solution.     If  a  solution  is  proposed  that  is  not  consis- 
tent with  the  traits  and  principles,   discuss  the  impact  of  that 
solution  on  the  unit.) 

b .    Applications  of  authority,   responsibility  and 
accountability . 

(1)   Authority  is  the  legitimate  power  of  a  leader  to 
direct  subordinates  to  take  action  within  the  scope  of  the 
leader's  position.     By  extension,    this  power,   or  a  part  thereof, 
is  delegated  and  used  in  the  name  of  a  commander.     All  leaders 
regardless  of  rank  are  responsible  to  exercise  their  authority  t 
accomplish  the  mission.     Equally  important,   however,    is  the  idea 
that  when  a  Marine  of  any  rank  is  given  responsibility  for  a 


15-3 


mission,    the  Marine  must  also  be  given  the  degree  of  authority 
necessary  to  carry  it  out. 

(2)  Responsibility  is  the  obligation  to  act  or  to  do; 
that  which  one  must  answer  for,   either  to  seniors  or  juniors.  It 
may  include,   but  is  not  limited  to,   assigned  tasks,  equipment, 
personnel,   money,   morale  and  leadership.     Responsibility  is  an 
integral  part  of  a  leader's  authority.     At  all  levels  of  command, 
the  leader  is  responsible  for  what  the  leader's  Marines  do  or 
fail  to  do,   as  well  as  for  the  physical  assets  under  his/her 
control.     Ultimately,   all  Marines  are  morally  and  legally  respon- 
sible for  their  individual  actions.     The  Marine  Corps  Manual 
states  that  individual  responsibilities  of  leadership  are  not 
dependent  on  authority,   and  all  Marines  are  expected  to  exert 
proper  influence  upon  their  comrades  by  setting  examples  of 
obedience,   courage,    zeal,   sobriety,   neatness  and  attention  to 
duty . 

(3)  Accountability  is  the  reckoning,   wherein  the  leader 
answers  for  his/her  actions  and  accepts  the  consequences,   good  or 
bad.     Accountability  is  the  very  cornerstone  of  leadership.  If 
individuals  in  leadership  positions—whether  fire  team  leader  or 
battalion  commander- -were  not  accountable,    the  structure  on  which 
the  Corps  is  founded  would  be  weakened  and  eventually  disinte- 
grate.    Accountability  establishes  reasons,  motives  and  impor- 
tance for  actions  in  the  eyes  of  seniors  and  subordinates  alike. 
Accountability  is  the  final  act  in  the  establishment  of  one's 
credibility.     Plainly  speaking,    the  accountable  leader  is  saying, 
"The  buck  stops  here!"     It  is  important  to  remember  that  account- 
ability results  in  rewards  for  good  performance,   as  well  as 
punishment  for  poor  performance. 

(4)  How  are  authority,   responsibility  and  accountability 
developed  in  subordinates?     Solicit  and  discuss  ideas  from  the 
group  initially,    then  cover  the  following: 

(a)  Be  patient  with  subordinates;   tolerate  honest 
mistakes  so  that  initiative  may  be  developed  and  valuable  lessons 
learned . 

(b)  Provide  clear,   well  thought  out  directions  to 
subordinates,    that  convey  intentions  and  provide  freedom  of 
action   (mission- type  orders) . 

(c)  Do  not  micro-manage. 


15-4 


(d)  Let  your  subordinates  know  you  are  willing  to  help, 
but  are  not  willing  to  do  their  jobs  for  them. 

(e)  Hold  Marines  accountable  for  their  actions  at  all 

times . 

(f)  Develop  loyalty  by  establishing  and  nurturing  a 
climate  of  trust  and  confidence. 

(g)  Reward/recognize  good  work  and  effort  in  such  a  way 
as  to  motivate  others. 

(h)  Always  view  success  in  terms  of  unit  accomplish- 
ment;  encourage  teamwork  and  identity  with  fire  team,  squad, 
platoon,  etc. 

(i)  Maintain  the  integrity  of  your  subordinate  units 
when  assigning  tasks/missions  or  establishing  goals. 

(j)   Anticipate  the  needs  of  your  Marines  and  ensure 
they  have  confidence  in  your  ability  to  take  care  of  them. 

(5)    Situational  examples 

(a)   What  is  the  relationship  of  authority  and  respon- 
sibility to  a  SNCO  with  regard  to  maintaining  discipline? 

As  one  of  the  subordinate  leaders  within  a  unit,    the  SNCO 
shares  responsibility  with  all  other  leaders  for  maintaining 
proper  standards  of  discipline.     In  fact,   all  NCOs,    SNCOs  and 
officers  share  in  this  responsibility  to  maintain  the  proper 
standards  of  discipline  within  not  only  their  individual  units, 
but  our  Corps  as  a  whole. 

(b)   What  is  the  result  when  this  responsibility  is 

ignored? 

Sloppy  standards  of  discipline  will  quickly  result  in 
equally  sloppy  performance  of  duty,   which  may  then  result  in 
dangerous  situations,   needless  injury,   even  loss  of  life.  The 
confidence  of  all  Marines  is  based  upon  trust  in  quality  perform- 
ance by  their  fellow  Marines;   this  is  assured  by  our  standards  of 
self-  discipline.     One  very  basic  responsibility  of  all  NCOs, 
SNCOs  and  officers  is  to  ensure  that  these  standards  of 


15-5 


discipline  are  always  maintained.     All  leaders  have  authority  to 
maintain  proper  standards  of  discipline  among  their  subordinate 
Marines  by  virtue  of  their  rank  and  position  within  a  unit.     If  a 
unit  exhibits  sloppy  discipline,    its  NCOs ,    SNCOs  and  officers 
should  be  held  accountable  until  proper  standards  have  been 
attained . 

(c)  What  should  an  NCO  do  if  he/she  encounters  a  PFC 
in  need  of  a  haircut  and  shave  at  the  PX?     Does  he/she  have  a 
responsibility  to  do  anything? 

If  the  Marine  encountered  is  in  the  section  or  squad  of  the 
NCO,    then  the  NCO  has  the  responsibility  and  authority  to 
directly  correct  the  discrepancy  through  positive  leadership 
actions  or  in  extreme  instances,  by  recommending  appropriate 
disciplinary  action. 

(d)  What  if  the  Marine  needing  a  haircut  and  shave  is 
from  another  unit  or  is  senior  to  the  NCO? 

[1]  An  NCO  is  expected  to  act  decisively  to 
maintain  the  standards  of  discipline.     In  this  instance,  there 
may  be  an  opportunity  for  utilization  of  tact  and  judgment 
appropriate  to  the  situation,   enabling  the  NCO  to  bring  the 
matter  to  the  attention  of  the  individual  without  references  to 
higher  authority.     If  all  NCOs,    SNCOs  and  officers  recognize 
their  responsibility  to  maintain  our  high  standards  of 
discipline,   such  instances  would  be  exceedingly  rare,   as  they 
should  be  now. 

[2]  We  all  have  a  responsibility  to  enforce 
standards.     Every  level  within  our  rank  structure  shares  in  this 
responsibility  to  effect  direct  control  over  those  things  within 
their  area  of  influence.     Key  to  this  is  the  influence  received 
from  junior  leaders  who  are  fulfilling  their  areas  of  responsi- 
bility.    It  is  a  characteristic  of  our  Corps  to  look  to  our 
leaders  for  leadership  by  example.     You  are  held  accountable  for 
this  responsibility  after  the  fact.     Accountability  is  the 
reckoning  through  which  the  NCO  answers  for  his  actions  and 
accepts  the  consequences,   good  or  bad.     If  you  tolerate  sloppy 
discipline  within  your  unit,   your  unit's  performance  will  be 
equally  sloppy.     Performance  is  what  counts! 

(e)  What  responsibility  do  individual  Marines  have? 


15-6 


The  individual  Marine  must  obey  orders,   become  proficient  at 
his/her  job,   and  set  a  good  example  for  his/her  fellow  Marines. 
Note  that  all  the  traits  and  principles  apply  equally  to  the 
individual  Marine.     Any  Marine  may  suddenly  find  himself /herself 
the  senior  Marine  present  and  thereby  be  responsible  for  others, 
with  authority  and  accountability . 

(f)  Who  holds  the  individual  Marine  accountable? 
The  Marine's  immediate  senior  holds  him  accountable. 

(g)  What  is  the  responsibility  of  the  individual 
Marine  to  his/her  fellow  Marines?     Is  setting  a  proper  example  as 
far  as  it  goes? 

We  are  a  "Brotherhood  of  Marines."     It  is  expected  that  we 
will  look  out  for  one  another.     If  one  Marine  sees  another  Marine 
get  into  some  difficult  circumstances,   he/she  should  instinc- 
tively act  to  help.     As  Marines,   we  encourage  one  another  to  do 
our  best;  we  share  ammunition,    food  and  water  whenever  these 
become  scarce;  we  fight  for  one  another  and,    if  necessary  die  for 
one  another  in  combat . 

(h)  What  are  some  examples  of  this  sort  of  individual 
responsibility  in  action  during  peacetime? 

(NOTE:   The  group  responses  may  be  varied.     If  necessary  to  start 
them  off  with  a  few  examples,   utilize  the  following.     However,  it 
is  important  to  stimulate  the  group  to  recognize  how  they  may 
exhibit  proper  standards  of  responsibility  for  one  another.) 

[1]    EXAMPLE  #1:     You  are  on  liberty  downtown  and 
see  a  Marine  from  your  unit  who  appears  intoxicated,  obviously 
beyond  being  able  to  care  for  himself.     What  should  you  do? 

You  see  him/her,    it  is  your  responsibility  to  keep  him/her 
from  harm's  way  and  get  him/her  safely  back  to  your  unit.  Also, 
it  is  your  responsibility  to  see  to  it  that  such  behavior  does 
not  happen  again  by  bringing  the  situation  to  the  attention  of 
the  leader  who  has  both  authority  and  accountability  for  the 
Marine.     Such  behavior  not  only  embarrasses  the  Corps,   but  may 
indicate  a  more  serious  problem  for  the  individual. 

[2]    EXAMPLE  #2:     The  Marine  in  the  situation 
above  is  from  another  unit.     What  should  you  do? 


15-7 


If  you  see  a  fellow  Marine  in  trouble,  he  is  your  responsibil- 
ity,  regardless  of  his  unit. 

[3]   EXAMPLE  #3:     You  are  preparing  for  an  inspec- 
tion that  will  result  in  liberty  for  those  whose  gear  is  in  the 
best  shape.     Your  squad  looks  good  and  is  well  prepared,  while 
the  other  squads  in  the  platoon  have  some  obvious  flaws  in  their 
displays.     What  should  you  do? 

You  act  instinctively  to  help  bring  their  display  in  line  with 
yours  and  point  out  how  they  may  improve  before  the  inspection 
occurs.     Is  it  the  easy  thing  to  do?     No,  but  it  is  the  right 
thing  to  do . 

(i)   Is  it  disloyal  to  disagree  with  leaders,   or  do  we 
have  a  responsibility  to  do  so? 

It  is  not  disloyal  to  disagree  or  express  one's  opinion  at 
the  proper  time  and  place,  provided  that  we  remember  our  duty  to 
follow  orders  without  question.     The  leader  requires  all  the 
input  he/she  can  get  to  help  make  a  well-informed  decision.  The 
"we,"  not  the  "they,"  are  the  Marine  Corps.     We  must  get  involved 
to  improve  things . 

(j)   How  does  accountability  affect  the  individual 

Marine? 

[1]   The  leader  assumes  responsibility  and  is 
held  accountable.     He/she  looks  to  juniors  to  likewise  be  respon- 
sible and  holds  them  accountable.     For  example,   the  individual 
Marine  is  responsible  for  cleaning  his/her  weapon,   and  the  fire 
team  leader  is  responsible  for  ensuring  that  the  fire  team's 
weapons  are  cleaned.     The  individual  Marine  is  accountable  to  the 
fire  team  leader  for  properly  cleaning  his/her  own  weapon.  The 
fire  team  leader  is  accountable  to  the  squad  leader  for  the 
cleanliness  of  the  fire  team's  weapons. 

[2]   In  a  previous  example,  we  described  an 
incident  involving  an  intoxicated  Marine  on  liberty.     That  Marine 
is  accountable  for  his/her  behavior  on  liberty  to  his  unit 
leader.     This  reckoning  may  result  in  loss  of  liberty  privileges, 
extra  duty  or  disciplinary  action. 


15-8 


c .     Discuss  how  to  instill,   apply  and  develop  the  founda- 
tional principles  in  order  to  create  a  climate  of  high  morale, 
"esprit  de  corps,"  discipline,   proficiency  and  motivation. 

(1)  Morale 

(a)   Morale  is  the  individual's  state  of  mind.  It 
depends  upon  his/her  attitude  toward  everything  that  affects 
him/her.   High  morale  gives  the  Marine  a  feeling  of  confidence  and 
well-being  that  enables  him/her  to  face  hardship  with  courage, 
endurance  and  determination.     The  leader  can  measure  morale 
within  his/her  unit  through  close  observation  of  their  Marines  in 
their  daily  activities,    frequent  inspections  and  routine 
conversations  or  counseling. 

(b)    Some  indicators    (indicators  can  be  either  positive 
or  negative)    of  morale  follow: 

Personal  appearance  and  hygiene. 
Personal  conduct. 
Standards  of  military  courtesy. 
Use  of  recreational  facilities. 
Interpersonal  relations . 
Condition  of  mess  and  quarters. 
Care  of  equipment. 

Response  to  orders  and  directives. 

Motivation  during  training. 

Arrests,   military  or  civilian. 

Requests  for  transfers. 

Sick  call  rate. 

Re-enlistment  rates. 

Unauthorized  absences. 

Use  and  abuse  of  drugs  and  alcohol . 

(c)   How  can  a  leader  improve  morale?     Some  actions 
which  a  leader  can  take  to  improve  morale  within  the  unit  follow: 

(1)   Know  your  Marines,    their  motivations  and 
aspirations,   and  look  out  for  their  welfare.     Be  enthusiastic  and 
"gung-ho."     Teach  the  profession  of  arms  and  demand  perfection. 
Get  your  Marines  into  top  physical  condition.     Keep  your  Marines 
informed.     Develop  a  competitive  spirit  in  all  activities.  Teach 
a  belief  in  the  mission.     Foster  the  feeling  that  each  Marine  is 


15-9 


essential  to  the  unit.     Instill  in  your  Marines  confidence  in 
themselves,    their  leaders,    their  training  and  their  equipment. 
Develop  a  sense  of  responsibility  among  your  Marines.  Carefully 
consider  job  assignments  in  order  to  best  match  your  Marines' 
abilities  and  desires  with  the  available  assignments,  when  possi- 
ble.    Ensure  that  tasks  are  understood,   supervised  and  accom- 
plished.    Demonstrate  your  concern  for  your  troops'  physical, 
mental,  moral  and  spiritual  welfare,   to  include  their  dependents. 
Make  sure  that  awards  and  rewards  are  passed  out  as  quickly  as 
punishment.     Recognize  the  individuality  of  your  Marines  and 
treat  them  accordingly.     Identify  and  remove  any  causes  for 
misunderstanding  or  dissatisfaction.     Ensure  your  Marines  know 
the  procedures  for  registering  complaints;   ensure  that  action  is 
taken  promptly.     Build  a  feeling  of  confidence  which  will  foster 
the  free  approach  by  subordinates  for  advice  and  assistance  not 
only  in  military  matters,   but  for  personal  problems  as  well. 

(2 )  Esprit  de  Corps. 

(a)  Esprit  de  corps,    one  of  the  factors  which 
constitutes  morale,    is  the  loyalty  to,   pride  in  and  enthusiasm 
for  the  unit  shown  by  its  members.     Whereas  morale  refers  to  the 
individual  Marine's  attitude,    esprit  de  corps  is  the  unit  spirit. 
It  is  the  common  spirit  reflected  by  all  members  of  a  unit, 
providing  group  solidarity.     It  implies  devotion  and  loyalty  to 
the  unit  and  all  for  which  it  stands,   and  a  deep  regard  for  the 
unit's  history,    traditions  and  honor.     Esprit  de  corps  is  the 
unit's  personality;   it  expresses  the  unit's  will  to  fight  and  win 
in  spite  of  seemingly  insurmountable  odds.     Esprit  de  corps 
depends  on  the  satisfaction  the  members  get  from  belonging  to  a 
unit,    their  attitudes  toward  other  members  of  the  unit  and 
confidence  in  their  leaders.     True  esprit  de  corps  is  based  on 
the  great  military  virtues;  unselfishness,    self -discipline ,  duty, 
honor,   patriotism  and  courage.     Idleness,    the  curse  of  military 
life,   kills  esprit. 

(b)  Some  indicators  of  esprit  de  corps  follow: 

[1]   Expressions  from  the  Marines  that  show  enthusi- 
asm for  and  pride  in  their  unit. 

[2]  A  good  reputation  among  other  units. 

[3]   A  strong  competitive  spirit. 


15-10 


activities . 


[4]   Willing  participation  by  the  members  in  unit 


[5]  Pride  in  the  history  and  traditions  of  the 

unit . 

[6]   All  of  the  items  previously  listed  as 
indicators  of  morale. 

(c)   How  can  a  leader  foster  esprit  de  corps? 
Cultivation  of  esprit  is  more  difficult  in  peacetime  than  in  war 
since  there  is  no  "great  mission, "   it  may  be  difficult  to 
convince  Marines  to  train  diligently  to  prepare  themselves  for 
what  may  seem  to  be  a  remote  possibility.     Some  actions  which 
help  to  establish  and  maintain  esprit  de  corps  follow: 

[1]   The  leader  must  embody  the  fighting  spirit 
he/she  wants  to  develop. 

[2]    Indoctrinate  new  Marines  by  ensuring  they 
are  properly  welcomed  into  the  unit.     Include  an  explanation  of 
the  unit's  history,    traditions  and  its  present  mission  and 
activity . 

[3]   Train  your  Marines  as  a  team. 

[4]   Develop  the  feeling  that  the  unit  as  a  whole 


must  succeed. 


[5]    Instruct  them  in  history  and  traditions 


[6]  Leaders  must  use  ingenuity  and  initiative  to 
train  their  own  minds,  so  that  they  can  provide  to  their  Marines 
useful  and  meaningful  instruction. 

[7]   Attain  and  maintain  within  the  unit  a  high 
level  of  physical  conditioning  and  proficiency  in  the  military 
skills . 

[8]   Recognize  and  publish  the  achievements  of 
the  unit  and  its  members.     Reinforce  all  positive  performance. 

[9]   Make  use  of  appropriate  and  proper  ceremo- 
nies,   slogans,   and  symbols. 


15-11 


[10]   Use  competition  wisely  to  foster  a  team 
concept;   try  to  win  in  every  competition.     Always  find  some  way 
to  convince  others  your  unit  is  the  best. 

[11]   Employ  your  command  in  accordance  with  its 
capabilities  in  order  to  maximize  its  chances  of  success. 

[12]   Make  proper  use  of  decorations  and  awards. 

[13]   Make  your  Marines  feel  they  are  invincible, 
that  the  success  of  the  Corps  and  country  depends  on  them  and  the 
victory  of  their  unit. 

(3)  Discipline 

(a)  Discipline  is  the  individual  or  group  attitude 
that  ensures  prompt  obedience  to  orders  and  initiation  of  appro- 
priate action  in  the  absence  of  orders.     It  is  an  attitude  that 
keeps  Marines  doing  what  they  are  supposed  to  do,   as  they  are 
supposed  to  do  it,    through  strong  inner  conviction.     Good  disci- 
pline is  constant  and  functions  whether  or  not  outside  pressure 
or  supervision  is  present.     It  is  the  result  of  good  training  and 
intelligent  leadership.     Napoleon  and  Puller  stated  that  the  most 
important  element  of  military  training  was  discipline.  Without 
discipline,   a  unit  cannot  function  effectively. 

(b)  Some  indicators  of  discipline  follow: 
[1]   Attention  to  detail. 

[2]  Good  relations  among  unit  members. 

[3]  Devotion  to  duty. 

[4]  Proper  senior/subordinate  relationships. 

[5]  Proper  conduct  on  and  off  duty. 

[6]  Adherence  to  standards  of  cleanliness,  dress 
and  military  courtesy. 

[7]    Promptness  in  responding  to  orders. 


15-12 


[8]   Adherence  to  the  chain  of  command. 

[9]   Ability  and  willingness  to  perform  effec- 
tively with  little  or  no  supervision. 

(c)   How  can  a  leader  improve  discipline?  Some 
actions  a  leader  can  take  to  improve  discipline  within  his/her 
unit  follow: 

[I]  Be  self -disciplined  and  consistent. 

[2]    Strive  for  forceful  and  competent  leadership 
throughout  the  entire  organization. 

[3]   Ensure  principles  of  leadership  are 
practiced  by  all  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers. 

[4]    Set  the  example. 

[5]    Institute  a  fair  and  impartial  system  of 
reward  and  punishment.     Praise  and  reward  those  deserving  it 
promptly  and  properly;   likewise,   punish  quickly  and  appropriately 
when  required. 

[6]  Resort  to  punitive  measures  only  when  neces- 
sary to  protect  the  rights  of  individuals,  the  government  and  the 
standards  of  the  Marine  Corps. 

[7]  Develop  mutual  trust  and  confidence  through 
tough,  stressful  training.  Challenge  subordinates  in  accordance 
with  their  capabilities. 

[8]   Encourage  and  foster  the  development  of 

self -discipline . 

[9]   Be  alert  to  conditions  conducive  to  breaches 
of  discipline;   eliminate  them  where  possible. 

[10]   Eliminate  or  reduce  meaningless  tasks  and 

assignments . 

[II]  Rotate  personnel  assigned  to  menial  tasks. 
[12]    Provide  guidance  and  assistance,   but  avoid 

micro-managing . 


15-13 


[13]   Set  high  performance  standards. 

[14]   Encourage  innovation  and  support  your 

subordinates . 

(4)  Proficiency 

(a)  Proficiency  is  defined  as  the  technical,  tacti- 
cal and  physical  ability  of  the  individuals  and  the  unit  to 
accomplish  the  mission. 

(b)  Some  indicators  of  proficiency  follow: 

[1]   Personal  appearance  and  physical  condition- 
ing of  the  Marines. 

[2]  Appearance  and  condition  of  equipment, 
quarters  and  working  spaces . 

[3]   Unit  reaction  time  in  various  situations 
under  different  conditions. 

[4]   Professional  attitudes  demonstrated  by  the 
unit  and  its  members. 

[5]   Troop  leading  ability  of  subordinate 

leaders . 

[6]   Degree  of  skill  when  carrying  out  assigned 

tasks . 

[7]   Promptness  and  accuracy  in  disseminating 
orders,    instructions  and  information  throughout  the  unit. 

(c)   Some  actions  a  leader  can  take  to  improve 
individual  and  unit  proficiency  are: 

[1]  Be  technically  and  tactically  proficient. 

[2]  Thoroughly  train  individuals  in  their 

duties . 

[3]  Emphasize  teamwork  and  the  chain  of  command. 


15-14 


[4]    Provide  cross- training . 


[5]   Ensure  that  training  is  realistic. 

[6]    Provide  unit  members  with  frequent  opportu- 
nities to  perform  the  duties  of  the  next  higher  rank  or  billet. 

[7]    Set  high  standards  of  performance  and  insist 

that  they  be  met . 

(5)  Motivation 

(a)  Motivation  answers  the   "why"   of  why  Marines 
fight.     It  also  answers  the   "why"   of  everything  Marines  do  to 
prepare  for  combat.     Motivation  is  based  on  psychological  factors 
such  as  needs,   desires,    impulses,    inner  drives,    impelling  forces 
or  commitments  that  influence  the  reactions  and  attitudes  of 
individuals  and  moves  them  to  action.     Simply  put  for  a  Marine, 
motivation  is  commitment  which  is  generally  based  on  pride  and 
unit  integrity. 

(b)  For  example,   each  of  us  was  motivated  to  join  the 
Marine  Corps  and  graduate  from  "boot  camp."     Our  motivation  in 
each  case  was  probably  very  different  and  was  generated  from  a 
different  source.     The  decision  to  join  the  Marine  Corps  was  more 
than  likely  based  upon  the  desire  to  serve  the  United  States  or 
the  need  to  prove  ourselves.     This  need  or  desire  was  probably 
fulfilled  because  of  the  desire  to  prove  that  we  were  Marine 
Corps  material  as  well  as  the  need  to  avoid  the  wrath  of  our 
Drill  Instructor.     These  desires  and  needs  were  probably  gener- 
ated by  both  our  Drill  Instructor  and  within  ourselves.     In  both 
cases,   we  had  needs  or  desires  that  caused  us  to  do  certain 
things . 

(c)  The  leader  must  understand  and  ensure  that 
his/her  Marines  understand  that  everything  we  do  as  Marines  is 
designed  to  constantly  sharpen  our  ability  to  succeed  in  battle. 
Every  Marine  must  be  committed  to  this  goal.     Motivation  is  the 
willingness  of  the  individual  to  function  as  a  part  of  the  Marine 
team . 

(d)  How  can  a  leader  develop  motivation?  Some 
actions  which  a  leader  can  take  to  develop  motivation  within 
his/her  unit  follow: 


15-15 


[1]   Be  motivated  and  enthusiastic. 

[2]   Maintain  positive  relationships  with  his/her 

Marines . 

[3]    Provide  the  basic  needs  all  Marines  share: 

[a]  Food,    shelter  and  water. 

[b]  Social  needs    (i.e.  comradeship). 

[c]  Protection  from  danger,    threat  and 

deprivation . 

[d]  Self-respect. 

[4]   Ensure  that  each  individual  Marine  fulfills 
his/her  comrades'   expectations,    such  as: 

[a]  Proficiency  in  his/her  job. 

[b]  Self -discipline . 

[c]  Commitment  and  pride  as  a  team  member. 
[5]    Provide  tough,    realistic  unit  training  when 

possible . 

[6]   Enhance  a  Marine's  motivation  to  perform 
well;   ensure  he/she  knows  that  he/she: 

[a]  Can  succeed  if  they  tries  hard  enough. 

[b]  Will  be  recognized  for  good  work. 

[c]  Will  be  punished  for  a  lack  of  effort. 

[d]  Plays  a  critical  role  in  determining 
the  success  or  failure  of  the  unit. 

(e)   What  are  some  guidelines  the  leader  can  follow  to 
obtain  good  performance  from  his/her  Marines? 


15-16 


[a]  Establish  challenging,   attainable  goals 
within  the  capabilities  of  his/her  Marines. 

[b]  Create  the  assurance  that  good  performance 
will  be  rewarded. 


goals 


[c]  Strive  to  align  personal  goals  with  unit 

[d]  Recognize  good  work. 

[e]  Take  prompt  action  against  poor  performance, 
d.     Summary .     Review  the  main  points  made  by  the  group. 

(1)  This  discussion  has  dealt  with  the  fundamentals  of 
Marine  Corps  leadership.     All  Marines  share  responsibility  for 
leadership  and  must  seek  to  develop  these  fundamentals  throughout 
their  service  to  our  Corps . 

(2)  The  application  of  the  leadership  traits  and  princi- 
ples by  Marines  who  understand  the  concepts  of  authority,  respon- 
sibility and  accountability  has  been  instrumental  in  making  the 
Corps  the  effective  fighting  force  it  is  today. 

(3)  The  Marine  Corps'   performance  and  effectiveness  in 
battle  has  been  characterized  by  high-caliber  morale,  motivation, 
esprit  de  corps,   discipline  and  proficiency.     This  is  the  founda- 
tion of  Marine  Corps  leadership  and  the  heritage  to  be  maintained 
by  all  leaders  of  Marines  today. 


6 .  Appendices 

Appendix  A 
Appendix  B 
Appendix  C 
Appendix  D 
Appendix  E 
Appendix  F 


Leadership  Traits 

Leadership  Principles 

Leadership  Problem  Solving  Exercise 

Guideposts  To  Leadership 

Discipline,   Morale  and  Esprit  de  Corps 

Customs,   Courtesies,   and  Traditions 


15-17 


APPENDIX  A 

FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 
LEADERSHIP  TRAITS 

1 .  BEARING 

a.  Definition .     Creating  a  favorable  impression  in  carriage, 
appearance,   and  personal  conduct  at  all  times. 

b.  Significance .     The  ability  to  look,   act,   and  speak  like  a 
leader  whether  or  not  these  manifestations  indicate  one's  true 
feelings.     Some  signs  of  these  traits  are  clear  and  plain  speech, 
an  erect  gait,   and  impeccable  personal  appearance. 

c.  Example .     Wearing  clean,   pressed  uniforms,   and  shining 
boots  and  brass.     Avoiding  profane  and  vulgar  language.  Keeping 
a  trim,    fit  appearance.     Keeping  your  head,   keeping  your  word  and 
keeping  your  temper . 

2 .  COURAGE 

a.  Definition .     Courage  is  a  mental  quality  that  recognizes 
fear  of  danger  or  criticism,   but  enables  a  Marine  to  proceed  in 
the  face  of  it  with  calmness  and  firmness. 

b.  Significance .     Knowing  and  standing  for  what  is  right, 
even  in  the  face  of  popular  disfavor,    is  often  the  leader's  lot. 
The  business  of  fighting  and  winning  wars  is  a  dangerous  one;  the 
importance  of  courage  on  the  battlefield  is  obvious. 

c.  Example .     Accepting  criticism  for  making  subordinates 
field  day  for  an  extra  hour  to  get  the  job  done  correctly. 

3 .  DECISIVENESS 

a.  Definition .     Ability  to  make  decisions  promptly  and  to 
announce  them  in  a  clear,    forceful  manner. 

b.  Significance .     The  quality  of  character  which  guides  a 
person  to  accumulate  all  available  facts  in  a  circumstance,  weigh 
the  facts,    choose  and  announce  an  alternative  which  seems  best. 
It  is  often  better  that  a  decision  be  made  promptly  than  a  poten- 
tially better  one  be  made  at  the  expense  of  more  time. 


15-18 


c.     Example .     A  leader  who  sees  a  potentially  dangerous  situa- 
tion developing,    immediately  takes  action  to  prevent  injury  from 
occurring.     For  example,    if  he/she  sees  a  unit  making  a  forced 
march  along  a  winding  road  without  road  guards  posted,  he/she 
should  immediately  inform  the  unit  leader  of  the  oversight,  and 
if  senior  to  that  unit  leader,   direct  that  proper  precautions  be 
taken . 

4 .  DEPENDABILITY 

a.  Definition .     The  certainty  of  proper  performance  of  duty. 

b.  Significance .     The  quality  which  permits  a  senior  to 
assign  a  task  to  a  junior  with  the  understanding  that  it  will  be 
accomplished  with  minimum  supervision.     This  understanding 
includes  the  assumption  that  the  initiative  will  be  taken  on 
small  matters  not  covered  by  instructions. 

c.  Example .     The  squad  leader  ensures  that  his/her  squad 
falls  out  in  the  proper  uniform  without  having  been  told  to  by 
the  platoon  sergeant.     The  staff  officer,   who  hates  detailed, 
tedious  paperwork,   yet  makes  sure  the  report  meets  his/her  and 
his/her  supervisor's  standards  before  having  it  leave  his  desk. 

5 .  ENDURANCE 

a.  Definition .     The  mental  and  physical  stamina  measured  by 
the  ability  to  withstand  pain,    fatigue,    stress,   and  hardship. 

b.  Significance .     The  quality  of  withstanding  pain  during  a 
conditioning  hike  in  order  to  improve  stamina  is  crucial  in  the 
development  of  leadership.     Leaders  are  responsible  for  leading 
their  units  in  physical  endeavors  and  for  motivating  them  as 
well . 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  keeping  up  on  a  10-mile  forced  march 
even  though  he/she  has  blisters  on  both  feet  and  had  only  an  hour 
of  sleep  the  previous  night.     An  XO  who  works  all  night  to  ensure 
that  promotion/pay  problems  are  corrected  as  quickly  as  humanly 
possible  because  he/she  realizes  that  only  through  this  effort 
can  one  of  his/her  Marines  receive  badly  needed  back-pay  the 
following  morning. 


15-19 


6 .  ENTHUSIASM 


a.  Definition .     The  display  of  sincere  interest  and  exuber- 
ance in  the  performance  of  duty. 

b.  Significance .     Displaying  interest  in  a  task,   and  an 
optimism  that  it  can  be  successfully  completed,   greatly  enhances 
the  likelihood  that  the  task  will  be  successfully  completed. 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  who  leads  a  chant  or  offers  to  help 
carry  a  load  that  is  giving  someone  great  difficulty  while  on  a 
hike  despite  being  physically  tired  himself,    encourages  his 
fellow  Marines  to  persevere. 

7 .  INITIATIVE 

a.     Definition .     Taking  action  in  the  absence  of  orders. 


b.  Significance .  Since  an 
supervision,  emphasis  is  placed 
tive  is  a  founding  principle  of 
philosophy. 


NCO  often  works  without  close 

on  being  a  self-starter.  Initia- 

Marine  Corps  Warfighting 


c.     Example .     In  the  unexplained  absence  of  the  platoon 
sergeant,   an  NCO  takes  charge  of  the  platoon  and  carries  out  the 
training  schedule. 

8 .  INTEGRITY 

a.  Definition .     Uprightness  of  character  and  soundness  of 
moral  principles.     The  quality  of  truthfulness  and  honesty. 

b.  Significance .  A  Marine's  word  is  his/her  bond.  Nothing 
less  than  complete  honesty  in  all  of  your  dealings  with  subordi- 
nates,  peers,   and  superiors  is  acceptable. 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  who  uses  the  correct  technique  on  the 
obstacle  course,   even  when  he/she  cannot  be  seen  by  the  evalua- 
tor.   During  an  inspection,    if  something  goes  wrong  or  is  not 
corrected  as  had  been  previously  directed,   he/she  can  be  counted 
upon  to  always  respond  truthfully  and  honestly. 


15-20 


9 .  JUDGMENT 


a.  Definition .     The  ability  to  weigh  facts  and  possible 
courses  of  action  in  order  to  make  sound  decisions. 

b.  Significance .     Sound  judgment  allows  a  leader  to  make 
appropriate  decisions  in  the  guidance  and  training  of  his/her 
Marines  and  the  employment  of  his/her  unit.     A  Marine  who 
exercises  good  judgment  weighs  pros  and  cons  accordingly  to 
arrive  at  an  appropriate  decision/ take  proper  action. 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  properly  apportions  his/her  liberty 
time  in  order  to  relax  as  well  as  to  study. 

10 .  JUSTICE 

a.  Definition .     Giving  reward  and  punishment  according  to 
the  merits  of  the  case  in  question.     The  ability  to  administer  a 
system  of  rewards  and  punishments  impartially  and  consistently. 

b.  Significance .     The  quality  of  displaying  fairness  and 
impartiality  is  critical  in  order  to  gain  the  trust  and  respect 
of  subordinates  and  maintain  discipline  and  unit  cohesion, 
particularly  in  the  exercise  of  responsibility  as  a  leader. 

c.  Example .     Fair  apportionment  of  tasks  by  a  squad  leader 
during  all  field  days.     Having  overlooked  a  critical  piece  of 
evidence  which  resulted  in  the  unjust  reduction  of  a  NCO  in  a 
highly  publicized  incident,    the  CO  sets  the  punishment  aside  and 
restores  him  to  his  previous  grade  even  though  he  knows  it  will 
displease  his  seniors  or  may  reflect  negatively  on  his  fitness 
report.      (Also  an  example  of  courage.) 

11 .  KNOWLEDGE 

a.  Definition .     Understanding  of  a  science  or  an  art.  The 
range  of  one's  information,    including  professional  knowledge  and 
an  understanding  of  your  Marines . 

b.  Significance .     The  gaining  and  retention  of  current 
developments  in  military  and  naval  science  and  world  affairs  is 
important  for  your  growth  and  development. 


15-21 


c.     Example .     The  Marine  who  not  only  knows  how  to  maintain 
and  operate  his  assigned  weapon,   but  also  knows  how  to  use  the 
other  weapons  and  equipment  in  the  unit. 

12 .  LOYALTY 

a.  Definition .     The  quality  of  faithfulness  to  country,  the 
Corps,   and  unit,   and  to  one's  seniors,    subordinates,   and  peers. 

b.  Significance .     The  motto  of  our  Corps  is  Semper  Fidelis, 
Always  Faithful.     You  owe  unswerving  loyalty  up  and  down  the 
chain  of  command:     to  seniors,    subordinates,   and  peers. 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  displaying  enthusiasm  in  carrying  out 
an  order  of  a  senior,    though  he  may  privately  disagree  with  it. 
The  order  may  be  to  conduct  a  particularly  dangerous  patrol.  The 
job  has  to  be  done,   and  even  if  the  patrol  leader  disagrees,  he 
must  impart  confidence  and  enthusiasm  for  the  mission  to  his  men. 

13 .  TACT 

a.  Definition .     The  ability  to  deal  with  others  without 
creating  hostility. 

b.  Sicrnif  icance .     The  quality  of  consistently  treating 
peers,    seniors,   and  subordinates  with  respect  and  courtesy  is  a 
sign  of  maturity.     Tact  allows  commands,   guidance,   and  opinions 
to  be  expressed  in  a  constructive  and  beneficial  manner.  This 
deference  must  be  extended  under  all  conditions  regardless  of 
true  feelings. 

c.  Example .     A  Marine  discreetly  points  out  a  mistake  in 
drill  to  a  NCO  by  waiting  until  after  the  unit  has  been  dismissed 
and  privately  asking  which  of  the  two  methods  are  correct. 
He/she  anticipates  that  the  NCO  will  realize  the  correct  method 
when  shown,   and  later  provide  correct  instruction  to  the  unit. 

14 .  UNSELFISHNESS 

a.  Definition .     Avoidance  of  providing  for  one's  own  comfort 
and  personal  advancement  at  the  expense  of  others . 

b.  Significance .     The  quality  of  looking  out  for  the  needs 
of  your  subordinates  before  your  own  is  the  essence  of 


15-22 


leadership.  This  quality  is  not  to  be  confused  with  putting 
these  matters  ahead  of  the  accomplishment  of  the  mission. 


c.     Example .     An  NCO  ensures  all  members  of  his  unit  have 
eaten  before  he  does,   or  if  water  is  scarce,   he  will  share  what 
he  has  and  ensure  that  others  do  the  same.     Another  example 
occurs  frequently  when  a  Marine  receives  a  package  of  food  from 
home:     the  delicacies  are  shared  with  everyone  in  the  squad.  Ye 
another  form  of  unselfishness  involves  the  time  of  the  leader. 
If  a  Marine  needs  extra  instruction  or  guidance,    the  leader  is 
expected  to  make  his/her  free  time  available  whenever  a  need 
arises . 


15-23 


APPENDIX  B 


FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 
LEADERSHIP  PRINCIPLES 

1 .  Know  yourself  and  seek  self -improvement . 

a.  This  principle  of  leadership  should  be  developed  by  the 
use  of  leadership  traits.     Evaluate  yourself  by  using  the  leader- 
ship traits  and  determine  your  strengths  and  weaknesses.     Work  to 
improve  your  weaknesses  and  utilize  your  strengths.     With  a 
knowledge  of  yourself,   and  your  experience  and  knowledge  of  group 
behavior,   you  can  determine  the  best  way  to  deal  with  any  given 
situation.     With  some  Marines,   and  in  certain  situations,  the 
firm,   hard  stand  may  be  most  effective;   however,    in  other  situa- 
tions,   the  "big  brother"  approach  may  work  better.     You  can 
improve  yourself  in  many  ways.     Self -improvement  can  be  achieved 
by  reading  and  observing.     Ask  your  friends  and  seniors  for  an 
honest  evaluation  of  your  leadership  ability.     This  will  help  you 
to  identify  your  weaknesses  and  strengths. 

b.  To  develop  the  techniques  of  this  principle  you  should: 

(1)  Make  an  honest  evaluation  of  yourself  to  determine 
your  strong  and  weak  personal  qualities.     Strive  to  overcome  the 
weak  ones  and  further  strengthen  those  in  which  you  are  strong. 

(2)  Seek  the  honest  opinions  of  your  friends  or  superiors 
to  show  you  how  to  improve  your  leadership  ability. 

(3)  Learn  by  studying  the  causes  for  the  success  or  the 
failure  of  other  leaders. 

(4)  Develop  a  genuine  interest  in  people;   acquire  an 
understanding  of  human  nature. 

(5)  Master  the  art  of  effective  writing  and  speech. 

(6)  Have  a  definite  goal  and  a  definite  plan  to  attain 
your  goal . 

2 .  Be  technically  and  tactically  proficient. 


15-24 


a.  Before  you  can  lead,   you  must  be  able  to  do  the  job.  The 
first  principle  is  to  know  your  job.     As  a  Marine,   you  must 
demonstrate  your  ability  to  accomplish  the  mission,   and  to  do 
this  you  must  be  capable  of  answering  questions  and  demonstrating 
competence  in  your  MOS .     Respect  is  the  reward  of  the  Marine  who 
shows  competence.     Tactical  and  technical  competence  can  be 
learned  from  books  and  from  on  the  job  training. 

b.  To  develop  this  leadership  principle  of  being  technically 
and  tactically  proficient,   you  should: 

(1)  Seek  a  well  rounded  military  education  by  attending 
service  schools;   doing  daily  independent  reading  and  research; 
taking  correspondence  courses  from  MCI,    colleges,   or  correspon- 
dence schools;   and  seeking  off-duty  education. 

(2)  Seek  out  and  associate  with  capable  leaders.  Observe 
and  study  their  actions . 

(3)  Broaden  your  knowledge  through  association  with 
members  of  other  branches  of  the  U.   S.   armed  services. 

(4)  Seek  opportunities  to  apply  knowledge  through  the 
exercise  of  command.     Good  leadership  is  acquired  only  through 
practice . 

(5)  Prepare  yourself  for  the  job  of  leader  at  the  next 
higher  rank. 

3 .     Know  your  Marines  and  look  out  for  their  welfare. 

a.  This  is  one  of  the  most  important  of  the  principles.  You 
should  know  your  Marines  and  how  they  react  to  different  situa- 
tions.    This  knowledge  can  save  lives.     A  Marine  who  is  nervous 
and  lacks  self  confidence  should  never  be  put  in  a  situation 
where  an  important,    instant  decision  must  be  made.     Knowledge  of 
your  Marines'   personalities  will  enable  you,   as  the  leader,  to 
decide  how  to  best  handle  each  Marine  and  determine  when  close 
supervision  is  needed. 

b.  To  put  this  principle  into  practice  successfully  you 
should : 

(1)    Put  your  Marines'   welfare  before  your  own--correct 
grievances  and  remove  discontent. 


15-25 


(2)  See  the  members  of  your  unit  and  let  them  see  you  so 
that  every  Marine  may  know  you  and  feel  that  you  know  them.  Be 
approachable . 

(3)  Get  to  know  and  understand  the  Marines  under  your 

command . 

(4)  Let  them  see  that  you  are  determined  that  they  be 
fully  prepared  for  battle. 

(5)  Concern  yourself  with  the  living  conditions  of  the 
members  of  your  unit. 

(6)  Help  your  Marines  get  needed  support  from  available 
personal  services . 

(7)  Protect  the  health  of  your  unit  by  active  supervision 
of  hygiene  and  sanitation. 

(8)  Determine  what  your  unit's  mental  attitude  is;  keep 
in  touch  with  their  thoughts. 

(9)  Ensure  fair  and  equal  distribution  of  rewards. 

(10)  Encourage  individual  development. 

(11)  Provide  sufficient  recreational  time  and  insist  on 
participation . 

(12)  Share  the  hardships  of  your  Marines  so  you  can 
better  understand  their  reactions. 

4 .     Keep  your  Marines  informed. 

a.     Marines  by  nature  are  inquisitive.     To  promote  efficiency 
and  morale,   a  leader  should  inform  the  Marines  in  his  unit  of  all 
happenings  and  give  reasons  why  things  are  to  be  done.     This,  of 
course,    is  done  when  time  and  security  permit.    Informing  your 
Marines  of  the  situation  makes  them  feel  that  they  are  a  part  of 
the  team  and  not  just  a  cog  in  a  wheel.     Informed  Marines  perform 
better  and,    if  knowledgeable  of  the  situation,    can  carry  on 
without  your  personal  supervision.     The  key  to  giving  out  infor- 
mation is  to  be  sure  that  the  Marines  have  enough 


15-26 


information  to  do  their  job  intelligently  and  to  inspire  their 
initiative,   enthusiasm,    loyalty,   and  convictions. 

b.     Techniques  in  applying  this  principle  are  to: 

(1)  Whenever  possible,  explain  why  tasks  must  be  done  and 
how  you  intend  to  do  them. 

(2)  Assure  yourself,   by  frequent  inspections,  that 
immediate  subordinates  are  passing  on  necessary  information. 

(3)  Be  alert  to  detect  the  spread  of  rumors.  Stop  rumors 
by  replacing  them  with  the  truth. 

(4)  Build  morale  and  esprit  de  corps  by  publicizing 
information  concerning  successes  of  your  unit. 

(5)  Keep  your  unit  informed  about  current  legislation  and 
regulations  affecting  their  pay,  promotion,  privileges,  and  other 
benefits . 

5 .     Set  the  example. 

a.  As  a  Marine  progresses  through  the  ranks  by  promotion, 
all  too  often  he/she  takes  on  the  attitude  of   "do  as  I  say,  not 
as  I  do."     Nothing  turns  Marines  off  faster!     As  a  Marine  leader 
your  duty  is  to  set  the  standards  for  your  Marines  by  personal 
example.   Your  appearance,   attitude,   physical  fitness,  and 
personal  example  are  all  watched  by  the  Marines  in  your  unit.  If 
your  personal  standards  are  high,    then  you  can  rightfully  demand 
the  same  of  your  Marines.     If  your  personal  standards  are  not 
high  you  are  setting  a  double  standard  for  your  Marines,   and  you 
will  rapidly  lose  their  respect  and  confidence.     Remember  your 
Marines  reflect  your  image!     Leadership  is  taught  by  example. 

b.  Techniques  for  setting  the  example  are  to: 

(1)  Show  your  Marines  that  you  are  willing  to  do  the  same 
things  you  ask  them  to  do . 

(2)  Be  physically  fit,   well  groomed,   and  correctly 

dressed . 

(3)  Maintain  an  optimistic  outlook.     Develop  the  will  to 
win  by  capitalizing  on  your  unit's  abilities.     The  more  difficult 


15-27 


the  situation  is,    the  better  your  chance  is  to  display  an 
attitude  of  calmness  and  confidence. 

(4)  Conduct  yourself  so  that  your  personal  habits  are  not 
open  to  criticism. 

(5)  Exercise  initiative  and  promote  the  spirit  of  initia- 
tive in  your  Marines . 

(6)  Avoid  showing  favoritism  to  any  subordinate. 

(7)  Share  danger  and  hardship  with  your  Marines  to  demon- 
strate your  willingness  to  assume  your  share  of  the  difficulties. 

(8)  By  your  performance,   develop  the  thought  within  your 
Marines  that  you  are  the  best  Marine  for  the  position  you  hold. 

(9)  Delegate  authority  and  avoid  over-supervision  in 
order  to  develop  leadership  among  subordinates . 

6 .     Ensure  the  task  is  understood,    supervised,   and  accomplished. 

a.  This  principle  is  necessary  in  the  exercise  of  command. 
Before  you  can  expect  your  Marines  to  perform,    they  must  know 
first  what  is  expected  of  them.     You  must  communicate  your 
instructions  in  a  clear,   concise  manner.     Talk  at  a  level  that 
your  Marines  are  sure  to  understand,   but  not  at  a  level  so  low 
that  would  insult  their  intelligence.     Before  your  Marines  start 
a  task,    allow  them  a  chance  to  ask  questions  or  seek  advice. 
Supervision  is  essential.     Without  supervision  you  cannot  know  if 
the  assigned  task  is  being  properly  accomplished.     Over  supervi- 
sion is  viewed  by  subordinates  as  harassment  and  effectively 
stops  their  initiative.     Allow  subordinates  to  use  their  own 
techniques,   and  then  periodically  check  their  progress. 

b.  The  most  important  part  of  this  principle  is  the  accom- 
plishment of  the  mission.     All  the  leadership,    supervision,  and 
guidance  in  the  world  are  wasted  if  the  end  result  is  not  the 
successful  accomplishment  of  the  mission.     In  order  to  develop 
this  principle  you  should: 

(1)   Ensure  that  the  need  for  an  order  exists  before 
issuing  the  order. 


15-28 


(2)  Use  the  established  chain  of  command. 

(3)  Through  study  and  practice,    issue  clear,   concise,  and 
positive  orders. 

(4)  Encourage  subordinates  to  ask  questions  concerning 
any  point  in  your  orders  or  directives  they  do  not  understand. 

(5)  Question  your  Marines  to  determine  if  there  is  any 
doubt  or  misunderstanding  in  regard  to  the  task  to  be 
accomplished . 

(6)  Supervise  the  execution  of  your  orders. 

(7)  Make  sure  your  Marines  have  the  resources  needed  to 
accomplish  the  mission. 

(8)  Vary  your  supervisory  routine  and  the  points  which 
you  emphasize  during  inspections. 

(9)  Exercise  care  and  thought  in  supervision.  Over 
supervision  hurts  initiative  and  creates  resentment;   under  super- 
vision will  not  get  the  job  done. 

7 .     Train  your  Marines  as  a  team. 

a.  Every  waking  hour  Marines  should  be  trained  and  schooled, 
challenged  and  tested,   corrected  and  encouraged  with  perfection 
and  teamwork  as  a  goal.     When  not  at  war,   Marines  are  judged  in 
peacetime  roles:  perfection  in  drill,   dress,   bearing  and 
demeanor;   shooting;   self -improvement ;   and  most  importantly, 
performance.     No  excuse  can  be  made  for  the  failure  of  leaders  to 
train  their  Marines  to  the  highest  state  of  physical  condition 
and  to  instruct  them  to  be  the  very  best  in  the  profession  of 
arms.     Train  with  a  purpose  and  emphasize  the  essential  element 
of  teamwork. 

b.  The  sharing  of  hardships,   dangers,    and  hard  work 
strengthens  a  unit  and  reduces  problems,    it  develops  teamwork, 
improves  morale  and  esprit  and  molds  a  feeling  of  unbounded 
loyalty  and  this  is  the  basis  for  what  makes  men  fight  in  combat; 
it  is  the  foundation  for  bravery,    for  advancing  under  fire. 
Troops  don't  complain  of  tough  training;   they  seek  it  and  brag 
about  it. 


15-29 


c.  Teamwork  is  the  key  to  successful  operations.  Teamwork 
is  essential  from  the  smallest  unit  to  the  entire  Marine  Corps. 
As  a  Marine  officer,   you  must  insist  on  teamwork  from  your 
Marines.   Train,   play,   and  operate  as  a  team.     Be  sure  that  each 
Marine  knows  his/her  position  and  responsibilities  within  the 
team  framework. 

d.  When  team  spirit  is  in  evidence,    the  most  difficult  tasks 
become  much  easier  to  accomplish.     Teamwork  is  a  two-way  street. 
Individual  Marines  give  their  best,   and  in  return  the  team 
provides  the  Marine  with  security,   recognition,   and  a  sense  of 
accomplishment . 

e.  To  develop  the  techniques  of  this  principle  you  should: 

(1)  Train,    study  and  train,   prepare,   and  train 
thoroughly,  endlessly. 

(2)  Strive  to  maintain  individual  stability  and  unit 
integrity;   keep  the  same  squad  leader  and  fire  team  leaders  as 
long  as  possible  if  they're  getting  the  job  done.  Needless 
transfers  disrupt  teamwork. 

(3)  Emphasize  use  of  the   "buddy"  system. 

(4)  Encourage  unit  participation  in  recreational  and 
military  events. 

(5)  Never  publicly  blame  an  individual  for  the  team's 
failure  nor  praise  one  individual  for  the  team's  success. 

(6)  Provide  the  best  available  facilities  for  unit  train- 
ing and  make  maximum  use  of  teamwork. 

(7)  Ensure  that  all  training  is  meaningful,   and  that  its 
purpose  is  clear  to  all  members  of  the  command. 

(8)  Acquaint  each  Marine  of  your  unit  with  the  capabili- 
ties and  limitations  of  all  other  units,    thereby  developing 
mutual  trust  and  understanding. 

(9)  Ensure  that  each  junior  leader  understands  the 
mechanics  of  tactical  control  for  the  unit. 


15-30 


(10)  Base  team  training  on  realistic,    current,  and 
probable  conditions . 

(11)  Insist  that  every  Marine  understands  the  functions 
of  the  other  members  of  the  team  and  how  the  team  functions  as  a 
part  of  the  unit. 

(12)  Seek  opportunities  to  train  with  other  units. 

(13)  Whenever  possible,    train  competitively. 

8 .       Make  sound  and  timely  decisions 

a.     The  leader  must  be  able  to  rapidly  estimate  a  situation 
and  make  a  sound  decision  based  on  that  estimation.  Hesitation 
or  a  reluctance  to  make  a  decision  leads  subordinates  to  lose 
confidence  in  your  abilities  as  a  leader.     Loss  of  confidence  in 
turn  creates  confusion  and  hesitation  within  the  unit. 

b.  Once  you  make  a  decision  and  discover  it  is  the  wrong 
one,   don't  hesitate  to  revise  your  decision.     Marines  respect  the 
leader  who  corrects  mistakes  immediately  instead  of  trying  to 
bluff  through  a  poor  decision. 

c.  Techniques  to  develop  this  principle  include: 

(1)  Develop  a  logical  and  orderly  thought  process  by 
practicing  objective  estimates  of  the  situation. 

(2)  When  time  and  situation  permit,   plan  for  every  possi- 
ble event  that  can  reasonably  be  foreseen. 

(3)  Consider  the  advice  and  suggestions  of  your  subordi- 
nates whenever  possible  before  making  decisions. 

(4)  Announce  decisions  in  time  to  allow  subordinates  to 
make  necessary  plans. 

(5)  Encourage  subordinates  to  estimate  and  make  plans  at 
the  same  time  you  do . 

(6)  Make  sure  your  Marines  are  familiar  with  your 
policies  and  plans. 


15-31 


(7)   Consider  the  effects  of  your  decisions  on  all  members 
of  your  unit. 

9 .     Develop  a  sense  of  responsibility  among  your  subordinates. 

a.  Another  way  to  show  your  Marines  that  you  are  interested 
in  their  welfare  is  to  give  them  the  opportunity  for  professional 
development.     Assigning  tasks  and  delegating  the  authority  to 
accomplish  tasks  promotes  mutual  confidence  and  respect  between 
the  leader  and  subordinates.     It  also  encourages  the  subordinates 
to  exercise  initiative  and  to  give  wholehearted  cooperation  in 
the  accomplishment  of  unit  tasks.     When  you  properly  delegate 
authority,   you  demonstrate  faith  in  your  Marines  and  increase 
their  desire  for  greater  responsibilities.     If  you  fail  to 
delegate  authority,   you  indicate  a  lack  of  leadership,   and  your 
subordinates  may  take  it  to  be  a  lack  of  trust  in  their 
abilities . 

b.  To  develop  this  principle  you  should: 

(1)  Operate  through  the  chain  of  command. 

(2)  Provide  clear,   well  thought  directions.     Tell  your 
subordinates  what  to  do,   not  how  to  do  it.     Hold  them  responsible 
for  results,    although  overall  responsibility  remains  yours. 
Delegate  enough  authority  to  them  to  enable  them  to  accomplish 
the  task. 

(3)  Give  your  Marines  frequent  opportunities  to  perform 
duties  usually  performed  by  the  next  higher  ranks. 

(4)  Be  quick  to  recognize  your  subordinates'  accomplish- 
ments when  they  demonstrate  initiative  and  resourcefulness. 

(5)  Correct  errors  in  judgment  and  initiative  in  a  way 
which  will  encourage  the  Marine  to  try  harder.     Avoid  public 
criticism  or  condemnation. 

(6)  Give  advice  and  assistance  freely  when  it  is 
requested  by  your  subordinates . 

(7)  Let  your  Marines  know  that  you  will  accept  honest 
errors  without  punishment  in  return;   teach  from  these  mistakes  by 
critique  and  constructive  guidance. 


15-32 


(8)  Resist  the  urge  to  micro-manage;   don't  give  restric- 
tive guidance  which  destroys  initiative,   drive,  innovation, 
enthusiasm;   creates  boredom;   and  increases  workload  of  seniors. 

(9)  Assign  your  Marines  to  positions  in  accordance  with 
demonstrated  or  potential  ability. 

(10)  Be  prompt  and  fair  in  backing  subordinates.  Until 
convinced  otherwise,   have  faith  in  each  subordinate. 

(11)  Accept  responsibility  willingly  and  insist  that  your 
subordinates  live  by  the  same  standard. 

10 .   Employ  your  command  in  accordance  with  its  capabilities. 

a.  Successful  completion  of  a  task  depends  upon  how  well  you 
know  your  unit's  capabilities.     If  the  task  assigned  is  one  that 
your  unit  has  not  been  trained  to  do,    failure  is  very  likely  to 
result.     Failures  lower  your  unit's  morale  and  self  esteem.  You 
wouldn't  send  a  cook  section  to   "PM"   a  vehicle  nor  would  you  send 
three  Marines  to  do  the  job  of  ten.     Seek  out  challenging  tasks 
for  your  unit,   but  be  sure  that  your  unit  is  prepared  for  and  has 
the  ability  to  successfully  complete  the  mission. 

b.  Techniques  for  development  of  this  principle  are  to: 

(1)  Do  not  volunteer  your  unit  for  tasks  it  is  not 
capable  of  completing.     Not  only  will  the  unit  fail,   but  your 
Marines  will  think  you  are  seeking  personal  glory. 

(2)  Keep  yourself  informed  as  to  the  operational  effec- 
tiveness of  your  command. 

(3)  Be  sure  that  tasks  assigned  to  subordinates  are 
reasonable.     Do  not  hesitate  to  demand  their  utmost  in  an 
emergency . 

(4)  Analyze  all  assigned  tasks.  If  the  means  at  your 
disposal  are  inadequate,  inform  your  immediate  supervisor  and 
request  the  necessary  support. 

(5)  Assign  tasks  equally  among  your  Marines. 


15-33 


(6)   Use  the  full  capabilities  of  your  unit  before 
requesting  assistance. 

11 .     Seek  responsibility  and  take  responsibility  for  your 
actions . 

a.  For  professional  development,   you  must  actively  seek  out 
challenging  assignments.     You  must  use  initiative  and  sound 
judgment  when  trying  to  accomplish  jobs  that  are  not  required  by 
your  grade.     Seeking  responsibilities  also  means  that  you  take 
responsibility  for  your  actions.     You  are  responsible  for  all 
your  unit  does  or  fails  to  do.     Regardless  of  the  actions  of  your 
subordinates,    the  responsibility  for  decisions  and  their  applica- 
tion falls  on  you.     You  must  issue  all  orders  in  your  name. 
Stick  by  your  convictions  and  do  what  you  think  is  right,  but 
accept  justified  and  constructive  criticism.     Never  remove  or 
demote  a  subordinate  for  a  failure  that  is  the  result  of  your  own 
mistake . 

b.  Techniques  in  developing  this  principle  are  to: 

(1)  Learn  the  duties  of  your  immediate  senior,   and  be 
prepared  to  accept  the  responsibilities  of  these  duties. 

(2)  Seek  different  leadership  positions  that  will  give 
you  experience  in  accepting  responsibility  in  different  fields. 

(3)  Take  every  opportunity  that  offers  increased 
responsibility . 

(4)  Perform  every  act,    large  or  small,    to  the  best  of 
your  ability.     Your  reward  will  be  increased  opportunity  to 
perform  bigger  and  more  important  tasks. 

(5)  Stand  up  for  what  you  think  is  right;  have  the 
courage  of  your  convictions. 

(6)  Carefully  evaluate  a  subordinate's  failure  before 
taking  action.     Make  sure  the  apparent  shortcomings  are  not  due 
to  an  error  on  your  part.     Consider  the  Marines  that  are  avail- 
able,   salvage  a  Marine  if  possible,   and  replace  a  Marine  when 
necessary . 


15-34 


(7)    In  the  absence  of  orders,    take  the  initiative  to 
perform  the  actions  you  believe  your  senior  would  direct  you  to 
perform  if  he/she  were  present. 

12.     Summary .     The  leadership  principles  are  proven  guidelines, 
which  if  followed,   will  substantially  enhance  your  ability  to  be 
an  effective  leader.     Keep  in  mind  that  your  ability  to  implement 
these  principles  will  influence  your  opportunity  to  accomplish 
the  mission,    to  earn  the  respect  of  your  fellow  Marines,  juniors 
and  seniors,   and  to  make  you  an  effective  leader.     Make  these 
principles  work  for  you. 


15-35 


APPENDIX  C 


FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 
LEADERSHIP  PROBLEM  SOLVING  EXERCISE 
Practical  Exercise  #1 

Special  Situation.     It  is  2200  on  a  Saturday  evening.     You  are 
walking  back  to  the  base  from  town,   when  you  observe  Private 
Jones    (a  member  of  your  unit  whom  you  regard  as  a  good  friend) 
walking  back  to  the  base  also.     You  approach  him  and  discover 
that  he  is  smoking  a  marijuana  cigarette.     At  this  point,  Private 
Jones  offers  you  a  marijuana  cigarette. 

First  Requirement .     Discuss  what  you  are  going  to  do.     As  you 
discuss  the  situation,    consider  some  of  the  leadership  qualities 
which  might  help  you  make  your  decision. 

Proposed  Solution.     Refuse  the  marijuana  and  explain  to  him  that 
your  refusal  is  not  out  of  fear  or  anything  related  to  the 
marijuana  itself.     It  is  more  of  a  question  concerning  self- 
discipline,   dependability,   and  loyalty.     Explain  to  him  that  it 
is  sometimes  harder  to  obey  orders  and  regulations  than  to  follow 
your  friends  or  do  as  you  want .     Explain  to  him  that  knowing  the 
difference  between  right  and  wrong  is  important,   and  it  is 
equally  important  to  have  the  self -discipline  to  do  what  is 
right . 

Situation  Continued.     You  refuse  the  cigarette,   and  advise  Jones 
of  the  possible  danger  to  his  military  career,    if  arrested  for 
smoking  marijuana.     Jones  then  states  that  during  a  conversation 
that  you  and  he  had  some  weeks  ago,   you  talked  very  freely  about 
how  you  had  smoked  marijuana  before  entering  the  Corps.  You 
reply  that  your  values  are  different  now,   and  it  is  important  to 
you  to  be  a  part  of  the  Marine  Corps  team.     Private  Jones  replies 
that  he  does  not  believe  in  all  that  talk  about  being  a  Marine  24 
hours  a  day,    cultural  values,   and  the  Marine  Corps  team.     He  is 
his  own  man,   and  he  doesn't  need  to  be  a  part  of  anyone's  team. 

Second  Requirement.     As  you  discuss  this  situation  try  to  relate 
it  to  any  new  values  you  have  taken  on  since  joining  the  Marines. 
Relate  it  to  your  personal  feelings  as  a  Marine  and  as  a  civilian 
before  entering  the  Corps . 


15-36 


Proposed  Solution.     While  discussing  the  importance  of  one's 
values  and  personal  feelings,    explain  to  him  the  importance  of 
setting  realistic  values.     Real  values  being  those  which  agree 
to/with  the  laws  of  society.     Explain  that  values  determine  what 
we  are  for  and  against,    or  where  we  are  going,   and  that  an 
individual  whose  life  is  governed  by  real /realistic  values  has 
direction  and  meaning.     Such  people  are  more  dependable,  more 
responsible,   and  have  more  self  control. 

Practical  Exercise  #2 

Special  Situation.     You  are  a  black  Marine  reporting  into  a  rifle 
company  at  Camp  Pendleton.     The  only  other  Marine  you  know  in  the 
company  is  white,    so  that  night  you  and  some  of  the  white  Marines 
you  know  go  to  the  EM  Club  for  a  few  drinks.     While  at  the  EM 
Club  you  are  approached  by  several  black  Marines    (whom  you  had 
never  met  before)   who  demand  that  you  stop  associating  with  white 
Marines.      (Note:     In  this  situation  the  discussion  leader  could 
also  reverse  the  colors,   have  a  white  Marine  be  approached  by 
other  white  Marines  because  of  his  association  with  a  black 
Marine . ) 

First  Requirement .     How  are  you  going  to  reply  to  the  black 
Marine ' s  demand? 

Proposed  Solution.     Explain  that  it  is  your  first  night  on  base 
and  the  white  Marines  are  the  only  ones  you  know.     Explain  that 
they  are  your  friends  and  that  a  friend  should  not  be  determined 
by  color,   but  by  what  kind  of  man  he  is.     Explain  that  as  you  get 
to  know  more  people,   you  will  soon  have  friends  that  are  going  to 
be  black,   as  well  as  white.     Try  to  avoid  trouble  but  maintain 
your  independence  in  choosing  friends. 

Situation  Continued.     At  this  point,   you  are  told  by  one  of  the 
black  Marines  that  you  better  get  some  black  friends  to  show  you 
around  and  that  they  have  ways  of  taking  care  of  blacks  who 
associate  with  whites.     You  and  your  friends  then  depart  the 
club.     Several  days  later  you  read  in  the  base  newspaper  about  a 
black  woman  Marine  who  was  beaten  by  other  black  Marines  because 
she  was  dating  a  white  Marine.     While  reading  the  newspaper  one 
of  the  black  Marines  that  had  approached  you  in  the  EM  Club, 
walks  up  to  you,    looks  over  your  shoulder  at  the  article  in  the 
newspaper  and  replies,    "I  told  you,   we  have  ways  of  taking  care 
of  blacks  who  like  to  mess  around  with  whites." 


15-37 


Second  Requirement .     Discuss  the  course (s)    of  action  you  would 
take  toward: 

a.  The  black  Marine  making  the  comment. 

b.  The  woman  Marine  beaten   (maybe  she  knows  the  Marines 
that  assaulted  her  but  is  afraid  to  go  to  the  command  alone;  your 
support  may  be  all  she  requires  to  report  them) . 

c.  Your  white  friend. 

Proposed  Solution.     Course  of  action  taken  concerning: 

a.  The  black  Marine  making  the  comment.  Try  and  learn  this 
Marine's  identity  and  report  this  to  your  commanding  officer,  or 
the  military  police. 

b.  The  woman  Marine  beaten.     Talk  with  her,   maybe  she  knows 
who  assaulted  her  but  is  afraid  to  report  them  because  she  is  the 
only  black  trying  to  stand  up  to  them.     Explain  that  you  know  the 
black  Marines  who  have  threatened  and  assaulted  other  blacks  and 
that  you  will  go  to  the  commander  with  her. 

c.  Your  white  friends.     Continue  to  associate  with  them,  but 
make  them  aware  of  the  threats  made  by  the  black  Marines . 

Practical  Exercise  #3 

Special  Situation. 

a.  You  are  a  Military  Policeman  on  routine  patrol  in  a 
military  police  vehicle.     As  you  drive  toward  the  main  gate,  you 
notice  that  the  car  in  front  of  you  is  going  approximately  2  0 
miles  over  the  speed  limit. 

b.  You  pull  the  car  over,   and  discover  that  the  driver  is 
your  friend,    PFC  Hustle.     When  you  inform  him  that  he  was  speed- 
ing,  he  admits  it,   but  says  he  was  hurrying  home  to  be  with  his 
wife  who  is  in  her  last  month  of  pregnancy.      (You  recall  seeing 
HUSTLE  drinking  with  several  of  his  platoon  mates  about  two  hours 
earlier  when  you  checked  the  EM  Club.) 

c.  At  this  point,   Hustle   (whom  you  have  known  since  boot 
camp)   pleads  with  you  not  to  issue  a  ticket.     He  says  that  one 
more  traffic  ticket  will  cost  him  his  on-base  driving  privileges 


15-38 


for  six  months.      (He  has  had  four  previous  tickets.)     He  says 
that  if  he  can't  drive  his  car,   he  will  have  no  way  to  get  to 
work  from  his  quarters  since  his  wife  is  confined  to  the  house 
now  with  her  pregnancy. 

d.     You  are  alone  on  this  patrol,    so,    if  you  don't  give  him  a 
ticket,   only  the  two  of  you  will  know  about  it. 

Requirement .     Discuss  what  you  are  going  to  do.     As  you  discuss 
the  situation,    consider  some  of  the  leadership  qualities  which 
might  help  you  make  your  decision. 

Proposed  Solution.     Explain  to  PFC  Hustle  that  the  law  exists  for 
a  reason  and  that  his  speeding  endangered  the  lives  of  pedestri- 
ans in  the  area.     You  sympathize  with  his  wife,    etc.,   but  his 
irresponsible  behavior  is  unacceptable.     Do  your  duty. 

Practical  Exercise  #4 

Special  Situation.     While  at  home  on  leave  you  and  your  high 
school  sweetheart  decided  to  get  married  so  she  could  accompany 
you  to  Camp  Lejeune.     While  at  Camp  Lejeune  the  two  of  you  were 
living  comfortably  on  your  PFC  pay.     Upon  completion  of  the 
training  at  Camp  Lejeune  you  were  assigned  to  MCRD,    San  Diego. 
After  several  months  in  the  San  Diego  area  you  realize  that 
everything  is  more  expensive,   and  it  will  be  much  harder  to  make 
ends  meet.     Your  wife  had  never  worked  before  and  is  finding  it 
very  hard  to  get  a  job. 

First  Requirement.     Realizing  that  your  financial  situation  is 
affecting  your  job  performance,   discuss  the  possible  courses  of 
action . 

Proposed  Solution.     First,   check  to  see  if  you  are  receiving  all 
your  pay  and  allowances.     Explain  your  problem  to  the  First 
Sergeant;  maybe  he  can  get  you  lower  cost  housing,    food  stamps, 
budgeting  assistance,    etc.     Above  all,    try  and  keep  your  wife 
with  you. 

Situation  Continued.     You  and  your  wife  decide  that  it  would  be 
best  for  her  to  return  home  to  your  parents  and  for  you  to  move 
into  the  barracks.     A  few  weeks  after  going  home  your  wife  calls 
and  tells  you  that  she  is  pregnant,   and  that  your  father  is  out 
of  work,    so  she  may  have  to  move  in  with  her  parents.     You  do  not 
like  this  idea  because  her  parents  always  talk  bad  about  you  and 


15-39 


they  did  not  want  her  to  marry  you.     You  put  in  a  leave  request 
to  go  home,   but  you  are  told  that  you  have  no  leave  on  the  books, 
and  that  if  you  did,   you  could  not  go  at  this  time  because  of  a 
shortage  of  personnel . 

Second  Requirement.     Realizing  your  responsibilities  to  both  the 
Corps  and  your  wife,   discuss  the  courses  of  action. 

Proposed  Solution.     Through  the  chain  of  command,    let  your 
commanding  officer  know  the  problem/ situation  you  and  your  wife 
are  in.   Explain  that  you  do  need  leave,    and  that  it  is  very 
important  to  you.     Above  all,   do  not  go  UA.     This  will  only 
compound  the  problem. 

Practical  Exercise  #5 

Special  Situation.     You  are  a  corporal  assigned  to  Special 
Services  MCAS,   El  Toro,   and  for  the  past  three  months  you  have 
noticed  items  of  camping  equipment  missing  from  the  issuing 
stock.     You  have  commented  about  this  to  your  NCOIC  Gunnery 
Sergeant  Lighthands,   and  he  always  replied  that  it  was  taken  off 
the  inventory  because  it  was  damaged  or  unserviceable.     But  you 
handle  these  items  daily  and  know  that  they  were  not  damaged  or 
unserviceable . 

First  Requirement.     Discuss  what  you  are  going  to  do. 

Proposed  Solution.     Go  through  the  inventory  cards  and  find  out 
whether  or  not  in  fact  these  items  were  dropped  from  the 
inventory . 

Situation  Continued.     Last  week  GySgt  Lighthands  was  on  leave  and 
you  received  a  new  shipment  of  camping  stoves.     You  and  Captain 
Goodfellow  inventoried  them,   marked  them,    checked  their  working 
order,    and  put  them  out  for  issuing.     On  Monday  morning  when 
GySgt  Lighthands  returned  to  work,   he  noticed  the  stoves  and 
stated  that  he  had  been  waiting  a  long  time  for  them.     At  lunch 
time  you  noticed  GySgt  Lighthands  putting  two  of  the  camping 
stoves  in  the  trunk  of  his  car.     At  that  point  you  check  the 
inventory  sheet  and  discover  that  the  number  of  camping  stoves 
has  been  changed  by  two . 

Second  Requirement.     In  discussing  the  situation,    consider  ways 
of  approaching  the  GySgt  to  solve  the  problem,  the 


15-40 


Of f icer-in-Charge ,   and  ways  in  which  the  outcome  may  affect  your 
career . 

Proposed  Solution.     Inform  GySgt  Lighthands  that  you  have  noticed 
a  discrepancy  on  the  inventory  sheet  and  ask  him  to  please  check 
them  out  through  the  proper  sequence.     Inform  your  officer-in- 
charge  of  what  was  witnessed. 

Practical  Exercise  #6 

Special  Situation.     You  are  a  young  Marine  working  in  the 
disbursing  office  at  MCAS,   El  Toro .     You  have  been  in  the  Marine 
Corps  nine  months,   you  know  and  perform  your  job  well,   but  you 
are  still  a  PFC .     Three  months  ago  a  young  woman  Marine    (PFC)  was 
assigned  to  your  division,   who  has  been  in  the  Marine  Corps  only 
six  months.     She  and  the  NCOIC  are  very  friendly,   and  there  are 
rumors  that  they  are  seeing  each  other  when  off  duty.     Last  week 
the  NCOIC  recommended  her  for  meritorious  promotion,   and  she  was 
selected.      (Note:     In  this  situation  the  discussion  leader  may 
reverse  the  genders,   have  a  male  Marine  promoted  and  a  woman 
Marine  feel  it  was  unfair.) 

First  Requirement.     Discuss  what  you  are  going  to  do. 

Proposed  Solution.     You  should  do  nothing  in  regards  to  the  woman 
Marine.     Reevaluate  your  performance,   work  harder,   and  gain 
recognition  on  your  own  rather  than  by  tearing  down  the  woman 
Marine . 

Situation  Continued.     It  appears  now  that  the  woman  Marine  is 
always  trying  to  tell  you  your  job,   and  it  is  obvious  that  she  is 
not  as  proficient  at  the  job  as  you  are.     Often  she  fails  to 
complete  her  work  and  it  is  reassigned  to  you.     You  have  asked 
for  a  new  assignment /transfer  to  another  division,   but  that  has 
been  refused.     You  like  your  job  and  intend  to  be  a  career 
Marine . 

Second  Requirement.     How  will  you  handle  this  situation. 

Proposed  Solution.     If  the  woman  Marine  outranks  you,   do  what  she 
says  and  try  to  help  her  all  you  can.     Your  efforts  will  not  go 
unnoticed  by  the  supervisor  and  you  will  gain  your  reward. 


15-41 


Practical  Exercise  #7 


Special  Situation 

a.  You  are  the  platoon  sergeant.     During  the  past  two  weeks 
the  squads  have  been  participating  in  a  squad  competition  that 
involves  drill,   essential  subjects,   and  various  other  events. 
Competition  within  the  battalion  is  very  intense  with  the  winning 
squad  being  granted  special  liberty  and  tickets  to  the  Superbowl 
Game.     At  the  start  of  the  competition,    the  platoon  commander 
relieved  the  squad  leader  of  the  third  squad  for  poor  perform- 
ance,  and  he  was  reassigned  to  duty  in  the  company  headquarters. 
Corporal  Hardcharger,   who  reported  to  the  company  during  that 
week  was  assigned  as  the  new  squad  leader. 

b.  What  a  change  the  past  two  weeks  have  brought!  Your 
third  squad  is  by  far  the  best  in  the  entire  platoon.     In  fact, 
during  the  preliminary  trials  within  the  company,    the  company 
commander  commented  on  the  sudden  squared  away  appearance  of  the 
members  of  the  third  squad  in  your  platoon   (they  had  not  had  a 
particularly  good  reputation) .     Although  you  are  pleased  with  the 
apparent  turnaround,   your  instincts  tell  you  that  something  is 
not  right.     You  notice  that  the  members  of  the  squad  are  silent 
and  withdrawn  now,   which  is  not  in  character  with  their  previous 
outspoken  mischievous  natures. 

First  Requirement.     What  should  the  leader  do? 

Proposed  Solution.     Talk  to  Cpl  Hardcharger  to  find  out  what 
techniques  he  is  using.     Increase  observation  of  his  unit  includ- 
ing unannounced  visits  day  and  night. 

Situation  Continued.     You  have  just  finished  talking  to  a  member 
of  the  third  squad.     He  hints  that  Corporal  Hardcharger  has 
performed  his  miracle  by  "thumping"   the  slackers  during  the 
night.   You  talk  to  Corporal  Hardcharger  and  he  states  that  he 
has,   on  occasion  had  to  perform  some  physical  counseling,  but 
that  is  the  only  way  "to  get  through  to  these  lunkheads."  He 
points  out  that  this  is  the  only  way  to  get  results  quickly,  and 
he  intends  to  win  the  competition.     He  also  informs  you  that  not 
one  of  the  men  have  complained  about  his  methods.      (You  have  to 
admit  to  yourself  that  this  is  true;   in  fact,    the  squad  members 
seem  to  have  a  grudging  respect  for  him. ) 


15-42 


Second  Requirement.     How  do  you  respond  to  Corporal  Hardcharger ' s 
comments?     Consider  the  type  of  discipline  that  is  being  devel- 
oped and  the  value  of  this  sort  of  leadership. 

Proposed  Solution.     Counsel  your  squad  leader  that  his  methods 
are  likely  to  get  him  into  serious  trouble  if  they  haven't 
already.  Marine  Corps  leadership  does  not  rely  on  maltreatment. 
Discipline  represents  the  ultimate  product  of  good  leadership  in 
developing  unit  cohesion,    esprit  de  corps,   motivation,   and  skill- 
ful performance  of  duties.     Discipline  is  the  attitude  that 
ensures  prompt  obedience  to  orders.     It  is  developed  through 
application  of  the  principles  and  traits  of  leadership     not  brute 
force.     Inform  him  that  you  will  discuss  the  situation  with  the 
platoon  commander,    further  counseling  may  occur,    and  he  could  be 
liable  to  disciplinary  action  and  serious  punishment  if  involved 
in  maltreatment. 

Third  Requirement.     You  are  the  platoon  commander  in  the  previous 
exercise  involving  Corporal  Hardcharger.     Your  platoon  sergeant 
has  just  conveyed  the  situation  to  you.     What  do  you  do?  (Note: 
This  is  a  scenario  for  discussion  by  officers.     No  solution  is 
recommended;   the  group  should  consider  alternatives  and  the 
impact  each  has  on  the  platoon,    the  third  squad,   and  the  company, 
as  well  as  Corporal  Hardcharger  and  the  platoon  sergeant.) 

Practical  Exercise  #8 

Special  Situation.     You  are  a  squad  leader.     One  of  your  fire 
team  leaders  is  known  for  his  ability  to  get  the  job  done  though 
he  usually  alienates  his  entire  fire  team  in  doing  so.  You 
notice  that  he  has  his  men  in  the  head  long  after  taps,  preparing 
for  the  next  day's  rifle  and  personnel  inspection.  Your 
preliminary  inspection  earlier  in  the  day  has  satisfied  you  that 
his  fire  team  was  ready  for  inspection.     What,    if  anything, 
should  you  do? 

Proposed  Solution.     Call  in  the  fire  team  leader.     Praise  him  for 
his  dedicated  approach  to  mission  accomplishment,   but  also  remind 
him  that  his  second  consideration  is  to  maximize  troop  welfare. 
Point  out  that  you  had  indicated  during  your  inspection  that  his 
fire  team  was  ready  for  inspection.     Suggest  to  him  that  the 
extra  effort  he  was  demanding  of  his  Marines  was  unnecessary  and 
was  probably  a  factor  in  his  problem  with  earning  their  respect. 
Know  your  Marines,    and  look  out  for  their  welfare. 


15-43 


Practical  Exercise  #9 


Special  Situation.     You  are  a  sergeant  who  has  been  assigned  the 
role  of  patrol  leader  of  a  small  combat  patrol  in  a  desert  train- 
ing exercise.     You  and  your  patrol  were  inserted  by  helicopter 
into  the  area  of  operations  at  dusk  with  the  mission  of  destroy- 
ing an  enemy  forward  observation  post.     You  realize  that  the 
helicopter  inserted  your  patrol  into  the  wrong  "LZ"   and  move  ten 
miles  to  reach  the  objective.     By  now  it  is  daylight  and  the  only 
way  your  patrol  can  attack  the   "OP"  will  be  by  climbing 
undetected  up  a  steep  and  dangerous  ridge.     You  have  no  radio 
contact  with  anyone  and  your  water  supply  is  extremely  limited. 
Your  radioman  refuses  to  climb  because  of  the  danger,   and  because 
he  feels  that  there  will  not  be  enough  water  to  get  back  to 
friendly  positions. 

Requirement .     How  should  the  sergeant  handle  the  situation? 

(1)  Should  he  secure  the  exercise  and  go  non-tactical  for 
safety  reasons?      (Consider  the  case  wherein  this  is  only  a  train- 
ing exercise  as  well  as  the  case  where  this  is  actual  combat.) 

(2)  Should  he   "motivate"   the  radioman  and  attempt  to  destroy 
the  patrol  objective? 

(3)  Should  he  hold  a  council  of  war  and  take  a  vote  on  what 
to  do? 

(4)  What  are  some  other  courses  of  action  open  to  the 
sergeant? 

NOTE:     There  is  no  proposed  solution. 
Practical  Exercise  #10 

Special  Situation.     You  are  a  lieutenant  due  for  transfer  from 
Okinawa  after  a  12  month  unaccompanied  tour  and  are  experiencing 
severe  personal  family  problems.     You  need  to  get  home  as  soon  as 
possible;  your  port  call  is  tomorrow.     Among  your  responsibili- 
ties are  numerous  items  of  classified  gear.     In  the  turnover 
inventory  you  discover  that  one  KY3  8  is  missing.     An  investiga- 
tion will  be  immediately  required.     The  officer  who  is  accepting 
the  account  is  inattentive  and  thinks  that  everything  is  present 
in  the  account.  You  know  that  if  you  state  it's 


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missing  an  investigation  will  be  required,   delaying  your  depar- 
ture.    What  would  you  do? 

First  Requirement.     Consider  all  alternative  courses  of  action 
available  to  the  officer,   and  discuss  the  effect  of  each. 

Second  Requirement.     Consider  the  same  situation,   however  alter 
it  such  that  you  are  the  Commanding  Officer  of  the  Marine  due  for 
a  transfer,   and  you  are  well  aware  of  the  serious  personal 
problems  necessitating  his  speedy  return  home.     As  commanding 
officer,   what  would  your  reaction  be  if  the  lieutenant  came  in 
and  told  you  the  KY3  8  was  missing?     What  would  you  do  if  you 
found  out  about  the  loss  from  someone  else  and  the  lieutenant  was 
at  Kadena  Air  Base  and  his  plane  departs  in  two  hours? 

(Note:     There  is  no  solution  recommended  for  this  exercise.  The 
Marines  should  consider  application  of  the  various  traits  and 
principles  of  leadership  as  well  as  the  impact  any  decision  made 
under  these  situations  has  on  the  individual  Marine,   his  family, 
and  the  unit . ) 


15-45 


APPENDIX  D 


FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 

GUIDEPOSTS  TO  LEADERSHIP    (By  Gary  C.  Cooper) 

Wars  are  older  than  civilization.     Although  the  methods  and 
tools  of  dissent  have  changed  throughout  the  ages,   warfare  is 
still  basically  the  same.     It  is  a  conflict  between  men.  When 
men  meet  on  the  field  of  battle  there  are  winners  and  there  are 
losers.     Among  them  are  brave  men  and  cowards;   there  are  those 
that  follow  and  those  that  lead.     How  well  men  lead  and  how  men 
follow  usually  determines  the  outcome  of  the  conflict.     It  is 
important  to  us  then,   as  professional  fighting  men,    to  understand 
and  review  the  characteristics  of  good  military  leadership  in 
order  to  be  assured  of  the  support  and  effectiveness  of  our 
followers . 

In  this  tumultuous  world  we  may  be  called  upon  at  any  time  to 
defend  a  way  of  life  that  thousands  of  good  Marines  have  already 
laid  down  their  lives  to  preserve. 

The  importance  of  effective  military  leadership  will  then  be 
of  the  utmost  importance  in  determining  the  basic  issues  of 
conflict:     the  issue  of  who  wins  and  who  loses. 

There  are  four  requirements  to  consider  in  achieving  effec- 
tive military  leadership.     Likened  to  the  markers  and  sign  posts 
spotted  along  our  highways,    if  the  requirements  are  correctly  and 
intelligently  followed,    they  will  guide  us  along  the  road  of 
combat  effectiveness  to  our  ultimate  destination    victory  in 
battle.     Now  that  we  have  our  beginning  and  know  where  we  want  to 
go,   we  will  do  well  to  investigate  the  landmarks  along  the  route. 
We  find  four  major  points  to  look  for:     discipline,  morale, 
esprit  de  corps,   and  efficiency. 

As  we  progress  from  the  status  of  followers  to  that  of  a 
leader,    it  is  well  not  only  to  approach  and  pass  the  discipline 
check  point  with  merely  a  side  glance.     The  area  surrounding  it 
affords  considerable  room  for  examination.     Where  does  discipline 
begin,   and  what  areas  does  it  cover?     Do  you  recall  your  own 
early  days  in  the  Marine  Corps.     Remember  Boot  Camp?     The  harass- 
ment of  the  DI?     The  mental  and  physical  fatigue?     Then  that  day 
that  was  so  slow  in  coming,   graduation.     You  became  a  Marine. 
During  these  initial  months  you  had  been  groomed  and 


15-46 


polished,    largely  through  discipline.     One  thought  dominated  your 
mind,    "It's  not  for  me  to  reason  why,    it's  just  for  me  to  do  or 
die."  But  once  away  from  the  eagle  eye  of  the  DI ,   exposure  to  a 
little  too  much  salt  and  hot  air  without  frequent  and  vigorous 
application  of  polish  and  preservation  allows  time  to  take  its 
toll.     A  tarnish  dulled  a  fine  product  capable  of  much  brilli- 
ancy.    The  leader's  job  then,    is  to  renew  or  to  preserve  the 
glitter  and  not  allow  it  to  dull  of  itself  through  neglect.  In 
what  way  can  the  leader  renew  and  preserve  discipline? 

First  by  reward,    for  work  well  done.     Personal  commendation, 
citation,   meritorious  mast,   promotion,    or  a  verbal   "pat  on  the 
back"   to  the  group  are  obvious  examples.     Discipline  also  stems 
from  the  mutual  respect  and  confidence  shared  between  the  leader 
and  his  followers.     To  establish  these,   Marines  must  recognize 
the  leader's  ability  and  his  willingness  and  capability  to  shoul- 
der the  responsibility  of  his  rank.     He  must  recognize  his 
obligations  to  his  men.     He  must  create  a  desire  among  his  men  to 
emulate  him.  A  third  and  less  pleasant  contributing  factor  to 
discipline  is  proper  punishment.     Punishment  should  not  be 
designed  nor  intended  for  harassment.     It  should  create  a  respect 
for  authority  and  afford  a  means  of  unbiased  military  justice. 
It  should  be  properly  placed  and  correctly  administered. 

The  second  major  area  on  the  way  to  effective  leadership  is 
morale.     One  definition  of  morale  is,    "an  emotional  and  mental 
state  of  the  individual."     Or,   more  simply,   morale  is  how  men 
feel  and  act.     It  is  not  USO  shows,    razor  blades,    candy  and 
tobacco.     It  goes  deeper.     What  are  some  characteristics  of 
morale?     Zeal,    or  the  willingness  of  a  Marine  to  do  his  job,  over 
and  above  that  which  is  expected,    is  a  primary  factor  and  result 
of  morale.     By  doing  his  duty  willingly  to  the  best  of  his 
ability,   a  Marine  develops  still  another  factor  necessary  to  high 
morale.   He  develops  a  feeling  of  personal  worth.     He  believes 
that  he  is  the  most  important  part  of  the  most  important  team  in 
the  whole  Marine  Corps.     He  develops  confidence  in  his  ability, 
in  his  leaders,   and  in  his  equipment.     Along  with  this  confi- 
dence,  he  has  fostered  satisfaction   (not  smugness)   which  is  also 
imperative  for  high  morale. 

The  next  sign  along  the  road  toward  effective  military 
leadership  has  its  base  planted  firmly  on  the  broad  shoulders  of 
Marine  Corps  history.     It  is  probably  the  most  important  single 
factor  in  the  manifestation  of  leadership.     It  is  marked  esprit 
de  corps .     Probably,   esprit  de  corps  is  best  defined  as  the 


15-47 


mental  and  emotional  state  of  an  entire  unit.     It  differs  from 
morale  in  that  esprit  de  corps  embraces  the  attitude  of  the 
entire  unit,   as  opposed  to  the  morale  of  an  individual. 

This  tremendous  driving  force  has  contributed  to  the  success 
for  almost  every  Marine  Corps  campaign.     Although  ancient  leaders 
such  as  Genghis  Khan,   Attila  the  Hun,   Alexander  the  Great,  and 
Napoleon  Bonaparte  may  or  may  not  have  the  blessing  of  modern 
society  or  admirable  personal  attributes,    they  certainly 
surpassed  their  opponents  in  achieving  and  maintaining  an  esprit 
de  corps .   For  example:     the  approach  of  Attila  the  Hun  struck 
terror  into  the  hearts  of  the  once  great  Roman  Empire.  Tales 
were  spread  of  his  savage  hordes  numbering  more  than  the  stars, 
burning  and  plundering,    leaving  a  wake  of  death  and  devastation. 
Yet  history  tells  us  that  this  leader  had  a  force  which  often 
came  to  less  than  15  0  0  men.     It  was  more  likely  their  tremendous 
spirit  and  unyielding  aggressiveness  that  fostered  belief  in 
their  mythical  numbers . 

Consider  too,    the  esprit  de  corps  that  bound  together  Presley 
0 ' Bannon  and  his  few  Marines  during  their  march  across  600  miles 
of  scorching  desert  to  stand  triumphant  at  the  shores  of  Tripoli. 
In  our  own  time,    in  the  frozen  wastes  of  Korea,   a  trapped  Marine 
division  fought  its  way  bravely  to  the  sea  through  six  Communist 
divisions;    largely  on  esprit.     But  it  is  not  these  individual 
campaigns  with  which  we  are  concerned.     Rather,    it  is  the  spirit 
which  motivated  these  men  to  overcome  seemingly  insurmountable 
obstacles.     How  is  esprit  de  corps  developed?     It  is  the  product 
of  the  interaction  of  personnel.     Simply,    it  amounts  to  the  way 
one  Marine  acts  toward  another.     High  morale  of  individuals  in  a 
unit  is  essential,   and  a  spirit  of  competition  between  units  is 
another  contributing  factor.     One  begets  the  other.     It  is  well 
to  note  that  a  unit's  achievements,   past  and  present,  enhance 
esprit  de  corps. 

The  guideposts  of  discipline,   morale  and  esprit  de  corps  have 
brought  us  thus  far.     Are  these  three  fundamentals  enough  for 
successful  leadership?     The  answer  is  no.     There  is  still  another 
area  to  pass.     Another  sign  points  the  way.     We  call  it 
efficiency.     A  loose  definition  of  efficiency  might  be:  the 
realization  of  the  greatest  output  in  the  shortest  possible  time 
and  with  the  least  amount  of  effort.     To  Marines  it  might  also 
mean  getting  the  job  done  promptly  and  correctly. 


15-48 


Efficiency  comes  from  proper  training.     Continual  practice  of 
fire  team  and  squad  tactics,   artillery  firexes,   phibexes  and 
fieldexes,    to  mention  a  few,   are  training  to  develop  efficiency. 
It  is  not  enough  that  a  Marine  possess  discipline  and  high 
morale,   and  that  units  possess  esprit  de  corps.     Marines  must 
know  their  job  and  be  able  to  do  their  job  efficiently.     This  can 
be  accomplished  only  through  intensive  and  proper  training.  It 
incorporates  and  molds  the  essentials  of  discipline,   morale  and 
esprit  de  corps .     Training  develops  in  the  Marine  a  responsibil- 
ity,   confidence  and  technical  knowledge  of  his  particular  job;  an 
understanding  of  the  equipment  he  employs  and  has  at  his 
disposal.     Consequently,   when  all  these  traits  are  developed,  he 
begins  to  believe  he  is  an  important  member  of  the  greatest 
fighting  team  in  the  world;   and  he  is. 

These  then  are  the  four  basic  effects  of  good  military  leader- 
ship.    To  know  what  they  are  is  not  enough.     We  must  continually 
review  them  to  ensure  that  we  are  not  lacking  in  one  or  the 
other.   To  be  lacking  in  effective  leadership  is  to  be  lacking  in 
combat  readiness.     The  result  is  defeat  and  death. 

However,    if  effective  leadership  is  evident  and  functioning, 
we  are  strong  and  ready.     If  we  are  well  disciplined,    of  high 
morale,   possess  an  unquenchable  unit  spirit,   and  are  efficient, 
we  are  the  best  in  the  business. 

Strive  to  create  discipline  in  yourself  and  your  men.  Encour- 
age high  morale,    foster  esprit,   and  train  for  efficiency.   You  may 
never  win  the  Medal  of  Honor,   you  may  never  be  cited  for  your 
outstanding  example,   but  you  will  have  an  inner  satisfaction  that 
comes  only  to  those  that  give  their  all.     Then,    if  you  listen 
carefully  at  your  retirement  parade,   you  will  hear  the  voices  of 
all  the  other  good  Marines  who  have  gone  before  whisper  the 
greatest  commendation  of  them  all     "Well  done,  Marine." 

MARINE  CORPS  GAZETTE     July  1960    (Reprinted  with  permission.) 


15-49 


APPENDIX  E 


FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 

DISCIPLINE,    MORALE  AND  ESPRIT  DE  CORPS 

Over  the  years  the  term  discipline  has  acquired  at  least 
three  meanings:  punishment,   obedience,   and  self  control.  The 
first  meaning,   punishment,    is  frequently  used  when  a  Marine 
violates  a  policy  or  regulation.     Secondly,   discipline  seems  to 
suggest  complete  and  total  obedience  to  the  orders  of  superiors . 
This  leads  to  the  third  and  highest  concept  of  discipline  which 
involves  self-control  and  a  sense  of  personal  responsibility  that 
goes  beyond  threat  of  punishment  or  mere  obedience. 

The  Marine  Corps '    concept  is  to  strive  to  develop  leadership 
qualities  in  all  Marines:     two  of  those  qualities  are  self- 
control  and  a  sense  of  personal  responsibility.     If  a  Marine  is 
obedient  only  because  he  fears  punishment,    that  Marine  is  not 
going  to  be  reliable  unless  he  is  constantly  supervised.  Blind 
obedience  results  in  robot-like  performance  which  suppresses  the 
development  of  the  individual  and,    in  the  extreme,   may  result  in 
the  individual  carrying  out  improper  or  illegal  orders  such  as 
those  involving  unfair  treatment  and  war  crimes .     True  discipline 
implies  not  only  action,   but  knowledge  of  what  is  being  done.  We 
want  Marines  to  exercise  discipline  as  active  thinking  partici- 
pants. We  want  Marines  to  do  what  needs  to  be  done  which  is  the 
real  meaning  of  discipline. 

It  frequently  happens  that  the  root  meaning  of  a  word  more 
nearly  explains  the  whole  context  of  ideas  with  which  it  is 
legitimately  associated  than  the  public ' s  mistaken  use  of  the 
same  word.     Coming  from  the  Latin,    "to  discipline"  means  "to 
teach. "     Insofar  as  the  military  establishment  of  the  United 
States  is  concerned,   nothing  need  be  added  to  that  definition. 
Its  discipline  is  that  standard  of  personal  deportment,  work 
requirement,   courtesy,   appearance  and  ethical  conduct  which, 
inculcated  in  Marines,   will  enable  them  singly  or  collectively  to 
perform  their  mission  with  optimum  efficiency. 

Military  discipline  is  the  state  of  order  and  obedience  among 
military  personnel  resulting  from  training.     When  discipline  is 
spoken  of  in  the  Marine  Corps,   reference  is  not  made  to  regula- 
tions,  punishments,    or  a  state  of  subservience.     What  is  actually 
meant  is  the  exact  execution  of  orders  resulting  from 


15-50 


intelligent,   willing  obedience  rather  than  execution  based  solely 
upon  habit  or  fear.     Habit  plays  its  part,   however,   and  for  this 
reason  the  Marine  benefits  from  such  routine  training  as  gun 
drill,    range  firing,    inspections,   drill  for  foot  troops,  and 
bayonet  drill.     Punishment  of  individuals  for  breaches  of  disci- 
pline are  sometimes  necessary,   but  only  to  correct  or  eliminate 
those  who  are  presently  unfit  to  serve  on  the  team. 

Discipline  is  necessary  to  secure  that  orderly,  coordinated 
action  which  alone  can  triumph  over  the  seemingly  impossible 
conditions  of  battle.     Fear  is  the  enemy  of  discipline.  The 
individual  must  be  able  to  recognize  and  face  fear,   because  fear 
unchecked  will  lead  to  panic  and  a  unit  that  panics  is  no  longer 
a  disciplined  unit,   but  a  mob.     There  is  no  sane  person  who  is 
without  fear,   but  good  discipline  and  high  morale  will  keep  fear 
in  its  proper  place. 

Essentially,   military  discipline  is  no  different  than  the 
discipline  of  the  university,   a  baseball  league,   or  an  industrial 
corporation.     It  makes  specific  requirements  of  the  individual; 
so  do  they.     It  has  a  system  of  punishments;    so  do  they.  These 
things  are  but  incidental  to  the  end  result.     Their  main  objec- 
tive is  to  preserve  the  interests  and  further  the  opportunity  of 
the  cooperative  majority.     The  big  difference  between  discipline 
in  the  military  establishment  and  in  any  other  free  institution 
is  that  if  the  Marine  objects,   he/she  still  does  not  have  the 
privilege  of  quitting  tomorrow,   and  if  he/she  resists  or  becomes 
indifferent  and  is  not  corrected,   his/her  bad  example  will  be 
felt  to  the  far  end  of  the  line. 

The  most  contagious  of  all  moral  diseases  is  insubordination; 
acts  may  be  exhibited  in  a  variety  of  modes:     neglecting  the 
customary  salute,    indifference,    insolence,    impertinence,  undue 
familiarity  or  anything  that  does  not  show  the  proper  respect  for 
rank.     The  officer  who  tolerates  slackness  in  the  dress  of  his 
Marine  soon  ceases  to  tend  to  his/her  own  appearance.     There  is 
only  one  correct  way  to  wear  the  uniform.     When  any  deviations  in 
dress  are  condoned  within  the  service,    the  way  is  open  to  the 
destruction  of  all  uniformity  and  unity. 

Some  leaders  may  not  appreciate  the  necessity  for  discipline 
and  will  not  until  they  experience  the  trials  of  battle. 
However,   when  leaders  understand  the  necessity  for  discipline, 
they  have  learned  a  sense  of  obligation  to  themselves,    to  their 
comrades,    to  their  commander,   and  to  the  Marine  Corps.  He/she 


15-51 


has  learned  that  he/she  is  a  member  of  a  team  which  is  organ- 
ized,   trained,   and  equipped  for  the  purpose  of  engaging  and 
defeating  the  enemies  of  his/her  country.     The  final  objective  of 
military  discipline  is  effectiveness  in  combat. 

Discipline  is  attained  by  careful  precept  and  proper  training 
accompanied  by  corrective  and  restraining  measures.     This  is 
provided  by  unit  leaders.     Final  discipline  is  the  prompt, 
correct  reaction  to  given  situations,   and  the  ever  present  knowl- 
edge that  in  the  daily  routine,    leaders  are  doing  their  utmost  to 
live  up  to  the  standards  set  for  them  by  custom  and  tradition. 

Discipline,  morale,    esprit  de  Corps:     Marine,    the  will  to 
win,   and  curses  on  the  man  or  unit  who  lacks  it;   the  moral 
stamina  to  stand  and  fight  when  all  seems  lost;   the  courage  to 
charge  a  hill  when  death  warns  to  stay. 

" . . .And  a  perfectly  trained  amphibious  operation  requires  men, 
skillful  men,    for  its  effective  execution.     In  fact,    in  no 
service  are  men  more  important  than  they  are  in  the  Marine  Corps. 
This  means  that  STRONG  DISCIPLINE  continues  to  be  most  important. 
This  is  a  point  on  which  there  is  sometimes  some  misunderstand- 
ing.    When  we  Marines  speak  of  discipline,   we  speak  of  the  spirit 
of  the  team.  When  the  average  civilian  hears  the  word,   he  is  apt 
to  think  of  fear  and  punishment  and  chastisement.  Actually,  these 
things  are  not  a  part  of  the  true  military  discipline.  Without 
the  proper  spirit,    there  can  be  no  such  thing  as  discipline  in  a 
military  organization.     You  may  have  the  outward  semblance  of 
compliance  with  regulations,   even  cooperation  of  a  kind,   as  long 
as  the  fear  of  punishment  is  present.     But  actually  you  have  only 
the  discipline  enforced  upon  school  children  who  begin  to  throw 
things  and  misbehave  the  moment  their  teacher's  back  is  turned. 
The  discipline  upon  which  a  Marine  unit  must  be  built  is  of  a 
different  kind,   a  kind  that  endures  when  every  semblance  of 
authority  has  vanished,   when  the  leader  has  fallen,   when  the 
members  of  the  team  are  dropping  out  one  by  one,   when  the  only 
driving  power  that  remains  is  the  strong  and  unconquerable  spirit 
of  the  team.     This  is  the  working  definition  of  discipline--the 
spirit  of  the  team.     The  Marines  know  it  as  esprit  de  corps. " 

(General  Graves  B.   Erskine ' s  remarks  to 
The  Basic  School  graduates,    3  0  August 
1958) 


15-52 


The  feeling  of  one  Marine  for  another  is  not  the  same  as  the 
love  within  a  family.     Rather,    it  is  a  mixture  of  pride,  fidel- 
ity,   loyalty,    spirit,   unselfishness  and  mutual  respect  that 
defies  definition  or  measure.     Lord  Nelson  indoctrinated  his 
officers  with  the  concept  that  they  were  a   'Band  of  Brothers. ' 
In  a  similar  sense,    it  might  be  said  that  the  Marine  Corps  is  a 
Great  Brotherhood." 

Esorit  de  Corps,   KOREA,   August  1950 

"The  Marines  who  disembarked  at  Pusan  were  mostly  young  men 
of  almost  no  actual  battle  experience,    for  only  very  few  of  them 
were  veterans  of  World  War  II.     These  tobacco  chewing,   raw  knuck- 
led,  bristlyheaded  youngsters  in  already  faded  khaki  were  coming 
to  fight  in  Korea  with  two  great  advantages.     They  were  led  by 
sergeants  and  officers  who  were  all  veterans  of  campaigns  involv- 
ing battles  as  violent  as  any  ever  fought,   and  who  had  been 
carefully  selected  out  of  those  men  wanting  to  remain  in  the 
Marine  Corps  as  a  career  following  the  end  of  the  Japanese  War. 
Then,    too,    these  youngsters  from  farms  and  factories,  forest 
tracts  and  fishing  craft,   drug  store  corners  and  homes  of  wealth, 
from  all  the  places  which  are  America,    these  young  men  had 
another  enormous  advantage,   one  that  no  one  yet  has  been  able  to 
pin  down  and  fully  define--they  were  UNITED  STATES  MARINES. 

They  were  Marines  from  their  closely  cropped  heads  and 
jutting  ears,    to  the  tightly  laced,    traditional  khaki  leggings 
wrapped  around  their  boot  tops .     Each  had  volunteered  to  try  to 
become  a  Marine,    firmly  believing  that  they  were  entering  a 
private  little  world  of  their  own,    inhabited  by  the  toughest 
fighting  men  on  earth.   But  that  was  only  what  they  thought  to 
begin  with.     Later,    those  who  had  managed  to  emerge  from  the 
initial  training  looked  at  other  men  not  dressed  in  the  same 
faded  khaki  as  strangers  even  though  blood  brothers,    for  now  they 
knew.     They  were  MARINES,   and  would  remain  so  until  they  died." 

David  Douglas  Duncan 

The  following  editorial  appeared  on  the  front  page  of  the 
Atlanta  Constitution . 

"One  of  the  greatest  military  exploits  in  history  was  the 
withdrawal  of  the  First  Marine  Division  from  the  frozen  Chosin 
reservoir  sector  in  the  depths  of  the  Korean  mountains  in  the 
cruel  winter  of  1950.     They  had  been  fighting  for  weeks.  Split 


15-53 


into  groups,    surrounded  by  80,000  Chinese  Communists,  saddled 
with  wounded,    it  was  necessary  to  withdraw.      (General  McArthur 
had  insisted  the  Chinese  would  not  come  in.     He  persisted  even 
though  Marines  on  their  way  to  the  Yalu  had  reported  contact  with 
them  and  had  prisoners  to  show.     The  Eighth  Army  was  caught 
thinly  spread  by  the  Chinese  attack.     They  fought.     But  they  were 
routed . ) 

Weather  was  below  zero.     They  buried  what  dead  they  could  in 
the  dynamited,    icy  earth.     Some  they  could  not  bury.     These  they 
lashed  to  tanks.     The  badly  wounded  came  out  on  litters  or  on 
vehicles  along  with  the  dead.   They  brought  their  gear  as  well. 

It  was  80  miles  to  the  sea. 

They  had  to  traverse  mountain  trails.     They  had  to  rebuild 
bridges . 

By  day  and  by  night  they  beat  off  attacks,    lashed  more  dead 
to  their  armor;   assisted  more  wounded  along  the  agonizing  way. 

They  broke  through.     They  reached  the  sea. 

No  Homer  or  Virgil  has  sung  of  them. 

And  yet  no  poet  skilled  with  epics  has  had  a  greater  one  than 
the  story  of  the  Marines  who  broke  through  an  army  of  80,000  of  a 
fanatic,   desperate  enemy,   bringing  their  dead  and  wounded  to  the 
safety  of  the  sea.     Major  General  Oliver  Prince  Smith  led  them. 

The  French  Foreign  Legion  takes  no  oath  of  loyalty  to  France; 
its  members  swear  only  to  be  loyal  to  the  Legion. 

There  is  something  of  that  in  the  Marines.     They,    of  course, 
fight  for  their  country.     But  in  the  bitter,   desperate  hours,  as 
the  frozen  agony  of  the  13  days  was  replaced  by  the  freezing  pain 
of  the  13  nights,    IT  WAS  PRIDE  IN  THE  CORPS  THAT  KEPT  THEM  GOING. 
They  would  not  fail  one  another. 

A  story  will  illustrate:     In  one  of  the  many  fights  en  route 
to  Chosin,    a  private  named  Stanley  Robinson  had  taken  command  of 
a  decimated  squad.     We  meet  him  later. . .   on  page  2  81  of  The  New 
Breed .     In  a  warming  tent  of  the  medical  battalion,    the  wounded 
Robinson  lay  listening  to  the  cascading  sound  of  firing  to  the 
north.     Litter  bearers  brought  in  a  stretcher  and  placed  it 


15-54 


alongside  Robinson.      "What  outfit  you  from?"  Robinson  asked. 
"Easy,    7th,"   the  inert  figure  mumbled.      "Did  we  get  hit?"  "Clob- 
bered.    Mr.  Yancey's  wounded. so ' s  the  skipper- -everybody  is,  I 
guess . " 

Robinson  sat  up.     In  the  darkness  he  got  into  his  clothes  and 
parka.     He  moaned  as  he  pulled  the  shoepacs  over  his  swollen 
feet . 

"Be  seein'   you,   Mac,"  he  whispered.     He  lurched  out  and 
selected  a  weapon  from  a  discarded  stack  nearby.     A  corpsman  came 
to  him.      "What'n  hell  you  doin',   Robinson?"    "What  does  it  look 
like,   Doc?"     Robinson  headed  for  the  mass  of  hills.     When  he  came 
to  the  icy  slopes,   he  had  to  crawl.     The  blisters  broke.  The 
socks  were  wet  with  blood  and  pus.     He  found  Yancey.      "What'n  the 
hell  you  doin'   here?"   croaked  the  weary  man.      "Lookin'    for  a 
job."  Yancey  spat  blood  on  the  snow. 

"You  got  one.   Over  there." 

General  Smith  commanded  men  like  that.     They  were  all  heroes 
of  one  of  the  greatest  stories  in  all  the  long  history  of  men  in 
war. . .the  breakout  from  Chosin.     And  none  was  greater  than  he." 

Ralph  McGill 

Editor,   Atlanta  Constitution 


15-55 


APPENDIX  F 


FOUNDATIONS  OF  LEADERSHIP 

CUSTOMS,    COURTIES,    AND  TRADITIONS 

WHAT  ARE  CUSTOMS? 

Customs  are  the  practices  of  preserving  ideas  and  actions 
from  generation  to  generation.     The  term  also  refers  to  a 
specific  act  that  follows  the  tradition  of  past  generations. 
Customs  vary  widely  from  place  to  place  and  from  group  to  group. 
They  also  vary  throughout  the  history  of  a  particular  group. 

Not  all  customs  are  equally  important.     Mores  are  customs 
that  people  regard  as  extremely  important.     Violators  of  mores 
may  receive  severe  punishment.     In  the  United  States,  for 
example,   a  man  or  woman  may  go  to  prison  for  marrying  more  than 
one  person  at  a  time.     Other  customs,   called  folk  ways,   are  not 
so  important  and  persons  who  do  not  observe  them  receive  only 
mild  punishments.     Folk  ways  include  eating  habits,   ways  of 
dressing,   and  methods  of  playing  games. 

Most  people  follow  the  customs  handed  down  to  them  and  do  not 
question  these  customs.     Much  training  in  schools,   at  home,  and 
elsewhere  consists  of  passing  on  customs.     People  conform  to 
customs  because  it  is  easier  than  not  doing  so.     Society  often 
ridicules  people  who  do  not  observe  customs. 


WHAT  ARE  SOME  OF  THE  MARINE  CORPS  CUSTOMS? 

There  may  be  many  responses .     Included  among  them  are  the 
following : 

Marine  Corps  Birthday. 
Parades  and  Ceremonies . 
Mess  night. 

WHAT  IS  THE  SIGNIFICANCE  OF  THESE  CUSTOMS? 

Our  customs  are  essential  to  maintaining  good  fellowship, 
contentment  with  our  unit  and  Corps,   harmony,   and  happiness  in  a 
unit . 

WHAT  DO  WE  MEAN  BY  COURTESIES? 


15-56 


Courtesies  are  simply  a  set  of  rules  of  behavior.     By  using 
these  rules,   people  make  living  with  each  other  more  pleasant  and 
comfortable.     Persons  who  live  alone  can  behave  more  or  less  as 
they  choose,   but  persons  who  live  and  work  among  others  must 
behave  so  they  do  not  trample  on  the  rights  of  others .  Courte- 
sies help  guide  behavior. 

Most  rules  of  courtesy  have  good  reasons  behind  them.  In 
some  cases,    the  reasons  have  disappeared  and  the  rule  is  now  an 
almost  meaningless  custom.     One  of  these  is  handshaking.     In  the 
Middle  Ages,   when  two  men  met,    they  extended  their  right  hands 
and  shook  them  to  show  they  did  not  intend  to  use  their  swords . 
Other  courtesies  are  based  on  good  taste.     These  are  things  we  do 
or  do  not  do  because  they  would  offend  other  people.     Eating  and 
hygiene  habits  fall  into  this  category. 

Summed  up,    courtesies  follow  the   "Golden  Rule":      "Do  unto 
others  as  you  would  have  them  do  unto  you." 


WHAT  ARE  SOME  OF  OUR  MARINE  CORPS  COURTESIES? 

Included  among  the  responses  are  the  following: 
Saluting . 

Reporting  to  Seniors. 

Addressing  Officers  as   "Sir,    or  Ma'am." 

WHAT  IS  THE  SIGNIFICANCE  OF  THESE  COURTESIES? 

Courtesy  is  essential  to  all  walks  of  life,   but  it  is 
especially  important  to  the  Marine.     Military  courtesy  embraces 
much  more  than  the  salute  or  any  other  ritual,    important  as  these 
are.     It  is  a  key  ingredient  in  the  relations  between  members  of 
the  armed  forces  of  our  nation,    reflecting  a  high  degree  of 
mutual  respect  and  pride.     Courtesy  to  a  senior  indicates  respect 
for  authority,   responsibility,    and  experience.   Courtesy  toward  a 
junior  indicates  appreciation  and  respect  for  his/her  support  and 
for  him/her  as  a  fellow  Marine. 

WHAT  ARE  TRADITIONS? 

Traditions  are  simply  the  transmission  of  knowledge, 
opinions,   doctrines,    customs,   and  practices  from  generation  to 


15-57 


generation  by  word  of  mouth  or  by  examples.     Some  traditions  are 
customs  so  long  continued  that  they  have  almost  the  force  of  a 
law. 

Marine  Corps  traditions  have  helped  create  a  fighting  force 
which  has  become  a  recognized  American  institution.     Our  tradi- 
tions perpetuate  a  long  history  of  high  standards,    teamwork  under 
stress,   esprit  de  corps,   and  success  in  battle.     Through  the 
constant  observance  and  understanding  of  tradition,  Marines 
foster  a  feeling  of  camaraderie  based  upon  mutual  respect  and 
confidence.     The  maintenance  of  the  ideals  and  attitudes  embodied 
in  our  traditions  forges  a  strong  link  with  our  proud  heritage 
and  a  deep  appreciation  by  all  Marines  that  they  are  a  part  of  a 
unique  fighting  team.     Our  traditions  perpetuate  the  very  quali- 
ties we  must  have  to  succeed. 

WHAT  ARE  SOME  OF  OUR  TRADITIONS? 

Marine  Corps  Motto. 
Marine  conduct  in  combat. 
Change  of  command  ceremony. 

Traditions  are  what  give  the  Marine  Corps  its  uniqueness. 
These  things  foster  the  discipline,   valor,    loyalty,  aggressive- 
ness,  and  readiness  which  make  the  term  "Marine"   signify  all  that 
is  highest  in  military  efficiency  and  soldierly  virtue. 

WHAT  IS  THE   IMPORTANCE  OF  CUSTOMS,    COURTESIES  AND  TRADITIONS? 

It  is  imperative  that  all  Marines  understand  our  customs, 
courtesies,   and  traditions  in  order  to  ensure  a  highly  motivated, 
well  disciplined,   and  proficient  unit.     These  are  the  special 
characteristics  that  set  our  Marine  Corps  apart  from  all  other 
military  organizations  and  services. 

WHAT  IS  THE  INTERRELATIONSHIP  OF  CUSTOMS,  COURTESIES,  AND  TRADI- 
TIONS;   TRAITS  AND  PRINCIPLES;    AND  AUTHORITY,    RESPONSIBILITY,  AND 

AC  C  OUNT AB I L I T Y  ? 

They  help  form  the  basis  for  effective  leadership  goals  and 
standards  of  excellence.     When  properly  applied,    they  foster 
morale,   motivation,   discipline,   and  esprit  de  corps ,   which  are 
essential  to  teamwork,   particularly  under  the  stress  of  combat. 


15-58 


I 


♦ 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

PHILOSOPHY  OF  LEADERSHIP 

1.  Introduction .     The  Marine  Corps'   philosophy  of  leadership  and 
how  this  philosophy  ties  into  our  style  of  leadership  is  at  the 
very  root  of  how  effective  we  are  at  leading. 

2.  Overview.  The  purpose  of  this  discussion  is  provide  you  with 
an  understanding  of  how  your  own  philosophy  of  leadership 
determines  the  effectiveness  of  your  unit  and  how  leadership 
traits,   principles,   and  the  application  of  leadership  create  a 
climate  of  high  morale,   discipline,   proficiency,   and  esprit  de 
corps . 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
the  Marine  Corps'   philosophy  of  leadership. 

FMFM  1 - 0 ,   Leading  Marines 
Marine  Corps  Manual 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.  The  Marine  Corps'   philosophy  of  leadership  is  largely 
based  upon  recognizing  and  utilizing  to  the  fullest  extent  our 
most  important  asset,    the  individual  Marine.     Through  outstanding 
leadership,   we  will  be  able  to  channel  the  talent  and  energy  of 
that  Marine  in  the  right  direction. 

b.  The  way  to  do  this  effectively  is  through  the 
maintenance  of  the  healthiest  of  relationships  between  the 
leaders  and  those  led  in  our  organization.     This  relationship 
should  be  of  the  utmost  mutual  respect,   and  can  be  likened  to 
that  of  a  committed  teacher  and  his/her  willing  student,    or  to 
that  of  a  father  and  his  son.     All  Marines  should  feel  that  they 
belong,   and  we  must  promote  an  atmosphere  of  comradeship  and 
brotherhood  throughout  the  Corps,   regardless  of  rank. 

c.  The  end  result  should  be  a  Corps  that  benefits  from  good 
order  and  discipline   (preferably  self -discipline) ,   unit  cohesion, 
and  teamwork.   To  assist  us  in  these  tasks,    there  are  a  few 
fundamentals  of  leadership  that  all  of  us,    regardless  of  our 


16-1 


innate  leadership  ability,   can  use  to  develop  good  leadership 
qualities  in  ourselves  and  in  others. 

5.     Discussion .     Our  philosophy  of  leadership  is  characterized  by 
the  belief  that  leadership  qualities  can  be  developed  within  the 
individual  Marine,   and  that  Marine  leaders  have  the 
responsibility  for  developing  those  qualities.     As  stated  in 
paragraph  1100.1a  of  the  Marine  Corps  Manual ,    "The  objective  of 
Marine  Corps  leadership  is  to  develop  the  leadership  qualities  of 
Marines  to  enable  them  to  assume  progressively  greater 
responsibilities  to  the  Marine  Corps  and  society."     We  grow  our 
own  leaders,   and  if  we  do  not  continue  to  do  this  effectively, 
the  Marine  Corps  as  we  know  it,   will  cease  to  exist.     You  should 
have  a  thorough  understanding  of  what  the  philosophy  of 
leadership  entails.     The  areas  addressed  below  are  not  all 
encompassing,   but  provide  enough  information  to  give  you  an 
understanding  of  the  philosophy  of  leadership. 

a.   Leadership  differs  from  command  and  management  as 
follows . 

(1)  Command  is  defined  as  the  authority  a  person  in  the 
military  lawfully  exercises  over  subordinates  by  virtue  of  his 
rank  and  assignment  or  position. 

(2)  Management  is  defined  as  a  process  of  planning, 
organizing,    coordinating,   directing,   and  controlling  resources 
such  as  people,   material,    time,   and  money  to  accomplish  the 
organization's  mission. 

(3)  Leadership  is  defined  as  the  act  of  influencing 
others  in  such  a  manner  as  to  accomplish  the  mission:      "The  sum 
of  those  qualities  of  intellect,   human  understanding  and  moral 
character  that  enable  a  person  to  inspire  and  to  control  a  group 
of  people  successfully."      (General  Lejeune) 

(4)  Leadership  is  the  dominating  requirement  for  success. 
There  is  certainly  need  for  command  and  management,   but  sound 
leadership  is  needed  to  function.     Varying  degrees  of  leadership 
skills  are  present  in  all  Marines.     Officers,    SNCOs ,   and  NCOs 
must  foster  the  development  of  these  skills  in  their  Marines. 
Leadership  is  people  oriented.     Leadership  is  concerned  with  the 
individual  Marine  and  the  goals  of  the  organization.     To  a  great 
extent  all  Marines  are  required  to  be  both  good  leaders  and 


16-2 


skillful  managers  of  personnel,   equipment,   and  time.  Stress 
that  our  people  are  the  greatest  asset  that  we  have. 

(5)   Good  management  will  get  your  Marines  onto  the  ship 
with  the  right  equipment  and  the  required  training.  Your 
authority  as  an  officer  and  their  discipline  will  ensure  that 
they  follow  you  to  the  battlefield.     However,   only  leadership 
will  get  those  Marines  to  put  their  lives  on  the  line. 

b.  Leadership  qualities  defined. 

(1)  Inspiration.     Personal  example  of  high  moral 
standards  reflecting  virtue,   honor,   patriotism,   and  subordination 
in  personal  behavior  and  in  performance. 

(2)  Technical  proficiency.     Knowledge  of  the  military 
sciences  and  skill  in  their  application. 

(3)  Moral  responsibility.     Personal  adherence  to  high 
standards  of  conduct  and  the  guidance  of  subordinates  toward 
wholesomeness  of  mind  and  body. 

c.  FMFM  1  states  that  philosophy  of  command  cannot  function 
effectively  unless  our  philosophy  of  leadership  supports  it.  Our 
philosophy  of  leadership  concentrates  on  the  development  of 
leadership  in  subordinates,   and  our  philosophy  of  command 

(decentralized)   depends  on  subordinate  initiative  and  leadership. 
It  highlights  the  inherent  disorder  of  the  modern  battlefield  and 
the  necessity  of  subordinates  to  respond  with  "individual 
initiative  and  responsibility. . .within  the  boundaries  of  the 
commander's  intent."     Our  philosophy  of  leadership  stresses  the 
importance  of  building  good  subordinate  leaders,   with  the  belief 
that  leadership  can  be  learned.     These  leaders  are  an  absolute 
requirement  if  our  warfighting  philosophy  of  command  is  to 
function.   In  order  for  this  philosophy  of  leadership  to  work,  a 
certain  atmosphere  and  a  certain  relationship  must  exist  between 
officers  and  men.     This  relationship  should  be  one  of  mutual 
respect  and  it  is  described  in  the  terms   "comradeship, " 

"brotherhood,"    "teacher/scholar,"  and  "father/son." 

(1)   The  relationship  between  officers  and  enlisted 
Marines  is  described  in  the  Marine  Corps  Manual .    It  states  that 
"effective  personal  relations  in  an  organization  can  be 
satisfactory  only  when  there  is  a  complete  understanding  and 
respect  between  individuals." 


16-3 


(2)  The  Marines  who  have  gone  before  us  were  drawn  into  a 
lasting  bond  on  the  battlefield.     The  adversity  they  faced 
together  strengthened  their  resolve  for  success  and  highlighted 
the  need  for  cooperation.     Realizing  that  comradeship  and 
brotherhood  are  needed  on  the  battlefield,   we  must  work 
continually  to  foster  them  in  our  daily  activities. 

(3)  Often  the  mistake  is  made  by  those  outside  the  Marine 
Corps  that  our  reputation  for  discipline  means  that  we  have  a 
greater  separation  between  officers  and  enlisted  Marines. 
Nothing  could  be  further  from  the  truth.     While  we  prohibit 
unprofessional  relationships  between  officers  and  enlisted 
Marines,    the  concept  of  comradeship  and  brotherhood  depends  on 
mutual  respect  between  the  ranks  and  among  all  Marines.     Much  of 
this  mutual  respect  comes  through  the  sharing  of  hardships.  As 
quoted  in  the  Marine  Corps  Manual ,   General  Lejeune  said,  "The 
relationship  between  officers  and  enlisted  men  should,    in  no 
sense,   be  that  of  superior  and  inferior,   nor  that  of  master  and 
servant,   but  rather  that  of  teacher  and  scholar."  Your 
responsibilities  as  a  leader  are  to  provide  guidance  to  your 
subordinates,   make  decisions,   and  see  that  your  subordinates' 
performance  is  satisfactory.     You  should  provide  good 
opportunities  for  you  subordinates  to  also  make  decisions  within 
their  authority. 

(a)  You  must  be  responsible  for  the  physical,  mental, 
and  moral  welfare  of  your  Marines,   as  well  as  their  discipline 
and  training. 

(b)  You  should  ensure  that  each  of  your  Marines  is 
allowed  the  maximum  latitude  possible  in  developing  his/her  own 
leadership  style. 

(c)  You  should  be  available  to  your  Marines  to 
provide  assistance  whenever  needed. 

(d)  Be  aware  that  the  teacher/scholar  relationship 
extends  to  the  relationship  that  should  exist  between  NCOs  and 
junior  Marines  as  well.     Additionally,   officers  should  never 
hesitate  to  learn  from  their  Marines.   The  idea  of  the  father/son 
relationship  is  different  from  that  of  the  teacher/scholar 
relationship.     The  idea  of  the  father/son  relationship  is  that  it 
implies  that  the  relationship  that  should  exist  between  a  leader 
and  his/her  Marines  goes  further  than  that  between  a  typical  high 


16-4 


school  teacher  and  his/her  students.     However,    the  main  point  in 
both  cases  is  that  this  relationship  should  be  mutually 
respectful,   with  the  more  experienced  person  having  the  moral 
responsibility  to  help  the  junior  develop.     Discipline  is  a 
factor  in  this  relationship,    just  as  it  is  in  any  healthy 
father/son  relationship.     You  would  not  let  your  son  run  wild,  so 
why  would  you  let  your  Marines? 

d.  Good  order  and  discipline  are  terms  used  to  describe  the 
essential  quality  of  behavior  within  the  armed  forces.  As 
Marines,   we  share  in  the  responsibility  to  protect  the  nation. 
This  is  a  serious  business  that  may  require  us  to  endure  extreme 
hardship,   privation,    or  even  to  give  our  lives  so  that  the  nation 
may  remain  secure.     Marines  must  be  organized,    trained,   and  ready 
for  deployment  to  any  crisis  at  any  time.     Our  organization  must 
have  a  highly  refined  quality  of  order  so  that,   as  a  team, 
everyone  knows  their  role  and  job,   and  our  efforts  can  join 
together  in  a  manner  that  will  achieve  accomplishment  of  the 
mission.     Discipline  is  each  individual  Marine's  responsibility 
for  responding  willingly,    instantly  to  the  directions  of  a 
senior,   and  in  the  absence  of  orders,    initiating  appropriate 
action.     With  our  traditional  stress  on  the  leader's 
responsibility  for  maintaining  good  order  and  discipline,   we  will 
retain  our  readiness  and  capability  to  carry  out  the  mission  at 
all  times. 

e.  The  individual's  responsibility  for  leadership  is  a  must. 
It  is  not  dependent  on  authority.     It  is  not  dependent  on 
command.     Each  individual  is  responsible  for  his  or  her  own 
actions  first. 

(1)  Your  Certificate  of  Commission   (or  Warrant)   refers  to 
"special  trust  and  confidence."     This  term,   which  is  expressly 
reposed  in  officers  by  their  commission,    is  the  distinguishing 
privilege  of  the  officer  corps.     It  is  the  policy  of  the  Marine 
Corps  that  this  privilege  be  tangible  and  real;   it  is  the 
corresponding  obligation  of  the  officer  corps  that  it  be  wholly 
deserved.     It  is  not  ordinary  trust  and  confidence  expected  of  a 
member  of  society  as  a  whole.     It  is  the  special  trust  and 
confidence  expected  of  officers. 

(2)  Officers  are  responsible  for  leading  and  caring  for 
their  Marines;   this  responsibility  far  exceeds  bonds  possibly 
taken  with  other  officers  as  friends  and  comrades.     The  trust 
placed  in  officers  for  the  lives  of  the  Marines  they  lead  is  a 


16-5 


responsibility  of  the  highest  order.     But  it  is  a  trust  granted 
on  the  presumption  of  professional  conduct,   and  is  endangered  by 
any  act  which  may  be  considered  improper  or  that  gives  the 
appearance  of  impropriety. 

f.  The  leader  functions  as  the  linking  pin.     The  leader  is 
also  responsible  for  representing  his/her  command  to  the  next 
level  in  the  chain.     In  addition  to  duties  of  a  supervisory 
nature  for  his/her  own  unit,    the  leader  must  plan  and  coordinate 
with  peers  and  seniors  in  order  to  effectively  control  the 
employment  of  his/her  unit.     The  leader  is  the  linking  pin  for 
information,   control,   and  influence  upon  the  unit.     He/she  is 
also  a  subordinate  of  the  leader  and  must  be  able  to  follow.  A 
leader's  energies  are  divided  between  leading  and  following. 

g.  The  traits  and  principles  of  leadership  are  essential 
qualities  that  all  Marines  must  not  only  understand,  but 
continually  seek  to  improve  and  live  by.     These  fundamentals 
comprise  only  one  aspect  of  Marine  Corps  leadership.     They  are 
there  to  provide  a  standard  for  the  measurement  of  individual 
leadership  abilities,   as  well  as  some  time-tested  leadership 
techniques . 

(1)   Leadership  traits  defined. 

(a)  Integrity.     Uprightness  of  character  and 
soundness  of  moral  principles.     The  quality  of  truthfulness  and 
honesty.     A  Marine's  word  is  his  bond.     Nothing  less  than 
complete  honesty  in  all  of  your  dealings  with  subordinates, 
peers,   and  superiors  is  acceptable. 

(b)  Knowledge.     Understanding  of  a  science  or  an  art. 
The  range  of  one's  information,    including  professional  knowledge 
and  an  understanding  of  your  Marines.     The  gaining  and  retention 
of  knowledge  of  current  developments  in  military  and  naval 
science,    and  world  affairs  is  important  for  your  growth  and 
development . 

(c)   Courage.     Courage  is  a  mental  quality  that 
recognizes  fear  of  danger  or  criticism,   but  enables  a  person  to 
proceed  in  the  face  of  it  with  calmness  and  firmness.  Knowing 
and  standing  for  what  is  right,   even  in  the  face  of  popular 
disfavor  is  often  the  leader's  lot. 


16-6 


(d)  Decisiveness.  Ability  to  make  decisions  promptly 
and  to  announce  them  in  a  clear,  forceful  manner.  The  quality  of 
character  which  guides  a  person  to  accumulate  all  available  facts 
in  a  circumstance,  weigh  the  facts,  choose  and  announce  an 
alternative  which  seems  best.  It  is  often  better  that  a  decision 
be  made  promptly  than  a  potentially  better  one  be  made  at  the 
expense  of  more  time. 

(e)  Dependability.     The  certainty  of  proper 
performance  of  duty.     The  quality  which  permits  a  senior  to 
assign  a  task  to  a  junior  with  the  understanding  that  it  will  be 
accomplished  with  minimum  supervision.     This  understanding 
includes  the  assumption  that  the  initiative  will  be  taken  on 
small  matters  not  covered  by  instructions. 

(f)  Initiative.     Taking  action  in  the  absence  of 
orders.     Since  an  NCO  often  works  without  close  supervision, 
emphasis  is  placed  on  being  a  self-starter. 

(g)  Tact.     The  ability  to  deal  with  others  without 
creating  offense.     The  quality  of  consistently  treating  peers, 
seniors,   and  subordinates  with  respect  and  courtesy  is  a  sign  of 
maturity.     This  deference  must  be  extended  under  all  conditions 
regardless  of  true  feelings. 

(h)  Justice.     Giving  reward  and  punishment  according 
to  the  merits  of  the  case  in  question.     The  ability  to  administer 
a  system  of  rewards  and  punishments  impartially  and  consistently. 
The  quality  of  displaying  fairness  and  impartiality  is  critical 
in  order  to  gain  the  trust  and  respect  of  people,   particularly  in 
the  exercise  of  responsibility  as  a  leader. 

(i)  Enthusiasm.     The  display  of  sincere  interest  and 
exuberance  in  the  performance  of  duty.     Displaying  interest  in  a 
task,   and  an  optimism  that  it  can  be  successfully  completed, 
greatly  enhances  the  likelihood  that  the  task  will  be 
successfully  finished. 

(j)   Bearing.     Creating  a  favorable  impression  in 
carriage,   appearance,   and  personal  conduct  at  all  times.  The 
ability  to  look,    act,   and  speak  like  a  leader  whether  or  not 
these  manifestations  indicate  one's  true  feelings.     Some  signs  of 
these  traits  are  clear  and  plain  speech,   an  erect  gait,  and 
impeccable  personal  appearance. 


16-7 


(k)   Endurance.     The  mental  and  physical  stamina 
measured  by  the  ability  to  withstand  pain,    fatigue,    stress,  and 
hardship.     The  quality  of  withstanding  pain  during  a  conditioning 
hike  in  order  to  improve  stamina  is  crucial  in  the  development  of 
leadership.     Leaders  are  responsible  for  leading  their  units  in 
physical  endeavors  and  for  motivating  them  as  well. 

(1)   Unselfishness.     Avoidance  of  providing  for  one's 
own  comfort  and  personal  advancement  at  the  expense  of  others. 
The  quality  of  looking  out  for  the  needs  of  your  subordinates 
before  your  own  is  the  essence  of  leadership.     This  quality  is 
not  to  be  confused  with  putting  these  matters  ahead  of  the 
accomplishment  of  the  mission. 

(m)   Loyalty.     The  quality  of  faithfulness  to  country, 
the  Corps,   and  unit,   and  to  one's  seniors,    subordinates,  and 
peers.     The  motto  of  our  Corps  is  Semper  Fidelis!     You  owe 
unswerving  loyalty  up  and  down  the  chain  of  command,    to  seniors, 
subordinates,    and  peers. 

(n)   Judgment.     The  ability  to  weigh  facts  and 
possible  solutions  on  which  to  base  sound  decisions.  Sound 
judgment  is  important  to  a  leader  in  order  to  gain  the  respect  of 
his/her  subordinates. 

(2)   Leadership  principles 

(a)  Be  technically  and  tactically  proficient.  Before 
you  can  lead,   you  must  be  able  to  do  the  job;   the  first  principle 
is  to  know  your  job.     As  a  Marine,   you  must  demonstrate  your 
ability  to  accomplish  the  mission,   and  to  do  this  you  must  be 
capable  of  answering  questions  and  demonstrating  competence  in 
your  MOS .     Respect  is  the  reward  of  the  Marine  who  shows 
competence.     Tactical  and  technical  competence  can  be  learned 
from  books  and  from  on-the-job  training. 

(b)  Know  yourself  and  seek  self  improvement.  This 
principle  of  leadership  should  be  developed  by  the  use  of 
leadership  traits.     Evaluate  yourself  by  using  the  leadership 
traits  and  determine  your  strengths  and  weaknesses.     Work  to 
improve  your  weaknesses  and  use  your  strengths.     With  a  knowledge 
of  yourself,   and  your  experience  and  knowledge  of  group  behavior, 
you  can  determine  the  best  way  to  deal  with  any  given  situation. 
With  some  Marines  and  in  certain  situations,    the  firm,   hard  stand 
may  be  most  effective;   however,    in  other  situations  the  "big 


16-8 


brother"   approach  may  work  better.     You  can  improve  yourself  in 
many  ways.     Self -improvement  can  be  achieved  by  reading  and 
observing.     Ask  your  friends  and  seniors  for  an  honest  evaluation 
of  your  leadership.     This  will  help  you  to  find  your  weaknesses 
and  strengths. 

(c)  Know  your  Marines  and  look  out  for  their  welfare. 
This  is  one  of  the  most  important  of  the  principles.     You  should 
know  your  Marines  and  how  they  react  to  different  situations. 
This  knowledge  can  save  lives.     A  Marine  who  is  nervous  or  lacks 
self-confidence  should  never  be  put  in  a  situation  where  an 
important,    instant  decision  must  be  made.     Knowledge  of  your 
Marines'   personalities  will  enable  you,    as  the  leader,    to  decide 
how  to  best  handle  each  Marine  and  determine  when  close 
supervision  is  needed. 

(d)  Keep  your  Marines  informed.     Marines  are  by 
nature  inquisitive.     To  promote  efficiency  and  morale,   as  a 
leader  you  should  inform  the  Marines  in  your  unit  of  all 
happenings  and  give  reasons  why  things  are  to  be  done.     This,  of 
course,    is  done  when  time  and  security  permit.     Informing  your 
Marines  of  the  situation  makes  them  feel  that  they  are  a  part  of 
the  team  and  not  just  a  cog  in  a  wheel.     Informed  Marines  perform 
better  and,    if  knowledgeable  of  the  situation,    they  can  carry  on 
without  your  personal  supervision.     The  key  to  giving  out 
information  is  to  be  sure  that  the  Marines  have  enough 
information  to  do  their  job  intelligently  and  to  inspire  their 
initiative,    enthusiasm,    loyalty,   and  convictions. 

(e)  Set  the  example.     As  a  Marine  progresses  through 
the  ranks  by  promotion,   all  too  often  he/she  takes  on  the 
attitude  of   "do  as  I  say,   not  as  I  do."     Nothing  turns  Marines 
off  faster!     As  a  Marine  leader  your  duty  is  to  set  the  standards 
for  your  Marines  by  personal  example.     Your  appearance,  attitude, 
physical  fitness,   and  personal  example  are  all  watched  by  the 
Marines  in  your  unit.     If  your  personal  standards  are  high,  then 
you  can  rightfully  demand  the  same  of  your  Marines.     If  your 
personal  standards  are  not  high  you  are  setting  a  double  standard 
for  your  Marines,   and  you  will  rapidly  lose  their  respect  and 
confidence.     Remember  your  Marines  reflect  your  image! 
Leadership  is  taught  by  example. 

(f)  Ensure  that  the  task  is  understood,  supervised, 
and  accomplished.     This  principle  is  necessary  in  the  exercise  of 
command.     Before  you  can  expect  your  Marines  to  perform,  they 


16-9 


must  know  first  what  is  expected  of  them.     You  must  communicate 
your  instructions  in  a  clear,   concise  manner.     Talk  at  a  level 
that  your  Marines  are  sure  to  understand,   but  not  at  a  level  so 
low  that  would  insult  their  intelligence.     Before  your  Marines 
start  a  task,   allow  them  a  chance  to  ask  questions  or  seek 
advice.     Supervision  is  essential.     Without  supervision  you 
cannot  know  if  the  assigned  task  is  being  properly  accomplished. 
Over-supervision  is  viewed  by  subordinates  as  harassment  and 
effectively  stops  their  initiative.     Allow  subordinates  to  use 
their  own  techniques,   and  then  periodically  check  their  progress. 


(g)   Train  your  Marines  as  a  team.     Every  waking  hour 
Marines  should  be  trained  and  schooled,   challenged  and  tested, 
corrected  and  encouraged  with  perfection  and  teamwork  as  a  goal . 
When  not  at  war,   Marines  are  judged  in  peacetime  roles, 
perfection  in  drill,    in  dress,    in  bearing,   and  demeanor, 
shooting,   self -improvement ,   but  more  than  anything  else  by 
performance.     No  excuse  can  be  made  for  the  failure  of  leaders  to 
train  their  Marines  to  the  highest  state  of  physical  condition 
and  to  instruct  them  to  be  skillful  as  the  very  best  in  the 
profession  of  arms.     Train  with  a  purpose  and  emphasize  the 
essential  element  of  teamwork. 

[1]   The  sharing  of  hardships,   dangers,   and  hard 
work  strengthens  a  unit  and  reduces  problems;    it  develops 
teamwork,    improves  morale  and  esprit  and  molds  a  feeling  of 
unbounded  loyalty.     This  is  the  basis  for  what  makes  men  fight  in 
combat;    it  is  the  foundation  for  bravery,    for  advancing  under 
fire.     Troops  don't  complain  about  tough  training;   they  seek  it 
and  brag  about  it. 

[2]   Teamwork  is  the  key  to  successful  operations. 
Teamwork  is  essential  from  the  smallest  unit  to  the  entire  Marine 
Corps.     As  a  Marine  officer,   you  must  insist  on  teamwork  from 
your  Marines.     Train,   play,   and  operate  as  a  team.     Be  sure  that 
each  Marine  knows  his/her  position  and  responsibilities  within 
the  team  framework. 

[3]   When  team  spirit  is  in  evidence,    the  most 
difficult  tasks  become  much  easier  to  accomplish.     Teamwork  is  a 
two-way  street.     Individual  Marines  give  their  best,   and  in 
return  the  team  provides  the  Marine  with  security,  recognition, 
and  a  sense  of  accomplishment. 


16-10 


(h)  Make  sound  and  timely  decisions.     The  leader  must 
be  able  to  rapidly  estimate  a  situation  and  make  a  sound  decision 
based  on  that  estimation.     Hesitation  or  a  reluctance  to  make  a 
decision  leads  subordinates  to  lose  confidence  in  your  abilities 
as  a  leader.     Loss  of  confidence  in  turn  creates  confusion  and 
hesitation  within  the  unit.     Once  you  make  a  decision  and 
discover  it  is  the  wrong  one,   don't  hesitate  to  revise  your 
decision.     Marines  respect  the  leader  who  corrects  mistakes 
immediately  instead  of  trying  to  bluff  through  a  poor  decision. 

(i)  Develop  a  sense  of  responsibility  among  your 
subordinates .     Another  way  to  show  your  Marines  that  you  are 
interested  in  their  welfare  is  to  give  them  the  opportunity  for 
professional  development.     Assigning  tasks  and  delegating  the 
authority  to  accomplish  tasks  promotes  mutual  confidence  and 
respect  between  the  leader  and  subordinates.     It  also  encourages 
the  subordinates  to  exercise  initiative  and  to  give  wholehearted 
cooperation  in  the  accomplishment  of  unit  tasks.     When  you 
properly  delegate  authority,   you  demonstrate  faith  in  your 
Marines  and  increase  their  desire  for  greater  responsibilities. 
If  you  fail  to  delegate  authority,   you  indicate  a  lack  of 
leadership,   and  your  subordinates  may  take  it  to  be  a  lack  of 
trust  in  their  abilities. 

(j)    Employ  your  unit  in  accordance  with  its 
capabilities.     Successful  completion  of  a  task  depends  upon  how 
well  you  know  your  unit's  capabilities.     If  the  task  assigned  is 
one  that  your  unit  has  not  been  trained  to  do,    failure  is  very 
likely  to  result.     Failures  lower  your  unit's  morale  and 
self-esteem.     You  wouldn't  send  a  cook  section  to   "PM"   a  vehicle 
nor  would  you  send  three  Marines  to  do  the  job  of  ten.     Seek  out 
challenging  tasks  for  your  unit,   but  be  sure  that  your  unit  is 
prepared  for  and  has  the  ability  to  successfully  complete  the 
mission . 

(k)    Seek  responsibility  and  take  responsibility  for 
your  actions.     For  professional  development,   you  must  actively 
seek  out  challenging  assignments.     You  must  use  initiative  and 
sound  judgment  when  trying  to  accomplish  jobs  that  are  not 
required  by  your  grade.     Seeking  responsibilities  also  means  that 
you  take  the  responsibility  for  your  actions.     You  are 
responsible  for  all  your  unit  does  or  fails  to  do.     Regardless  of 
the  actions  of  your  subordinates,    the  responsibility  for  the 
decision  and  its  application  falls  on  you.     You  must  issue  all 
orders  in  your  name.     Stick  by  your  convictions  and  do  what  you 


16-11 


think  is  right;   but  accept  justified  and  constructive  criticism. 
Never  remove  or  demote  a  subordinate  for  a  failure  that  is  the 
result  of  your  own  mistake. 

h.     Another  element  of  leadership  involves  understanding  the 
concepts  and  application  of  authority,   responsibility,  and 
accountability. 

(1)  Authority  is  the  legitimate  power  of  a  leader  to 
direct  those  subordinates  to  take  action  within  the  scope  of 
his/her  position. 

(a)  By  extension,    this  power,   or  a  part  thereof,  is 
delegated  and  used  in  the  name  of  the  commander.     All  leaders 
regardless  of  rank  are  responsible  to  exercise  their  authority  to 
accomplish  the  mission. 

(b)  Equally  important,   however,    is  the  idea  that  when 
a  Marine  of  any  rank  is  given  responsibility  for  a  mission,  they 
must  also  be  given  the  degree  of  authority  necessary  to  carry  it 
out . 

(2)  Responsibility  is  the  obligation  to  act  or  to  do; 
that  which  one  must  answer  to  for  his/her  seniors  or  juniors. 

(a)  It  may  include,   but  is  not  limited  to,  assigned 
tasks,    equipment,   personnel,   money,   morale,   and  leadership. 
Responsibility  is  an  integral  part  of  a  leader's  authority.  The 
leader  is  responsible  at  all  levels  of  command  for  what  his/her 
Marines  do  or  fail  to  do,   as  well  as  for  the  physical  assets 
under  his/her  control. 

(b)  Ultimately,    all  Marines  are  morally  and  legally 
responsible  for  their  individual  actions.     Paragraph  1100  of  the 
Marine  Corps  Manual  states  that  individual  responsibilities  of 
leadership  are  not  dependent  on  authority,    and  all  Marines  are 
expected  to  exert  proper  influence  upon  their  comrades  by  setting 
examples  of  obedience,    courage,    zeal,    sobriety,   neatness,  and 
attention  to  duty. 

(3)  Accountability  is  the  reckoning,   wherein  the  leader 
answers  for  his/her  actions  and  accepts  the  consequences,   good  or 
bad.     Accountability  is  the  very  cornerstone  of  leadership.  If 
individuals  in  leadership  positions,   whether  fire  team  leader  or 
battalion  commander,   are  not  accountable,    the  structure  on  which 


16-12 


the  Corps  is  founded  would  be  weakened  and  eventually 
disintegrate.     Accountability  establishes  reasons,   motives,  and 
importance  for  actions  in  the  eyes  of  seniors  and  subordinates 
alike.     Accountability  is  the  final  act  in  the  establishment  of 
one's  credibility.     Plainly  speaking,    the  accountable  leader  is 
saying,    "The  buck  stops  here!"     Remember:     accountability  results 
in  rewards  for  good  performance  as  well  as  punishment  for  poor 
performance . 

(4)   Authority,   responsibility,   and  accountability  are  all 
related.  When  given  sufficient  authority  to  allow  him/her  to 
carry  out  his/her  duties,   and  when  held  accountable  for  the 
exercise  of  that  authority,   a  Marine  develops  responsibility. 
Responsibility  can  rarely  grow  when  individuals  are  not  held 
accountable  for  their  actions  or  when  individuals  do  not  have  the 
authority  to  do  what  should  be  done. 

i .     Leaders  are  responsible  and  accountable  for  the 
effectiveness  of  their  units.     Some  indicators  that  a  leader  can 
use  to  measure  the  effectiveness  of  his/her  unit  are  morale, 
esprit  de  corps,   discipline  and  proficiency.     These  factors 
influence  each  other  greatly. 

(1)   Morale  is  the  individual's  state  of  mind.     It  depends 
on  his/her  attitude  toward  everything  that  affects  him/her; 
fellow  Marines,    leaders,   Marine  life  in  general,    and  other  things 
important  to  him/her.     Morale  is  closely  related  to  the 
satisfying  of  the  Marine's  needs.     If  the  training, 
administering,   and  fighting  of  a  unit  is  conducted  so  that  the 
Marine's  needs  are  satisfied,    a  favorable  attitude  will  be 
developed.     High  morale  is  a  state  of  mind  which  gives  a  Marine  a 
feeling  of  confidence  and  well  being  that  enable  him/her  to  face 
hardship  with  courage,   endurance,   and  determination.     The  state 
of  morale  is  constantly  changing.     The  morale  of  a  unit  can  be  a 
measurement  of  the  leader's  ability.     The  leader  can  measure 
morale  by  close  observation  of  his/her  Marines  in  their  daily 
activities,   by  inspecting  and  talking  to  these  Marines. 

(a)    Some  specific  indicators  of  good  or  bad  morale  in 
a  unit  are  as  follows: 

[1]  Appearance. 

[2]    Personal  Conduct. 


16-13 


[3 
[4 
[5 
[6 
[7 
[8 
[9 
[10 
[11 
[12 
[13 


Standards  of  military  courtesy. 

Personal  hygiene. 

Use  of  recreational  facilities . 

Excessive  quarreling. 

Harmful  or  irresponsible  rumors . 

Condition  of  mess  and  quarters . 

Care  of  equipment. 

Response  to  orders  and  directives . 
Job  proficiency. 
Motivation  during  training. 

Evaluation  of  administrative  reports  such  as 


CONGRINTs,   arrests,    sick  call  rates,  etc. 

(b)   Morale  is  not  constant.     The  other  three 
indicators  depend  on  morale,    since  morale  is  the  sum  total  of  the 
Marine's  attitudes.     All  of  the  indicators  are  inter-related.  A 
particular  symptom  may  be  an  indication  of  a  deficiency  in  more 
than  one  area.     Methods  to  improve  morale  are  as  follows: 

[1]   Teach  belief  in  the  cause  and  mission. 

[2]    Instill  in  your  Marines  confidence  in 
themselves,    their  leaders,    their  training,   and  their  equipment. 

[3]   Assist  in  job  satisfaction  by  carefully 
considering  job  assignments. 

[4]   Keep  your  Marines  aware  of  your  concern  for 
their  physical,   moral,   and  spiritual  welfare,   as  well  as  that  of 
their  dependents . 

[5]   Establish  an  effective  awards  program. 

[6]  'Make  your  Marines  feel  they  are  essential  to 

the  unit. 


16-14 


[7]   Recognize  the  Marine's  desire  to  retain 
his/her  individuality  and  treat  him/her  as  an  individual. 


[8]   Encourage  the  strengthening  of  their  family 
ties,    and  religious  association. 

(2)   Esprit  de  corps  is  the  loyalty  to,   pride  in,  and 
enthusiasm  for  the  unit  shown  by  its  members.     Whereas  morale 
refers  to  the  Marine's  attitude,    esprit  de  corps  is  the  unit 
spirit.     It  is  the  common  spirit  reflected  by  all  members  of  a 
unit  and  provides  group  solidarity.     It  implies  devotion  and 
loyalty  to  the  unit,   and  a  deep  regard  for  the  unit's  history, 
traditions,   and  honor.     Esprit  de  corps  depends  of  the 
satisfaction  the  members  get  from  belonging  to  the  unit  and 
confidence  in  their  leaders . 

(a)    Specific  things  to  look  for  when  evaluating  a 
unit's  esprit  de  corps  are  as  follows: 

[1]    Expressions  from  your  Marines  showing 
enthusiasm  for  and  pride  in  their  unit. 

[2]   A  good  reputation  among  other  units. 

[3]   A  strong  competitive  spirit. 

[4]   Willing  participation  by  your  Marines  in  unit 


activities 


one  another 


other  unit 


[5]    Pride  in  traditions  and  history  of  the  unit. 
[6]   Readiness  on  the  part  of  your  Marines  to  help 

[7]   The  belief  that  their  unit  is  better  than  any 

[8]   High  reenlistment  rate  in  the  unit. 
!b)   What  are  some  ways  to  improve  esprit  de  corps  in 


a  unit? 


16-15 


[1]    Start  newly  assigned  Marines  off  right  by  a 
reception  program,    including  an  explanation  of  the  unit ' s 
history,    traditions,   and  present  role. 

[2]   Develop  the  feeling  that  the  unit  must  excel. 

[3]   Recognize  and  publicize  achievements  of  the 
unit  and  its  members . 

[4]  Make  use  of  ceremonies,    symbols,    slogans,  and 

military  music . 

[5]  Use  competition  to  develop  teamwork. 

[6]  Make  proper  use  of  decorations  and  awards. 

(3)   Discipline  is  the  individual  or  group  attitude  that 
ensures  prompt  obedience  to  orders  and  initiation  of  appropriate 
action  in  the  absence  of  orders.     When  achieved  in  a  unit,    it  is 
an  attitude  that  keeps  Marines  doing  what  they  are  supposed  to  do 
and  as  they  are  supposed  to  do  it  through  strong  inner 
conviction.     Good  discipline  is  constant  and  functions  whether  or 
not  outside  pressure  and  supervision  is  present.     It  is  the 
result  of  good  training  and  intelligent  leadership  that  helps 
Marines  withstand  the  shock  of  battle  and  face  difficult 
situations  without  faltering.     Since  success  in  combat  frequently 
depends  upon  a  unit ' s  or  individual ' s  immediate  positive 
response,   discipline  demanded  in  the  Marine  Corps  is  far  more 
exacting  than  discipline  in  other  walks  of  life.     Before  a  Marine 
can  act  resourcefully  in  the  absence  of  orders,   he/she  must  have 
an  understanding  of  what  is  to  be  done  and  the  role  he/she  must 
play.     This  requires  training.     Before  Marines  can  respond  to 
orders,    they  need  confidence  in  their  seniors.     This  requires 
leadership.     Without  discipline,    a  unit  becomes  a  mob. 

(a)    Some  specifics  to  look  for  when  evaluating  a 
unit's  discipline  are  as  follows: 

[1]  Attention  to  detail. 

[2]  Harmonious  relations  between  unit  members. 

[3]  Devotion  to  duty. 

[4]  Proper  senior/subordinate  relationships. 


16-16 


[5] 

[6] 

courtesy . 

[7] 

directives . 

[8]   Adherence  to  the  chain  of  command. 

[9]   Ability  and  willingness  to  perform 
effectively  with  little  or  no  supervision. 

(b)    Some  useful  methods  to  improve  discipline  in  a 
unit  are  as  follows: 

[1]   Demonstrate  discipline  by  your  own  conduct 

and  example. 

[2]    Institute  a  fair  and  impartial  system  for 
punishment  and  an  equitable  distribution  of  privileges  and 
rewards . 

[3]    Strive  for  mutual  confidence  and  respect 
through  training. 

[4]   Encourage  and  foster  the  development  of  self 
discipline  among  your  Marines. 

[5]   Be  alert  to  conditions  conducive  to  breaches 
of  discipline  and  eliminate  them  where  possible. 

(4)    Proficiency  is  the  technical,    tactical,   and  physical 
ability  to  perform  the  job  or  mission.     Unit  proficiency  is  the 
sum  of  the  skills  welded  together  by  the  leader  into  a  smooth 
functioning  team.     A  unit  will  attain  proficiency  when  its  leader 
demands  high  standards  of  individual  and  group  performance. 
Proficiency  results  largely  from  training.     Therefore,   much  of 
the  leader's  time  must  be  spent  supervising  training. 

(a)    Some  specifics  to  look  for  when  evaluating  a 
unit's  proficiency  are  as  follows: 


Proper  conduct  on  and  off  duty. 

Standards  of  cleanliness,   dress,    and  military 

Promptness  in  responding  to  commands  and 


16-17 


[1]    Personal  appearance  and  physical  condition  of 

your  Marines . 

[2]   Appearance  and  condition  of  weapons, 
equipment,   and  unit  area. 

[3]   Reaction  time  of  unit  under  various 
situations  and  conditions. 

[4]    Professional  attitude  demonstrated  by  the 
unit  and  its  members. 

[5]   Troop  leading  ability  of  junior  leaders. 

[6]    Promptness  and  accuracy  in  disseminating 
orders,    instructions,   and  information. 

[7]   Degree  of  skill  demonstrated  when 
accomplishing  tasks. 

(b)    Some  useful  techniques  to  use  to  improve  the 
proficiency  of  a  unit  are  as  follows: 


duties 


command , 


program . 


[1]  Thoroughly  train  your  Marines  in  their 

[2]  Emphasize  teamwork  through  the  chain  of 

[3]  Establish  a  sound  physical  conditioning 

[4]  Provide  for  cross  training. 

[5]  Participate  in  realistic  training  exercises. 

[6]    Provide  your  Marines  with  frequent 
opportunities  to  perform  duties  of  the  next  higher  echelon. 

[7]   Ensure  by  inspections  and  training  tests  that 
your  command  is  being  developed  in  accordance  with  training 
programs  and  doctrine  prescribed  by  higher  authority. 

[8]    Set  high  standards  of  performance  and  insist 
that  they  be  met . 


16-18 


[9]    Institute  and  promote  a  professional  military 
education  reading  program. 

j.     Marines  can  deploy  at  any  time  into  combat.     Good  leaders 
must  be  aware  of  the  current  status  and  abilities  of  their  unit 
at  all  times  and  must  do  their  best  to  ensure  that  they  are  at 
the  highest  level  of  readiness  possible. 

6 .  Appendices 

Appendix  A:   Excerpt  from  FMFM  1 

Appendix  B:  Scenarios 


16-19 


APPENDIX  A 


PHILOSOPHY  OF  LEADERSHIP 
(EXCERPT  FROM  FMFM  1) 

LEADERSHIP 

Marine  Corps  doctrine  demands  professional  competence  among 
its  leaders.     As  military  professionals  charged  with  the  defense 
of  the  nation,   Marine  leaders  must  be  true  experts  in  the  conduct 
of  war.     They  must  be  men  of  action  and  of  intellect  both, 
skilled  at   "getting  things  done"  while  at  the  same  time 
conversant  in  the  military  art.     Resolute  and  self-reliant  in 
their  decisions,    they  must  also  be  energetic  and  insistent  in 
execution . 

The  military  profession  is  a  thinking  profession.  Officers 
particularly  are  expected  to  be  students  of  the  art  and  science 
of  war  at  all  levels;   tactical,   operational,   and  strategic,  with 
a  solid  foundation  in  military  theory  and  a  knowledge  of  military 
history  and  the  timeless  lessons  to  be  gained  from  it. 

Leaders  must  have  a  strong  sense  of  the  great  responsibility 
of  their  office;   the  resources  they  will  expend  in  war  are  human 
lives . 

The  Marine  Corps '    style  of  warfare  requires  intelligent 
leaders  with  a  penchant  for  boldness  and  initiative  down  to  the 
lowest  levels.     Boldness  is  an  essential  moral  trait  in  a  leader, 
for  it  generates  combat  power  beyond  the  physical  means  at  hand. 
Initiative,    the  willingness  to  act  on  one's  own  judgment,    is  a 
prerequisite  for  boldness.     These  traits  carried  to  excess  can 
lead  to  rashness,   but  we  must  realize  that  errors  by  junior 
leaders  stemming  from  over  boldness  are  a  necessary  part  of 
learning.     We  should  deal  with  such  errors  leniently;   there  must 
be  no   "zero  defects"  mentality.     Not  only  must  we  not  stifle 
boldness  or  initiative,   we  must  continue  to  encourage  both  traits 
in  spite  of  mistakes.     On  the  other  hand,   we  should  deal  severely 
with  errors  of  inaction  or  timidity.     We  will  not  accept  lack  of 
orders  as  justification  of  inaction;   it  is  each  Marine's  duty  to 
take  initiative  as  the  situation  demands. 

Consequently,    trust  is  an  essential  trait  among  leaders; 
trust  by  seniors  in  the  abilities  of  their  subordinates  and  by 


16-20 


juniors  in  the  competence  and  support  of  their  seniors.  Trust 
must  be  earned,   and  actions  which  undermine  trust  must  meet  with 
strict  censure.     Trust  is  a  product  of  confidence  and 
familiarity.     Confidence  among  comrades  results  from  demonstrated 
professional  skill.     Familiarity  results  from  shared  experience 
and  a  common  professional  philosophy. 

Relations  among  all  leaders,    from  corporal  to  general, 
should  be  based  on  honesty  and  frankness,    regardless  of  disparity 
between  grades.     Until  a  commander  has  reached  and  stated  a 
decision,    each  subordinate  should  consider  it  his/her  duty  to 
provide  his/her  honest,   professional  opinion;   even  though  it  may 
be  in  disagreement  with  his/her  senior's.     However,    once  the 
decision  has  been  reached,    the  junior  then  must  support  it  as  if 
it  were  his  own.     Seniors  must  encourage  candor  among 
subordinates  and  must  not  hide  behind  their  rank  insignia.  Ready 
compliance  for  the  purpose  of  personal  advancement  the  behavior 
of   "yes-men"  will  not  be  tolerated. 

PHILOSOPHY  OF  COMMAND 

It  is  essential  that  our  philosophy  of  command  support  the 
way  we  fight.     First  and  foremost,    in  order  to  generate  the  tempo 
of  operations  we  desire  and  to  best  cope  with  the  uncertainty, 
disorder,   and  fluidity  of  combat,   command  must  be  decentralized. 
That  is,    subordinate  commanders  must  make  decisions  on  their  own 
initiative,   based  on  their  understanding  of  their  senior's 
intent,   rather  than  passing  information  up  the  chain  of  command 
and  waiting  for  the  decision  to  be  passed  down.     Further,  a 
competent  subordinate  commander  who  is  at  the  point  of  decision 
will  naturally  have  a  better  appreciation  for  the  true  situation 
than  a  senior  some  distance  removed.     Individual  initiative  and 
responsibility  are  of  paramount  importance.     The  principal  means 
by  which  we  implement  decentralized  control  is  through  the  use  of 
mission  tactics,   which  we  will  discuss  in  detail  later. 

Second,    since  we  have  concluded  that  war  is  a  human 
enterprise  and  no  amount  of  technology  can  reduce  the  human 
dimension,    our  philosophy  of  command  must  be  based  on  human 
characteristics  rather  than  on  equipment  or  procedures . 
Communications  equipment  and  command  and  staff  procedures  can 
enhance  our  ability  to  command,   but  they  must  not  be  used  to 
replace  the  human  element  of  command.     Our  philosophy  must  not 
only  accommodate  but  must  exploit  human  traits  such  as  boldness, 
initiative,   personality,    strength  of  will,   and  imagination. 


16-21 


Our  philosophy  of  command  must  also  exploit  the  human 
ability  to  communicate  implicitly.     We  believe  that  implicit 
communication  to  communicate  through  mutual  understanding,  using 
a  minimum  of  key,   well-understood  phrases  or  even  anticipating 
each  other's  thoughts  is  a  faster,   more  effective  way  to 
communicate  than  through  the  use  of  detailed,  explicit 
instructions.     We  develop  this  ability  through  familiarity  and 
trust,   which  are  based  on  a  shared  philosophy  and  shared 
experience . 

This  concept  has  several  practical  implications.     First,  we 
should  establish  long-term  working  relationships  to  develop  the 
necessary  familiarity  and  trust.     Second,   key  people  "actuals" 
should  talk  directly  to  one  another  when  possible,   rather  than 
through  communicators  or  messengers.     Third,   we  should 
communicate  orally  when  possible,   because  we  communicate  also  in 
how  we  talk;   our  inflections  and  tone  of  voice.     And  fourth,  we 
should  communicate  in  person  when  possible,   because  we 
communicate  also  through  our  gestures  and  bearing. 

A  commander  should  command  from  well  forward.     This  allows 
him/her  to  see  and  sense  firsthand  the  ebb  and  flow  of  combat,  to 
gain  an  intuitive  appreciation  for  the  situation  which  he/she 
cannot  obtain  from  reports.     It  allows  him/her  to  exert  his 
personal  influence  at  decisive  points  during  the  action.     It  also 
allows  him/her  to  locate  himself /herself  closer  to  the  events 
that  will  influence  the  situation  so  that  he/she  can  observe  them 
directly  and  circumvent  the  delays  and  inaccuracies  that  result 
from  passing  information  up  the  chain  of  command. 

Finally,  we  recognize  the  importance  of  personal  leadership. 
Only  by  his  physical  presence  by  demonstrating  the  willingness  to 
share  danger  and  privation  can  the  commander  fully  gain  the  trust 
and  confidence  of  his  subordinates. 

We  must  remember  that  command  from  the  front  does  not  equate 
to  over-supervision  of  subordinates. 

As  part  of  our  philosophy  of  command  we  must  recognize  that 
war  is  inherently  disorderly,   uncertain,   dynamic,   and  dominated 
by  friction.     Moreover,   maneuver  warfare,   with  its  emphasis  on 
speed  and  initiative,    is  by  nature  a  particularly  disorderly 
style  of  war.     The  conditions  ripe  for  exploitation  are  normally 
also  very  disorderly.     For  commanders  to  try  to  gain  certainty  as 


16-22 


a  basis  for  actions,   maintain  positive  control  of  events  at  all 
times,    or  shape  events  to  fit  their  plans  is  to  deny  the  very 
nature  of  war.     We  must  therefore  be  prepared  to  cope,  even 
better,    to  thrive  in  an  environment  of  chaos,  uncertainty, 
constant  change,   and  friction.     If  we  can  come  to  terms  with 
those  conditions  and  thereby  limit  their  debilitating  effects,  we 
can  use  them  as  a  weapon  against  a  foe  who  does  not  cope  as  well. 

In  practical  terms  this  means  that  we  must  not  strive  for 
certainty  before  we  act,    for  in  so  doing  we  will  surrender  the 
initiative  and  pass  up  opportunities.     We  must  not  try  to 
maintain  positive  control  over  subordinates  since  this  will 
necessarily  slow  our  tempo  and  inhibit  initiative.     We  must  not 
attempt  to  impose  precise  order  to  the  events  of  combat  since 
this  leads  to  a  formalistic  approach  to  war.     And  we  must  be 
prepared  to  adapt  to  changing  circumstances  and  exploit 
opportunities  as  they  arise,    rather  than  adhering  insistently  to 
predetermined  plans . 

There  are  several  points  worth  remembering  about  our  command 
philosophy.     First,   while  it  is  based  on  our  warfighting  style, 
this  does  not  mean  it  applies  only  during  war.     We  must  put  it 
into  practice  during  the  preparation  for  war  as  well.     We  cannot 
rightly  expect  our  subordinates  to  exercise  boldness  and 
initiative  in  the  field  when  they  are  accustomed  to  being 
over-supervised  in  the  rear.     Whether  the  mission  is  training, 
procuring  equipment,   administration,    or  police  call,  this 
philosophy  should  apply. 

Next,   our  philosophy  requires  competent  leadership  at  all 
levels.     A  centralized  system  theoretically  needs  only  one 
competent  person,    the  senior  commander,    since  his/her  is  the  sole 
authority.     But  a  decentralized  system  requires  leaders  at  all 
levels  to  demonstrate  sound  and  timely  judgment.     As  a  result, 
initiative  becomes  an  essential  condition  of  competence  among 
commanders . 

Our  philosophy  also  requires  familiarity  among  comrades 
because  only  through  shared  understanding  can  we  develop  the 
implicit  communication  necessary  for  unity  of  effort.  And, 
perhaps  most  important,   our  philosophy  demands  confidence  among 
seniors  and  subordinates . 


16-23 


APPENDIX  B 


PHILOSOPHY  OF  LEADERSHIP 


(SCENARIOS) 


(Note:   Instruct  the  Marine  to  read  these  scenarios  and,  using 
leadership  traits,   principles,   and  indicators  of  unit 
effectiveness  as  a  guide,   and  keeping  in  mind  the  relationship 
between  authority,   accountability,   and  responsibility,  identify 
leadership  fundamentals  that  are  lacking  or  present  and  recommend 
courses  of  action.) 


1.     Your  battalion  is  deploying  on  a  six  month  Med.   cruise  four 
days  from  now.     LCpl  Smith,   a  member  of  your  platoon,   was  married 
six  weeks  ago  to  his  high  school  sweetheart  and  moved  her  into  a 
trailer  in  town.     They  have  just  learned  that  she  is  two  months 
pregnant.     He  and  his  wife  feel  that  he  should  be  excused  from 
the  deployment.     He  has  requested  to  speak  with  you  because  his 
squad  leader  and  platoon  sergeant  advised  him  that  he  would  have 
to  go  on  the  cruise  and  that  he  would  have  to  make  other 
arrangements  for  his  family. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(LCpl  Smith  is  weak  in  the  following  leadership  traits: 
unselfishness,    loyalty,    judgment,   dependability.     However,  due 
consideration  must  be  given  to  Smith's  age  and  level  of  maturity, 
as  well  as  to  the  pressures  of  his  personal  situation.  In 
general,   his  morale  is  in  the  dumps.) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 


(Correct  this  situation  by  talking  to  him  about  the 
importance  of  your  unit  mission  and  the  important  role  that  he 
plays  in  accomplishing  that  mission.     Also,    let  him  know  that  you 
understand  the  difficulty  of  his  situation,   but  that  there  are 
ways  to  handle  it;   other  Marines  have  had  to  do  the  same.  His 
wife  could  go  home,   key  wives  network,  etc.) 

(Leadership  principles  that  apply  here  include:  knowing 
your  Marines  and  looking  out  for  their  welfare;  developing 
responsibility  among  subordinates.     In  this  case  helping  Smith  to 
develop  responsibility  entails  holding  him  accountable  for 


16-24 


carrying  out  his  duties  to  the  Marine  Corps,   his  unit,   and  his 
fellow  Marines  in  the  face  of  personal  hardship.     In  the  long 
run,    this  development  is  in  Smith's  best  interest.) 


2.  Your  squad  leaders  are  very  active,    exercise  broad  authority, 
and  have  a  strong  influence  on  their  Marines.     Fire  team  leaders 
have  not  been  showing  much  initiative.     They  are  competent,  but 
are  not  forceful.     Fire  team  members  often  seem  confused,   but  are 
attentive  to  both  fire  team  and  squad  leaders . 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(Proficiency  of  the  fire  team  leaders    (FTLs)   and  of  the 
squad  leaders.) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(FTLs  need  to  be  given  a  chance  to  take  some  responsibility 
and  initiative.     If  necessary,   you  may  have  to  talk  to  your  squad 
leaders  and  have  them  back  off  a  bit  to  give  the  FTLs  a  chance. 
You  should  also  talk  to  the  squad  leaders  about  their 
responsibility  to  develop  their  subordinates.     They  should  keep 
in  mind  the  relationship  between  authority,    accountability,  and 
responsibility.     If  they  give  their  FTLs  enough  authority  and 
then  hold  them  accountable  for  what  they  do  or  do  not  accomplish, 
their  FTLs  will  quickly  develop  responsibility.     At  the  present 
time  the  squad  leaders,    in  their  desire  to  get  things  done 
expeditiously,   are  not  allowing  their  FTLs  to  develop  and  learn.) 

3 .  Your  SNCO  does  not  seem  at  all  enthusiastic  about  the 
decisions  you  make  and  the  orders  you  give.     Additionally,  he 
doesn't  supervise  the  carrying  out  of  those  orders  unless  he  is 
specifically  told  to  do  so. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(The  SNCO  seems  to  have  a  morale  or  discipline  problem  which 
is  affecting  his  job  performance.     Specifically,   he  is  lacking 
the  leadership  traits  of  dependability,    initiative,  enthusiasm, 
and  loyalty.     Another  possibility  is  that  your  orders  and 
decisions  are  misguided.     If  this  is  the  case,   you're  in  a  world 
of  hurt,   but  the  SNCO  would  still  be  lacking  loyalty  and 
integrity  in  that  his  duty  is  to  inform  you   (tactfully)   of  his 
opinion  about  your  decisions.) 


> 


16-25 


What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(Counsel  the  SNCO  on  what  you  see  as  the  problem.  Recognize 
that  you  want  to  preserve  a  good  working  relationship  if  you  can. 
Directly  approach  the  problem;    is  there  a  personal  problem?  You 
could  possibly  find  out  more  about  the  SNCO  from  another  officer 
in  the  unit  who  knows  him  better  than  you  do.     If  there  is  no 
explanation  for  his  attitude,    then  more  forceful  action  will  be 
necessary. ) 


4.     The  unit  Sergeant  Major  is  retiring  in  a  few  days.  Your 
Marines  are  irate  over  having  been  pressured  by  their  SNCOs  to 
donate  money  for  a  retirement  gift. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(There  are  two  possible  problems:     SNCOs  are  not  aware  they 
should  not  be  pressuring  the  troops  to  give  or  it  could  be  that 
the  troops  lack  esprit  de  corps,    or  just  don't  like  the  SgtMaj . ) 


What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(You  should  talk  to  the  SNCOs;  make  them  understand  that 
it's  probably  more  appropriate  to  only  get  money  from  the  SNCOs 
and  officers . ) 


5 .     Your  unit  training  has  been  conducted  in  garrison  and 
classrooms  for  two  weeks.     You  notice  the  interest  and  attention 
is  poor  in  spite  of  excellent  instruction.     You  also  notice  that 
past  field  exercises  have  had  a  lot  of  dead  time,    sitting  or 
standing  around.     You  are  going  to  the  field  next  week  and  will 
have  every  morning  and  evening  to  do  as  you  desire  with  your 
platoon;   the  company  will  schedule  the  afternoons. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(Morale  and  lack  of  motivation  during  training.     Esprit  de 
corps,   proficiency,   and  discipline  could  also  be  deficient.) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 


16-26 


(Develop,   along  with  your  subordinate  leaders,   a  good  plan 
for  interesting  and  effective  training  in  the  field.     It  should 
relate  to  what  your  Marines  learned  in  class  in  order  to  give 
them  more  reason  to  listen  in  class.     Leadership  principles  that 
apply  here  include  training  your  Marines  as  a  team,    setting  the 
example,   and  keeping  your  Marines  informed.     Any  aspect  of 
training  comes  under  looking  out  for  the  welfare  of  your  Marines 
Your  own  enthusiasm  and  interest    (and  that  of  the  instructors) 
can  help  to  light  the  spark  with  your  Marines.     Training  your 
Marines  as  a  team  might  help  improve  esprit.     The  morale  problem 
is  a  tougher  nut  to  crack,   but  the  Marines  must  get  the  message 
that  what  they  are  doing  is  important.     Relate  the  training  to 
the  mission  and  ensure  that  all  hands  understand  the  mission  and 
its  importance.) 


6 .     There  is  a  ceremony  being  held  tomorrow  at  the  battalion 
dining  facility.     The  entire  battalion  has  been  directed  to 
attend  in  the  uniform  of  the  day.     It  will  be  the  anniversary  of 
the  establishment  of  the  regiment,   with  a  band,  speeches, 
rededication ,   and  a  special  meal.     Many  of  your  Marines  have 
stated  that  they  think  this  is  just  harassment,    causing  them  to 
get  a  clean  uniform  dirty. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

(Lack  of  esprit  de  corps,   possibly  morale.) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(You  could  call  a  platoon  meeting  and  go  off  on  the  platoon 
while  instructing  them  on  the  regiment's  history,   but  this  will 
probably  have  the  effect  of  reinforcing  their  feelings  of  being 
harassed.     Once  they  sit  through  the  ceremony,    they  will  probably 
find  themselves  enjoying  the  experience.     Marines  tend  to  bitch 
and  moan,   but  they  can't  help  but  enjoy  a  ceremony  in  which 
tradition  and  history  are  re-emphasized.     That's  what  most  of 
them  enlisted  for.) 


7.     You  see  a  PFC  wandering  around  in  you  company  area.  He/she 
looks  tired  and  bewildered.     Your  questions  reveal  that  he/she 
joined  the  company  last  night  and  slept  on  a  couch  in  the 
recreation  room,   missed  morning  chow  because  he/she  didn't  have  a 


16-27 


meal  card,   and  has  only  seen  a  clerk  in  the  company  office  who 
told  him/her  to  come  back  when  the  office  wasn't  so  busy. 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

{Esprit  de  Corps,    lack  of  readiness  to  help  one  another 
discipline,   devotion  to  duty,  proficiency) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(The  leadership  principles  that  apply  are  looking  out  for 
the  welfare  of  your  Marines;   ensuring  that  the  task  is 
understood,    supervised,   and  accomplished;   and  developing  a  sense 
of  responsibility  among  your  subordinates.   If  the  duty  folder 
does  contain  instructions  on  how  to  handle  new  joins,    then  the 
particular  NCO  who  was  on  duty  has  a  lot  to  answer  for,   as  does 
the  company  clerk  who  turned  the  Marine  away.     Possibly  talk  to 
the  NCOs  about  why  no  one  took  the  time  to  question  this  Marine 
and  help  him/her  out.     Reinforce  the  rule  that  we  go  out  of  our 
way  to  help  one  another  and  that  we  have  to  watch  out  even  more 
for  the  junior  Marines.) 


8 .     Your  NCOs  have  informed  you  that  the  individuals  in  the 
platoon  work  well  together,   understand  each  other,   and  get  along 
with  one  exception.     There  is  a  constant  problem  over  the  type 
and  volume  of  music  being  played  in  the  barracks  after  hours. 
The  problem  is  not  only  music;   it's  racial.     Some  blacks  like  rap 
music  and  some  whites  like  rock;   neither  group  likes  the  other's 
music.     The  music  and  the  arguments  keep  getting  louder.  The 
NCOs  are  concerned  that  this  situation  is  going  to  affect  the 
working  relationship  of  the  Marines  and  may  escalate  into  a 
racial  problem  in  general . 

What  leadership  fundamentals  are  lacking? 

{Esprit  de  Corps,   discipline,   and  lack  of  harmonious 
relations  between  unit  members . ) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  in  this  situation? 

(Very  realistic  scenario.     Mention  Walkmans  on  deployment. 
Marines  need  to  realize  that  as  a  unit  and  as  Marines,    they  can't 
let  music  come  between  them.     What's  needed  is  mutual  respect, 
consideration  for  others,   and  self -discipline .     Enforce  a  volume 


16-28 


limit  and  within  rooms  have  roommates  work  it  out.  Headphones 
are  a  solution.     This  isn't  a  question  of  rights;    it's  a  question 
of  common  sense  and  consideration  for  fellow  Marines.) 


9.     You  are  invited  by  a  fellow  platoon  commander  to  go  to  a  bar. 
While  there,   you  notice  some  of  your  Marines  and  exchange 
greetings.   Later  in  the  evening  they  offer  to  buy  you  a  drink  and 
sit  down  to  talk.     While  talking,   you  notice  that  they  drop  the 
"sir"  and  "lieutenant."     You  didn't  correct  them  in  order  to 
avoid  any  discomfort  to  them  or  yourself.     The  next  day,  your 
platoon  sergeant  mentions  that  he/she  heard  you  had  a  pretty  good 
evening  and  were  getting  pretty  tight  with  some  of  the  troops. 

What  indicators  are  lacking? 

(Discipline . ) 

What  is  the  best  course  of  action  to  take  in  this  situation? 

(The  biggest  mistake  was  in  not  correcting  the  Marines  in 
the  bar.     At  this  point  it  probably  isn't  a  good  idea  to  make  a 
big  deal  out  of  it.     Let  it  lie,   but  DO  NOT  compromise  yourself 
in  that  manner  again.     If  any  of  those  Marines  tries  to  be  overly 
familiar  in  the  future,   you  must  make  it  very  clear  to  them  that 
they  are  way  out  of  bounds.) 


16-29 


I 


€ 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

LEADERSHIP  ROLES 

1.  Introduction .     General  Bruce  C.   Clarke,   USA   (Ret)  stated, 
"Rank  is  given  you  to  enable  you  to  better  serve  those  above  and 
below  you.     It  is  not  given  for  you  to  practice  your  idiosyncra- 
sies."    In  fact,    the  greater  your  rank,    the  greater  are  your 
responsibility  and  authority  to  influence  the  action  to  accom- 
plish your  mission  and  enhance  your  Marines'   welfare.  This 
authority  and  responsibility  is  inherent  in  your  role  as  a  Marine 
leader . 

2 .  Overview .     During  this  discussion  we  will  examine  Marine 
leaders'   roles,    traditional  tasks  and  duties,  interrelationships, 
and  how  to  establish  and  maintain  these  relationships.     We  will 
look  at  rank  structure,   and  discuss  its  role  in  defining  the 
Marine  team.     This  understanding  will  aid  you  in  the  future  to 
mold  your  next  unit  into  a  cohesive  and  efficient  fighting 
machine . 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
leadership  roles  in  the  Marine  Corps : 

The  Marine  Officer's  Guide 
Handbook  for  Marine  NCO ' s 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a .     How  an  established  rank  structure  aids  the  Corps  in 
carrying  out  its  mission. 

(1)  Marines  exercise  their  duties,   responsibilities,  and 
authority  within  the  Corps'   organizational  structure;  without 
organization,    the  Corps  would  be  a  shapeless,    ineffective  force 
unable  to  carry  out  its  assigned  mission. 

(2)  The  success  of  the  Corps  depends  upon  all  Marines 
carrying  out  their  duties  and  responsibilities  to  ensure  mission 
accomplishment . 


17-1 


b .     What  does  the  rank  structure  provide  for? 


(1)  A  set  chain  of  command  provides  the  "who  is  in 
charge"   structure  required  to  get  things  done. 

(2)  Standardized  organizational  structure  provides  a 
base  that  allows  personnel  to  move  to  different  billets  within 
the  Corps  and  still  understand  what  is  going  on. 

(3)  Established  lines  of  communication  define  the  "who 
needs  to  know"   for  the  decision  making  process  in  the  chain  of 
command . 


(4)     Decentralized  execution  allows  orders  to  be  executed 
at  the  lowest  organizational  level  affected  by  the  decision. 


c .     Discuss  the  role  a  Marine  is  expected  to  fulfill  in  the 
structure . 


(1)     Two  major  roles  a  Marine  is  expected  to  fulfill  are 
institutional    (the  role  as  a  professional)   and  organizational 
(how  a  Marine  functions  in  his/her  role  in  the  unit) . 


d .     Institutional  roles  a  Marine  is  expected  to  fulfill. 

(1)  An  American  fighting  man  in  the  Corps 

(2)  A  Marine  in  his/her  role  as  either  an  enlisted  Marine 
or  officer. 


(3)  A  Marine  serving  in  a  specific  grade. 

(4)  A  Marine  serving  a  specific  MOS 


(5)  A  Marine  serving  as  a  role  model,    an  example  for 
others  combining  all  of  the  above. 

(6)  These  roles  center  on  the  ideas  and  goals  of  expected 
behavior  for  Marines  by  the  Marine  Corps  as  a  professional  insti- 
tution.  The  leadership  traits  and  principles  are  examples  of 
institutional  behavioral  ideals  and  goals  for  Marines. 


e .     Institutional  ideals  and  goals  Marines  are  expected  to 
live  up  to. 


17-2 


(1)  Adherence  to  the  Code  of  Conduct. 

(2)  Service  to  the  country  through  mission 
accomplishment . 

(3)  Being  prepared  to  inflict  death  or  injury  on  an  enemy 
during  war . 

(4)  Complying  with  the  basic  customs,   courtesies,  and 
traditions  of  the  Corps . 

(5)  Serving  as  an  example  to  subordinates  in  the  perform- 
ance of  duty,    in  the  sharing  of  hardship  and  danger,    and  above 
all  in  upholding  the  high  standards  of  moral  and  ethical 
behavior . 

f .  Organizational  roles  Marines  perform  in  their  units. 
Organizational  roles  are  often  linked  with  or  incorporated  with 
institutional  roles.     These  roles  include  additional  expected 
behavior  that  goes  with  a  specific  unit,    such  as  a  member  of  the 
disbursing  branch,   recon  battalion,   or  an  aviation  maintenance 
section.     Such  roles: 

(1)  Enable  the  individual  to  identify  with  the  unit. 

(2)  Set  the  organization  apart  and  give  it  a  special 

nature . 

(3)  May  require  the  individual  to  adopt  special  customs, 
a  different  manner  of  dress,   and  a  general  personality 
characteristic . 

g .  How  does  being  a  senior  affect  your  role? 


(1) 

Your 

understanding 

of  what  role  you  should  play. 

(2) 

Your 

subordinates ' 

expectations . 

(3) 

Your 

institutional 

and  organizational  roles. 

(4) 

Your 

acceptance  of 

your  responsibilities  in  your  rank 

and  position. 

(5)   Your  subordinates'    realization  of  your  responsibility 
for  mission  accomplishment. 


17-3 


(6)  Your  subordinates'   recognition  that  your  ability  to 
influence  a  given  situation  is  limited. 

(7)  The  standards  and  ethics  of  the  Corps  and  your  unit. 

h .  What  do  subordinates  expect  from  their  leaders? 

(1)  Honest,    just,   and  fair  treatment. 

(2)  Consideration  due  them  as  mature,  professional 

Marines . 

(3)  A  climate  of  trust  and  confidence. 

(4)  Acceptance  of  their  errors  and  being  allowed  to  learn 
from  them . 

(5)  Personal  interest  taken  in  them  as  individuals. 

(6)  Loyalty. 

(7)  The  best  in  leadership. 

(8)  That  their  needs  be  anticipated  and  provided  for. 

(9)  To  be  kept  informed. 

(10)  Clear-cut,   positive  decisions  and  orders  which  are 
not  constantly  changing. 

(11)  Demands  on  them  that  are  commensurate  with  their 
capabilities . 

(12)  That  work  be  recognized,   and  publicized  when 
appropriate . 

i .  What  do  seniors  expect  from  their  subordinates? 

(1)  Fulfillment  of  your  organizational  roles. 

(2)  Responsible  behavior  and  use  of  initiative. 


17-4 


(3)  Loyalty  to  seniors  as  an  example  for  subordinates  and 
peers  by  giving  willing  and  obedient  service  to  orders,  whether 
in  agreement  or  not. 

(4)  If  conflict  exists,   displaying  the  moral  courage  to 
bring  it  to  the  senior's  attention. 

(5)  Using  abilities  for  the  good  of  the  mission. 

(6)  Take  action  even  though  complete  information  may  not 
be  known . 

j .     How  do  Marines  function  and  interact  with  one  another 
within  their  institutional  role? 

Our  day  to  day  contact  with  one  another  as  professional 
Marines  crosses  both  unit  and  organizational  boundaries  and 
includes  direct  and  indirect  contact  during  business,    social,  or 
other  nonsocial  activities.     Individuals  interrelate  in  their 
institutional  roles  as  members  of  the   "Marine  Team"  and  the  "Band 
of  Brothers",   and  as  Marines  in  general  during  their  day  to  day 
relationships . 

k .     How  do  Marines  function  and  interact  with  one  another 
within  their  organizational  role? 

The  primary  interrelationship  is  based  on  your  organiza- 
tional role.     Here,    operating  within  the  authority  of  your 
position,   you  work  to  accomplish  your  mission,   and  see  to  your 
Marines'   welfare.     Within  this  role  you  are  a  senior,   a  peer,  and 
a  subordinate.     Your  effectiveness  in  accomplishing  these  roles 
is  the  result  of  your  ability  to  function  as  a  link  in  the  chain 
of  command  by  providing  communication  to  subordinates  regarding 
unit  goals  and  objectives.     As  the  senior  you  provide  communica- 
tion up  the  chain  of  command  on  your  Marines '   requirements  to 
accomplish  the  mission. 

1 .   Impact  when  a  Marine  fails  in  his/her  individual  responsi- 
bilities in  his/her  institutional  role. 

(1)  Loses  credibility. 

(2)  Overall  prestige,   respect,    trust,   and  confidence  and 
that  of  the  Marine  Corps  are  damaged. 


17-5 


(3)    Sets  a  poor  example  for  seniors,   peers  and 
subordinates . 


(4)   Failure  may  condone  or  reinforce  the  acceptance  of 
lower  standards  of  conduct,   professionalism,   discipline,  morale, 
and  esprit. 

m.     Impact  when  a  Marine  fails  his/her  individual  responsi- 
bilities in  his/her  organizational  role. 

He/she  may  disrupt  the  normal  functioning  of  the  chain  of 
command  and  communication  flow.  These  problems  may  result  in  the 
senior's  feeling  the  need  for  closer  supervision,  loss  of  confi- 
dence in  subordinates,  or  feeling  the  need  to  personally  make  all 
the  decisions. 

n .     Tasks  and  duties  normally  associated  with  officers. 

(1)  General  officers  provide  long  range  goals  and  objec- 
tives,  general  guidance,   and  acquire  the  resources  necessary  to 
accomplish  them. 

(2)  Field  grade  officers  develop  the  plans  and  policies 
to  achieve  the  goals  and  objectives  within  the  guidance,  assign 
missions  to  units,   and  allocate  the  resources. 

(3)  Company  grade  officers  implement  and  execute  the 
plans  and  their  assigned  mission  to  accomplish  the  goals  and 
objectives  utilizing  the  resources  provided. 

(4)  Officers  exercise  command. 

(5)  Officers  are  accountable  for  mission  accomplishment. 

(6)  Officers  are  accountable  for  unit  readiness  and 
performance . 

(7)  Officers  set  standards  for  units'  performance. 

(8)  Officers  are  responsible  for  unit  training. 

(9)  Officers  delegate  authority. 

(10)   Officers  administer  punishment  under  the  UCMJ. 


17-6 


(11)  Officers  are  responsible  for  the  development  and 
training  of  officers,    SNCOs ,    and  NCO ' s 

(12)  Officers  are  expected  to  support  their  Marines. 

o .     Traditional  tasks  and  duties  for  noncommissioned 
officers.     The  NCO  must  be: 

(1)  A  heroic  leader  who  ensures  unit  success  and  is 
prepared  to  assume  command  of  fighting  units  whose  leaders  have 
fallen.     The  NCO  must  be  highly  trained  in  warfighting  skills. 

(2)  An  accomplished  small  unit  leader  who  knows  his/her 
Marines  and  looks  out  for  their  welfare.     He/she  must  be  willing 
and  able  to  step  forward  and  take  charge  in  directing  the  efforts 
of  the  unit  toward  the  desired  end.     This  is  true  whether  the 
unit  is  a  rifle  squad,    tank  crew,   work  section,    or  maintenance 
shop.     He/she  must  available  and  approachable,   a  willing  listener 
and  advisor,   able  to  help  Marines  resolve  personal  and  profes- 
sional problems. 

(3)  A  front  line  supervisor.     Effective  NCO  performance 
provides  necessary  unit  cohesion. 

(4)  A  technically  proficient  trainer / teacher  and  a  role 
model  dedicated  to  upgrading  the  performance  of  his/her  Marines. 
As  a  teacher,    the  NCO  provides  the  necessary  instruction  for  the 
skill  development  of  subordinates  and  the  team  building  for 
coordinated  action.     As  a  role  model,   he/she  sets  the  standard 
for  how  Marines  should  act. 

(5)  An  enforcer  of  Marine  Corps  rules  and  regulations. 
He/she  maintains  professional  standards  and  discipline. 

(6)  An  advisor  to  the  commander,   providing  necessary 
information  to  permit  the  commander  to  make  qualified  decisions, 
and  to  assist  in  problem  solving. 

p .     Specific  tasks  and  duties  of  NCOs . 

(1)  Train  subordinates  in  their  MOSs  and  basic  military 

skills . 

(2)  Be  accountable  for  actions  of  their  squad,  section, 

team. 


17-7 


(3)  Enforce  standards  of  military  and  physical 
appearance . 

(4)  Ensure  supervision,    control,   and  discipline  of 
subordinates . 

(5)  Assist  in  personal  and  professional  development  of 

Marines . 

(6)  Provide  the  communication  link  between  the  individual 
Marine  and  the  organization. 

(7)  Plan  and  conduct  the  routine  daily  operations  within 
the  policies  established  by  the  officers. 

(8)  Maintain  the  appearance  and  condition  of  unit  billet- 
ing spaces,    facilities,   and  work  areas. 

(9)  Maintain  serviceability,   accountability,   and  readi- 
ness of  assigned  arms  and  equipment. 

(10)  Support,    follow,   and  implement  policy  established  by 
the  officers. 

(11)  Maintain  mutual  respect  with  commissioned  officers. 
This  complementary  relationship  has  a  traditional,  functional, 
and  legal  basis. 

q .     Roles /responsibilities  of  peers. 

(1)  To  support  and  help  each  other. 

(2)  To  compete  in  the  spirit  of  enhancing  esprit  and 
mission  accomplishment,    and  perfecting  unit  performance. 

(3)  To  share  victories,   hardships,   and  lessons  learned. 

(4)  To  exert  positive  influence  on  their  comrades  by 
setting  examples  of  obedience,   courage,    zeal,    sobriety,  neatness, 
and  attention  to  duty. 

r .     Role  of  lance  corporals  and  below. 


17-8 


(1)  These  Marines  get  the  job  done.  No  matter  how  diffi- 
cult, how  dangerous,  how  dirty,  how  heavy,  how  hot,  how  cold,  or 
how  wet,    they  get  the  job  done. 

(2)  They  carry  out  the  General  Orders  of  a  sentry  and 
other  general  and  special  orders,   duties,   and  tasks  assigned. 

s .     Some  ways  a  leader  can  enhance  working  relationships  and 
avoid  duplication  of  effort  and  role  conflict. 

(1)  Understand  your  role  as  the  key  to  assisting  you 
subordinates  and  seniors . 

(2)  Know  the  roles  of  seniors,   peers  and  subordinates. 

(3)  Ensure  your  subordinates  know  and  understand  their 
roles  and  the  roles  of  others  around  them. 

(4)  Train  subordinates  to  accomplish  their  role,   and  be 
prepared  to  perform  the  role  of  their  immediate  supervisor. 

(5)  Provide  subordinates  feedback  on  how  well  they  are 
accomplishing  their  role,   and  counseling  them  when  necessary. 

(6)  Delegate  the  necessary  authority  for  subordinates  to 
accomplish  their  role,   and  ensure  they  realize  what  they  are 
accountable  for. 

(7)  Give  them  the  necessary  resources  and  freedom  of 
action  to  accomplish  their  tasks. 

(8)  Give  them  the  respect  due  their  position  and  require 
others  to  do  the  same. 

(9)  Adhere  to  the  standards  of  the  Corps. 

(10)  Maintain  open  communication  lines  and  squelch  rumors. 

(11)  Ensure  subordinates  are  capable  of  accomplishing 
assigned  tasks. 

t .     What  references  aid  us  in  role  clarification. 


17-9 


(1)  The  Marine  Officer's  Guide-  Chapters 
11, 16, 17, 21, 22, and  24 

(2)  NCO  Handbook-  Chapters  1,12,13,14,15,17,18,19,21. 

(3)  MOS  Manual 

(4)  Promotion  Manual 

(5)  Appropriate  FM/FMFM ' s 

(6)  Unit  mission  statements 

u.     Summary .       Review  the  purpose  statement  with  the  group, 
and  recap  the  major  points  discussed. 

6 .  Appendices 

Appendix  A:     Combat  Leader's  Code 


17-10 


APPENDIX  A 


LEADERSHIP  ROLES 

COMBAT  LEADER'S  CODE 

You     are     a     leader.     The  combat  efficiency  of  your  unit 
depends  largely  upon  you  and  your  ability  to  lead.     You  must 
inspire  your  Marines  to  perform  their  duties  in  keeping  with  the 
highest  traditions  and  standards  of  the  Marine  Corps.     If  you  are 
to  lead  Marines  into  battle  and  perhaps  to  their  death,    there  are 
certain  things  you  must  know.     There  are  certain  qualities  you 
must  develop.     There  are  certain  things  you  must  do. 

You  must  know  your  job  and  do  it  well.     You  must  know  how  to 
control  and  employ  your  unit  under  varied  conditions  in  the 
attack,    in  the  defense,   on  patrol  in  the  jungle  or  desert,  in 
built-up  areas,    in  mined  and  booby  trapped  areas,    in  every  situa- 
tion,   climate  and  place  wherever  your  unit  is  required  to  fight. 
You  must  be  skilled  in  the  military  sciences  and  in  use  of 
weapons  with  which  your  Marines  are  equipped.     You  must  know  how 
to  employ  these  weapons  and  the  damage  they  will  inflict  upon  the 
enemy,   his  fortifications,   weapons,   and  equipment.     You  must 
ensure  your  Marines  know  the  basics:     care  and  use  of  weapons  and 
equipment,   camouflage,    fire  and  maneuver,   cover  and  concealment, 
preparation  of  fighting  positions,   use  of  supporting  arms,  land 
navigation,   discipline,   hand  to  hand  combat  and  other  essentials 
on  how  to  fight,    survive,   and  win  on  the  battlefield. 

You  must  know  your  Marines  and  take  care  of  them.     You  must 
learn  all  you  can  about  each  Marine  in  your  unit:  their 
background,    their  problems,    their  strong  and  weak  points,  their 
military  skills,    their  endurance  and  courage.       This  knowledge 
will  help  you  to  predict  and  influence  their  actions;    it  will 
enable  you  to  make  the  most  of  each  Marine's  abilities.     You  must 
maintain  the  esprit  de  corps  of  your  unit  by  molding  the 
individual  spirits  and  talents  of  your  Marines;   by  taking  an 
interest  in  each  individual;   by  taking  care  of  them  before  taking 
care  of     yourself;   by  treating  them  fairly  and  firmly;   by  provid- 
ing tough,   realistic,    fundamental  training  to  ensure  their 
success  and  survival;   by  thrusting  goals  into  their  lives  to 
improve  themselves,   our  Corps  and  Country.     You  must  develop  in 
them  a  deep  pride  to  keep  their  honor  clean.     By  knowing  your 
Marines,   you  can  teach  them  more  effectively.     You  must  prepare 
them  mentally  and  physically  for  the  demands  of  combat.     You  must 


17-11 


instill  an  unconquerable,    aggressive  spirit  which  will  make  them 
desire  to  close  with  and  destroy  the  enemy.     You  must  build  a 
feeling  of  comradeship  and  brotherhood,   a  team  spirit  that  will 
make  then,  victorious  in  battle  and  determined  never  to  accept 
defeat.     You  must  cultivate  in  them  self-confidence;   self-  disci- 
pline;  a  sense  of  responsibility;   the  persistence  to  overcome  all 
obstacles;   a  sense  of  duty,   honor,   and  love  of  Corps  and  Country. 

leu  rust  kncv;  yourself  and  be  a  professional  in  every  sense 
of  the  word.     You  must  know  your  strong  and  weak  areas  and 
improve  them.     Your     attitude     should    be     positive     and  enthusi- 
astic.    Your  performance     and  bearing     should  be  beyond  reproach. 
You  must  be  thorough.     You  must  be  loyal  to  seniors,    to  peers, 
and  to  the  Marines  in  your  charge.     Your  integrity  must  be 
unquestionable.     You  must  be  morally  responsible  and  worthy  of 
special  trust  and  confidence.     You  must  communicate  effectively, 
maintain  a  sense  of  honor,   and  remain  flexible.     You  must  keep 
your  word,   keep  your  head,   and  keep  your  temper. 

It  is  not  only  what  you  know  that's  always  important.  It's 
what  you  do,   and  how  and  when  you  do  it  that  counts.  Positive 
action  is  the  key.       The  best  way  to  gain  the  confidence  and 
respect  of  your  Marines  is  to  set  a  strong  example.     You  must  be 
a  fighting  example  to  your  Marines.     Treating  them  with  dignity 
and  respect  and  being  calm,   courageous,   and  decisive  in  combat 
will  inspire  your  Marines  to  function  effectively  as  a  fighting 
team,   to  assault  hot  landing  zones,   hump  backbreaking  ridges, 
follow  you  to  hell  and  back,   and  go  the  last  hundred  yards  to 
victory! 


17-12 


i 


■ 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

LEADER  STYLES 

1.     Introduction .     Our  goal  as  Marines  is  to  fight  and  win  wars. 
We  accomplish  this  goal  by  drawing  upon  experiences  gained  from 
reading,    through  personal  experience,   and  often  from  techniques 
passed  down  from  Marine  to  Marine.     Leadership  is  the  life-blood 
of  the  Marine  Corps.     Unfortunately,    there  is  no  single  manual  or 
course  of  instruction  that  teaches  the  many  styles  of  leadership. 
Instead,    it  is  up  to  each  Marine  to  capture  his/her  own  ideas  and 
lessons  learned,    combine  them  with  current  Marine  Corps  doctrine, 
and  pass  on  to  their  fellow  Marines  the  importance  of  leadership. 


2.  Overview .     The  purpose  of  this  discussion  is  to  show  that 
different  situations  dictate  different  leadership  styles.  In 
addition,    it  will  offer  suggestions  on  how  to  identify  the  most 
appropriate  leadership  style  for  a  given  situation. 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information 
about  leadership  and  its  various  styles: 

FMFM  1 - 0 ,   Leading  Marines 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.     By  the  end  of  this  discussion,   all  attendees  should  be 
able  to  identify  the  four  types  of  leadership  styles  as 
discussed . 

b.     Use  various  scenarios  and  reference  to  aid  in  the 
identification  of  corresponding  leadership  styles. 

5 .  Discussion 

a.  Leadership  style  is  the  behavior  pattern  of  a  leader,  as 
perceived  by  his/her  Marines,   while  the  leader  is  attempting  to 
influence,   guide,    or  direct  their  activities.     Therefore,  a 
Marine's  leadership  style  is  not  always  determined  by  his/her 
thoughts,   but  rather  by  the  subordinate's.     A  leader  must  always 
be  aware  of  this  perception  and  how  to  best  approach  subordinates 
in  various  situations. 

b.  Leadership  styles  range  from  autocratic,    the  degree  of 
authority  used  by  the  leader,    to  democratic,    the  degree  of 


18-1 


authority  granted  to  the  subordinate.     The  following  are  the 
four  most  common  styles  of  leadership  found  in  the  Corps  today. 

(1)  Telling  Style.     One-way  communication  characterized 
by  the  leader  making  a  decision  and  announcing  it  without  input 
from  subordinates.     In  a  crisis,    the  leader  is  expected  to  be  an 
authoritarian.     As  leaders,   Marines  are  expected  to  always  be 
ready  to  step  to  the  forefront  and  take  control  of  any  given 
situation.     As  warfighters  there  will  be  times  that  we  will  make 
decisions  without  input  from  subordinates,    especially  during 
tense  and/or  dangerous  situations. 

(2)  Selling  Style.     The  leader  presents  a  decision  and 
invites  questions  and  comments.     This  style  allows  subordinates 
to  know  why  and  what  went  into  the  decision-making  process. 
Although  this  style  only  allows  minimal  participation  from 
subordinates,    it  provides  an  avenue  for  better  understanding,  and 
when  effectively  used,    it  can  further  motivate  those  executing 
the  plan.     Remember,   perception  is  the  key.     When  leaders  take 
subordinates  into  their  confidence  and  foster  two-way 
communication,   a  degree  of  trust  and  respect  is  formed  both  ways. 


(3)  Participating  Style.     With  this  style,    the  leader 
presents  a  problem,   gets  suggestions  and  makes  a  decision.  Good 
two-way  communication  between  the  leader  and  subordinates  is 
paramount  for  this  style.     Leaders  should  discuss  possible 
alternative  solutions  before  making  their  decision.  This 
leadership  style  promotes  initiative  and  ingenuity  among 
subordinates . 

(4)  Delegating  Style.     When  using  this  style,    it  is 
important  that  the  leader's  goals,    objectives,   and  restrictions 
are  clear  to  subordinates.   The  leader  defines  limits  and  allows 
subordinates  to  make  decisions  within  those  limits.     This  style 
uses  mission-type  orders  and  guidelines  to  issue  the  leader's 
intent.     The  subordinate  then  executes  the  plan  and  performs  all 
tasks  both  specified  and  implied  with  minimal  supervision.  This 
style  hinges  on  the  trust  and  confidence  the  leader  places  in 
his/her  subordinates. 

c.     Style  Variance.     Leadership  styles  will  vary  depending  on 
the  amount  of  authority  the  leader  decides  to  use  or  delegate. 
For  example,   when  a  leader  is  dealing  with  inexperienced 
subordinates  and  has  a  mission  to  complete  within  a  tight 
timeline,    the  leader  may  use  the  telling  style.   On  the  other 
hand,   when  a  leader  has  multiple  tasks  to  complete,  the 
delegating  style  could  be  a  good  choice.     To  exercise  good 


18-2 


leadership,   a  Marine  must  be  consistent;   however,  his/her 
leadership  style  must  be  flexible  since  no  one  style  is 
applicable  for  all  situations.     Other  factors  that  will  influence 
a  particular  style  a  leader  will  use  are: 

( 1 )  Ability,   experience,   and  training  of  subordinates. 
The  greater  the  ability  of  a  Marine  or  a  group  of  Marines  to 
accomplish  the  mission/ task,    the  less  direct  supervision  and 
guidance  needed. 

(2)  Motivation  and  willingness.     The  level  of  motivation 
and  willingness  is  directly  proportional  to  the  amount  of  "push" 
the  leader  will  need  to  exert  to  accomplish  the  mission/ task . 
Motivated  Marines  are  a  by-product  of  effective  leadership. 

(3)  Mission/ task .   The  more  complex  the  mission  or  task, 
the  greater  the  need  for  specific  direction  from  the  leader  as  to 
the  who,   what,   when,   where,   why,   and  how,   unless  the  subordinate 
has  relatively  equal  knowledge  and  experience  of  the  mission/task 
at  hand. 

(4)  Size,   composition,   and  organization.     Larger  groups 
tend  to  be  more  diversified  in  composition  and  require  greater 
organization.     A  well-organized  and  well-led  unit  will  produce 
outstanding  results. 

(5)  Expectations  of  subordinates.     The  expectations  of 
subordinates  are  especially  important  during  transition  periods 
between  leaders.     During  these  transition  periods,  subordinates 
"size-up"   their  new  leaders.     Therefore,    the  leader  needs  to  be 
aware  that  some  confusion  and  difficulty  may  occur  in  the 
communication  process  between  the  leader  and  subordinates  because 
of  the  difference  in  leadership  styles  to  which  they  may  be 
accustomed. 

(6)  Trust  in  subordinates.     The  higher  the  degree  of 
trust  a  leader  has  in  subordinates,    the  greater  the  degree  of 
flexibility  the  leader  will  have  when  choosing  the  proper 
leadership  style  for  a  given  situation.  A  low  degree  of  trust  in 
subordinates  severely  limits  the  leader's  options  when  choosing  a 
style  of  leadership. 

(7)  The  leader's  morals.     The  importance  of  high  moral 
standards  cannot  be  over-emphasized.     The  title  Marine  is 
synonymous  with  trust  and  responsibility.     Marines  must 
understand  that,   along  with  the  title,    comes  a  burden  of 
responsibility  to  uphold  our  profession  honorably.  High 


18-3 


standards  are  expected  of  Marines,   who  must  always  act  and  carry 
themselves  accordingly.     A  leader  positively  reinforces  these 
standards  by  demonstrating  high  moral  values  in  his/her  own 
leadership  style.     Leaders  today  must  be  at  the  forefront  in 
standing  for  what  is  right  and  just.     Marines  find  comfort  in 
knowing  that  their  leader  is  morally  and  ethically  sound  and  can 
always  be  counted  upon  to  do  the  right  thing.     The  right  morals 
and  values  must  be  the  cornerstone  of  every  leader's  philosophy 
and  leadership  style. 

(8)  The  leader's  degree  of  confidence.     A  confident 
leader  creates  confidence  in  his/her  subordinates.  As  a  normal 
rule,   Marines  react  very  well  under  cool  and  calm  leadership, 
especially  when  the  leader  displays  this  confidence  under 
stressful  and/or  dangerous  situations. 

( 9 )  The  leader's  success  with  a  particular  style  of 
leadership  used  before  in  a  similar  situation.     Leaders  have  a 
tendency  to  lean  toward  a  particular  style  when  it  has  been 
successfully  proven  to  work  in  the  past  under  similar  situations. 
A  proven  leadership  style  is  of  value.   However,    just  because  it 
worked  once  before  does  not  mean  that  it  will  work  every  time. 

( 10 )  The  styles  of  leadership  that  the  leader  has  been 
exposed  to  in  his/her  time  in  the  Corps.     If  a  leader  has  been 
exposed  to  a  certain  leadership  style,   especially  early  on  in  the 
leader's  career,    this  style  has  a  tendency  to  influence  the 
leader  regardless  of  whether  the  style  was  good  or  bad.  Leaders 
should  continue  to  learn  what  works  effectively  for  them,  thereby 
enhancing  their  own  style  of  leadership.     One  must  also  make  note 
of  what  causes  confusion  and  take  measures  to  preclude  this  from 
happening . 

(11)  The  type  of  personality  the  leader  possesses.  All 
Marines  have  a  natural  leadership  style  with  which  they  are 
comfortable.     It  is  important  to  be  oneself  and  not  to  make  a 
style  of  leadership  work  when  it  does  not  conform  to  one's  own 
personality.     Marines  can  see  through  these  types  of  leaders,  a 
fact  that  inhibits  trust  and  respect  between  subordinate  and 
leader.     Genuine  care  and  concern  will  pay  the  type  of  dividends 
that  all  leaders  want  to  achieve. 

d.     Personalities .     It  is  unrealistic  to  think  that  one  style 
of  leadership  can  be  used  effectively  to  obtain  the  desired 
results  in  every  situation.     Command  is  the  projection  of  the 
leader's  personality.     Leadership  is  closely  related  to  one's 
personality.     A  leadership  style  that  works  well  for  one  may  not 


18-4 


work  well  for  another.     Leadership  styles  are  most  effective 
when  they  become  an  implementation  of  the  leader's  own  philosophy 
and  temperament  and  when  they  fit  the  situation,    task  and  the 
Marines  to  be  led.     Marines  should  strive  to  promote  all  that  is 
positive  in  their  style  of  leading. 

e.     Summary .     The  bottom  line  of  leadership  is  to  accomplish 
the  mission  and  look  out  for  the  welfare  of  those  led.  A 
leader's  style  must  be  flexible  enough  to  meet  any  situation 
while  providing  for  the  needs  of  subordinates.     One  thing  in 
common  among  great  leaders  is  the  ability  to  read  how  people  will 
perceive  a  given  order  or  action,   and  use  the  approach  that  will 
effectively  communicate  the  leader's  orders  to  subordinates. 
Never  be  afraid  to  use  different  styles  because  the  situation  and 
those  to  be  led  will  never  be  the  same  twice.     Be  dynamic  and  be 
the  best  role  model  mentally,   morally  and  physically  that  you  can 
be.     Leaders  today  create  the  Corps  of  tomorrow. 


18-5 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

LEADER  AND  FOLLOWER 

1.  Introduction .     To  be  a  good  leader,   Marines  of  all  ranks  need 
to  know  their  responsibilities  as  both  a  leader  of  Marines  and  a 
follower.     There  should  be  no  gray  areas  in  these 
responsibilities . 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  instruction  is  to  discuss  the 
philosophy,   policies,   and  relationships  between  leader  and 
follower,   and  the  techniques  for  establishing  and  maintaining 
proper  senior-subordinate  relationships.   Finally,   we  will 
identify  and  analyze  some  improper  senior  and  subordinate 
relationships . 

3 .  References 

Marine  Corps  Manual ,   paragraph  1100    (establishes  guidelines 
for  leadership  and  personal  relationships) 
Manual  for  Courts  Martial,   UCMJ  Articles  92  and  134 
Manual  for  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the  Navy  and  Navy  Regs 
(establish  individual  authority  and  standards  of  conduct) 

MCO  53 3  0. 3D  Civilian  Employment  of  Marine  Personnel, 
paragraph  10.      (Outlines  policies  and  regulations  guiding 
business  relations  between  senior  and  subordinate.) 
Webster's  9th  New  Collegiate  Dictionary 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Not  applicable. 

5 .  Discussion 

a .  Definitions  


(1)  Leader .     A  leader  is  defined  by  Webster  as   "one  who 
or  that  which  leads . " 

(2)  Follower .     A  follower  is  defined     as   "one  in  service 
of  another,   one  that  follows  the  opinions  or  teachings  of 
another,    or  one  that  imitates  another." 

(a)    In  the  Marine  Corps,    this  leader-follower  is 
discussed  as  senior-subordinate  relations.     Many  join  the  Corps 


19-1 


to  be  leaders  of  Marines,   but  we  must  remember  all  leaders  are 
also  followers  of  someone  else.     Thus,   we  come  into  the  Corps  to 
be  leaders--and  we  continuously  talk  about,    read,   and  discuss 
leadership--but  the  follower  part,   or  f ollowership,    is  often 
overlooked . 

(b)   All  of  your  actions  or  inactions  as  a  leader  or  a 
follower  may  be  perceived  differently  by  each  individual  who 
observes  you. 

Transition .  Now  let's  look  at  the  basis  of  our  philosophy 
concerning  senior-subordinate  relationships. 

b .  Philosophy 

(1)  The  Marine  Corps'   basic  philosophy  on  senior- 
subordinate  relations  is  found  in  pragraph  1100.3  of  the  Marine 
Corps  Manual    (MCM) .      "Effective  personal  relations  in  an 
organization  can  be  satisfactory  only  when  there  is  complete 
understanding  and  respect  between  individuals."       It  is  further 
defined  in  paragraph  1100.4: 

Duty  relationships  and  social  and  business  contacts 
among  Marines  of  different  grades  will  be  consistent  with 
traditional  standards  of  good  order  and  discipline  and  the 
mutual  respect  that  has  always  existed  between  Marines  of 
senior  grade  and  those  of  lesser  grade.     Situations  that 
invite  or  give  the  appearance  of  familiarity  or  undue 
informality  among  Marines  of  different  grades  will  be 
avoided  or,    if  found  to  exist,  corrected. 

(2)  The  following  guilelines  for  commanders  contained  in 
the  MCM  apply  to  all  seniors,    officer,    SNCO,   NCO,   and  enlisted. 
Commanders  will: 

(a)  Strive  for  forceful  and  competent  leadership 
throughout  the  entire  organization. 

(b)  Inform  their  Marines  of  plans  of  action  and 
reasons,   whenever  it  is  possible  and  practical  to  do  so. 

(c)  Remove  those  causes  which  create  misunderstanding 
or  dissatisfaction  whenever  possible. 


19-2 


(d)  Assure  that  all  Marines/Sailors  of  the  command 
are  acquainted/ familiar  with  procedures  for  registering 
complaints/problems,    together  with  the  action  taken  to  resolve 
them . 

(e)  Build  a  feeling  of  confidence  which  will  ensure 
the  free  approach  by  subordinates  for  advice  and  assistance  not 
only  in  military  matters,   but  for  personal  problems  as  well.  In 
other  words,   be  approachable,   both  personally  and  professionally 

(3)   Additionally  the  Marine  Corps'   philosophy  includes: 

(a)  The  concept  that  there  should  exist  a  "spirit  of 
comradeship  in  arms"  between  seniors  and  subordinates  in  the 
Corps.     This  mutual  understanding  of  their  roles  as  the  senior 
and  the  subordinate  establishes  the  "Brotherhood/Sisterhood  of 
Marines."     As     part  of  this  unique  bond,   each  Marine  shares  the 
common  experience  of  depending  upon  fellow  Marines  for 
accomplishing  the  mission. 

(b)  The  senior-subordinate  relationship  is  based  on 
a  mutual  trust  and  understanding  and  thrives  on  trust  and 
confidence . 

(c)  The  "teacher  and  scholar"  relationship  is 
outlined  in  subparagraph  1100. 4. b.   of  the  MCM,    i.e.,  the 
commander  has  a  responsibility  for  the   "physical,   mental,  and 
moral  welfare,   as  well  as  the  discipline  and  military  training" 
of  his/her  subordinates. 

Transition .     Let's  now  look  at  the  Marine  Corps'  policies 
governing  senior-subordinate  relations. 

c .     Marine  Corps  Policies 

(1)    Policies  governing  the  senior-subordinate 
relationships  can  be  found  in  the  following: 

(a)  Manual  for  Courts-Martial,   Uniform  Code  of 
Military  Justice   (Article  92  and  134) ,   Manual  of  the  Judge 
Advocate  General  of  the  Navy,   and  Navy  Regulations  which 
establish  individual  authority  and  standards  of  conduct. 

(b)  Marine  Corps  Manual    (paragraph  12100) 
establishes  guidelines  for  leadership  and  personal  relationships 


19-3 


(c)  MCO  5330.3  outlines  policies  and  regulations 
guiding  business  relations  between  seniors,  subordinates  and 
civilian  employees. 

(d)  CMC  White  Letters,    club  regulations,   and  housing 
directives  specifically  address  special  situations  surrounding 
senior-subordinate  relations  in  the  Corps. 

(2)  We  are  guided  generally  in  our  relationships  by 
certificates  of  appointment,   both  officer  and  enlisted.  These 
certificates  are  commonly  referred  to  as  promotion  warrants. 
These  documents: 

(a)  Establish  the  basis  of  your  rank,  status, 
authority,   and  responsibilities. 

(b)  Establish  that  very  "special  trust  and 
confidence"  between  the  senior  and  junior  to  perform  your  duties 
in  the  best  interest  of  the  Corps. 

(c)  Allow  you  to  issue  appropriate  orders  to  all 
subordinates  who  are  obliged  to  follow  them. 

(d)  State  you  are  subject  to  the  orders  and 
directions  of  seniors. 

(e)  Support  the  U.S.   Supreme  Court  ruling  that,  "the 
taking  of  the  oath  of  allegiance  is  the  pivotal  fact  which 
changes  the  status  from  that  of  civilian  to  that  of  a   [Marine] . " 

(3)  Marines  must  know  what  is  unacceptable  between 
ranks--both  officer  and  enlisted--whether  in  the  work  place  or  a 
social  setting.   These  parameters  should  be  dictated  by  the  senior 
Marine  in  a  manner  that  will  not  embarrass  the  junior. 

Transition .     It  is  now  time  to  look  at  the  relationship 
between  leadership  and  f ollowership . 

d .     Relationship  between  Leader  and  Follower 

(1)   Every  follower  is  potentially  a  leader  and  every 
leader  is  also  a  follower. 


19-4 


(a)  The  most  effective  follower  is  that  individual 
who  has  proven  leadership  abilities  and  who  is  loyal,  dependable, 
obedient,   and  dedicated  to  uphold  their  responsibilities  and 
perform  their  duties  to  the  best  of  their  ability,   as  well  as 
exert  positive  influence  upon  their  fellow  Marines. 

(b)  Followership  must  be  an  integral  part  of  our 
philosophy,    for  it  is  the  base  upon  which  future  leaders  are 
tempered  and  its  enhancement  among  subordinates  will  ensure  that 
professionalism  is  keyed  at  all  levels--f ollowers ,    as  well  as 
leaders . 

(c)  The  most  effective  leaders  are  good  followers. 
They  set  the  example  of  followership  and  leadership  for  their 
subordinates.     Subordinates  watching  the  example  of  a  leader  can 
only  be  expected  to  exhibit  the  same  degree  of  "followership" 
they  observe.     Leaders  cannot  pick  and  choose  the  orders  they 
will  or  will  not  follow.     This  could  set  the  stage  for  a  double 
standard  which  will  compromise  their  position  and  confuse  the 
follower . 

(2)  We  spend  most  of  our  formative  years  in  following 
(and  demonstrating  signs  of  leadership)    and  though  we  study  and 
try  to  abide  by  the  leadership  principles,   we  tend  to  copy  the 
style  and  methods  used  by  former  leaders .     We  pick  out  some 
leader,   or  the  strong  points  of  several  leaders  whom  we  have 
followed,   and  try  to  emulate  them.     Marines  can  also  learn  what 
not  to  do  by  observing  poor  leaders  using  poor  leadership.  In 
theory,    if  a  follower  could  acquire  a  combination  of  the  good 
features  they  have  observed  in  their  leaders,    they  would  command 
the  qualities  of  the  ultimate  leader.     So  there  is  a  very  close 
relationship  between  leadership  and  followership. 

(3)  The  follower  must  have  a  personal  commitment  to  the 
successful  completion  of  his/her  mission  or  assigned  task.  The 
most  effective  follower  is  the  one  who  accepts  the  necessity  for 
compliance  and  who  is  committed  to  placing  the  needs  of  others 
above  his/her  own.     Dedication  is  a  commitment  to  a  system  or 
ideal.     It  is  the  vehicle  of  self  discipline,  competence, 
responsibility,   and  professionalism;   it  is  the  follower's 
guideline.     Leaders  are  useless  without  followers,   and  followers 
are  useless  without  leaders. 

(4)  Leaders  must  treat  their  followers  as  Marines  and  as 
individuals.     Marines  stripped  of  their  dignity,  individuality, 


19-5 


and  self-respect  are  destined  to  mediocrity  and  are  potential 
"problems."  The  leader  must  ensure  that  what  is  best  for  the  many 
can  be  achieved  without  cramping  the  life  style  or  withering  the 
individuality  and  initiative  of  those  who  follow.     Leaders  can 
achieve  loyalty,   obedience,   and  discipline  without  destroying 
independence . 

(5)  The  leader  must  realize  each  Marine  is  a  unique 
individual,   and  that  it  is  natural  to  treat  each  one  differently. 
The  leader  who  claims:    "I  treat  all  my  Marines  alike, "  is 
confusing  leader- follower  relations  with  policy.  Leadership 
relations  with  all  followers  should  be  consistent   (i.e.,  fair, 
firm,   understanding,   etc.);   their  policies  must  not  fluctuate 
(all  shoes  will  be  shined  daily  and  everyone  will  have  a 
regulation  haircut) ;   their  actions  should  be  reasonably 
predictable  to  their  followers,   who  must  know  what  is  expected  of 
them.     The  Marine  from  the  Bronx  who  comes  from  a  broken  home, 
however,    is  different  from  the  Marine  from  a  Kansas  farm  with 
close  knit  family  ties--the  leader  will  find  it  most  difficult  to 
counsel,   communicate  with,   or  otherwise  treat  these  Marines 
alike . 

(6)  Most  Marines  expect  and  seek  tough  training  or  they 
wouldn't  have  joined  in  the  first  place;  but  Marines  can  be 
tougher,   perform  better  in  garrison,   and  fight  harder  in  combat 
if  their  leaders  show  they  care.  Making  Marines  feel  they  belong 
and  treating  them  with  dignity  and  respect,   makes  them  feel 
important  and  valuable. 

Transition .   Let's  now  work  on  developing  good  f ollowership . 

e  .     Developing-  good  Followership 

(1)   A  leader  is  responsible  for  the  development  of  good 
followership.     Suggestions  include: 

(a)  Listening--to  be  an  effective  listener,   you  have 

to  practice. 

(b)  Encouraging  subordinates  to  become  innovative 
and  self -starting . 

(c)  Setting  a  positive  example  that  can  be  emulated. 


19-6 


(d)    Delegating  authority  to  subordinates  and  holding 
them  accountable. 

(2)     Develop  a  sense  of  dedication  and  commitment  to  the 
mission  at  hand.     This  will  be  the  vehicle  of  self -discipline , 
competence,   responsibility  and  professionalism,   which  are  key  to 
good  f ollowership . 

Transition .     Now  let's  cement  the  bond  between  leader  and 
follower  with  various  techniques  for  establishing  and  maintaining 
proper  senior-subordinate  relationships. 

f.     Techniques .     The  following  techniques  are  proven  methods 
leaders  can  use  to  teach  and  instill  proper  senior-subordinate 
relations .   Employment  of  these  techniques  will  add  to  their 
"people  skills " : 

(1)  Subordinates  should  not  just  be  a  number  or  a  face. 
Learn  their  names . 

(2)  Never  speak  ironically  or  sarcastically  to  a  junior 
Marine.     They  don't  have  a  fair  chance  to  answer  back. 

(3)  Build  pride  and  respect;   don't  ridicule  or  humiliate. 

(4)  Ask  juniors  for  their  opinion  and  be  an  active 
listener . 

(5)  Keep  your  door  and  mind  open  for  feedback.  Be 
approachable . 

(6)  Followers  frequently  have  advice  that  can  save  you. 

(7)  Give  public  credit  to  subordinates  for  adopted 
suggestions.     Praise  in  public/counsel  in  private. 

(8)  Don't  over-supervise,   but  coach  your  Marines  to  do  a 
good  job. 

(9)  Tend  to  the  welfare  of  those  for  whom  you  are 
responsible . 

(10)  Leaders  and  followers  may  have  a  firm  and  forthright 
friendship.     There  may  be  comradeship.     Frank,  intellectual 


19-7 


discussion  and  the  exchange  of  warm  humor  is  proper.  There  is 
never  a  place  for  familiarity. 


(11)  If  you  have  to  be  tough,   be  fair  and  impartial. 

(12)  Be  flexible.     Adjust  your  style  to  the  need. 

(13)  Be  aggressive  and  show  courage. 

(14)  Look,    sound,    and  act  the  role  of  a  leader. 

(15)  Support  your  Marines  with  a  strong  personal  example. 

(16)  Never  be  afraid  to  admit  you  were  wrong. 

(17)  There  is  much  to  learn  even  from  leaders  who  don't 
have  it  all . 

(18)  Visit  unit  members  in  the  hospital,   homes,  barracks, 
sporting  events,   etc.     You  will  be  surprised  at  what  you  will 
learn,   and  the  message  you  will  send  to  your  unit. 

Transition .   Here  are  some  definitions  and  examples  of 
improper  senior-subordinate  relations. 

g .     Improper  Senior /Subordinate  Relationships 

(1)  Marine  Corps  Manual  paragraph  1100.4  defines  an 
"improper"  relationship  as:    "A  situation  that  invites  or  gives 
the  appearance  of  familiarity  or  undue  informality  among  Marines 
of  different  grades." 

(2)  The  sentence  states  that  familiarity  and  undue 
informality  between  Marines  of  different  grades  is  improper  under 
any  circumstances.     It  further  states  that  it  is  an  improper 
relationship  if  the  situation  invites  or  gives  the  appearance  of 
familiarity  or  undue  informality.     A  key  point  to  remember  is 
perception  is  in  the  eye  of  the  beholder.     You  may  have  a 
relationship  with  a  subordinate  or  junior  that  is  totally  above 
board.     If,    for  some  reason,    the  unit  perceives  that  relationship 
to  be  improper,   you  must  take  steps  to  correct  the  perception. 
Remember,   perception  and  intention  are  usually  opposite  to  each 
other . 


19-8 


(a)  Familiarity .     This  term  identifies  a 
relationship  akin  to  that  of  an  intimate  or  near  friend  and  is 
characterized  by  close  acquaintance. 

(b)  Informality .     Informality  refers  to  something 
done  without  regard  to  rule  or  regulation  and  contrary  to  custom 
or  established  precedent. 

(c)  Undue  Informality.     This  phrase  indicates  a 
complete  absence  of  formality  or  ceremony.     It  is  traditional  and 
proper  that  relations  between  seniors  and  subordinates  be 
somewhat  formal  at  all  times. 

( 3 )   Examples . 

(a)  Fraternization . 

[1]   Newly  promoted  corporals  are  still  going  on 
liberty  to  the  enlisted  club  or  to  town  with  their  old  lance 
corporal  friends,   rather  than  going  with  other  NCOs . 

[2]   The  company  gunnery  sergeant  is  dating  a 
female  PFC  in  another  squadron. 

[3]   A  staff  sergeant  goes  out  with  the  company 
clerks  from  the  office  for  "just  one  drink,"   and  stays  until 
closing  time,   and  has  to  be  carried  home  by  his/her  Marines. 

(b)  Sexual  Harassment . 

[1]   The  platoon  commander  tries  to  put  pressure 
on  a  lance  corporal  to  go  out  on  a  date. 

[2]   The  admin  chief  who  leaves  an  indecent 
"pin-up"   on  the  office  bulkhead- -which  isn't  appropriate  in  any 
instance--despite  the  complaints  from  two  Marine  subordinates. 

(c)  Business  Contacts.     An  excerpt  of  MCO  53  3  0.3_, 
covers  improper  business  contacts  between  seniors  and 
subordinates,   and  was  written  to  prevent  the  subordinate  from 
being  pressured  into  business  dealings  by  the  senior.  Such 
contract  includes  selling  insurance,    stocks,   bonds,   mutual  funds, 
or  consumer  products. 


19-9 


[1]   The  selling  of  insurance  by  an  officer  to  the 
Marines  in  his/her  unit. 

[2]   A  SNCO  who  rents  an  apartment  to  a  clerk  from 

his/her  office. 

[3]   The  platoon  sergeant  who  recommends  a 
"favorite"   laundry  to  do  the  platoon's  uniforms  and  receives  a 
special  discount  or  free  service  on  his/her  personal 
laundry/ cleaning . 

Transition .     The  effects  of  improper  relationships  can 
devastate  a  unit,   betray  the  trust  and  confidence  of  its  members, 
and  adversely  affect  its  morale,   discipline,   and  esprit  de  corps. 

h.     Effects .     Even  the  perception  of  an  improper  relationship 
must  be  guarded  against.     If  someone  thinks  something  to  be  true, 
whether  it  is  or  not,    it  essentially  is  true  to  that  person  until 
they  have  been  convinced  otherwise.     Leaders  have  a 
responsibility  to  clear  up  rumors  and  correct  wrong  perceptions. 
Sometimes  the  only  way  to  handle  a  perception  problem  will  be  to 
modify  the  activity  or  relationship  that  is  causing  the  wrong 
perception . 

Transition .     Now  that  we  have  spent  time  looking  more  closely 
at  senior  subordinate  relations,   are  there  any  questions  on 
anything  that  I  have  covered  during  this  period  of  instruction? 


19-10 


t 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

DEVELOPING  SUBORDINATE  LEADERS 

1.  Introduction .    "A  spirit  of  comradeship  and  brotherhood  in 
arms  came  into  being  in  the  training  camps  and  on  the 
battlefields.     This  spirit  is  too  fine  a  thing  to  be  allowed  to 
die.     It  must  be  fostered  and  kept  alive  and  made  the  moving 
force  in  all  Marine  Corps  organizations." 

Major  General  John  A.  Lejeune. 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  discussion  is  to  develop 
subordinate  leaders . 

3.  References .     The  following  provide  additional  information  on 
developing  subordinate  leaders : 

FMFM  1 - 0 ,    Leading  Marines 
Marine  Corps  Manual 

Noncommissioned  Officer's  Handbook 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.  In  the  natural  order  of  things,   Marines  will  be  promoted 
into  ranks  in  which  they  must  accept  increasing  amounts  of 
responsibility.     We  have  a  duty  to  those  Marines  to  prepare  them 
for  these  future  challenges.     By  doing  this  effectively,   we  also 
guarantee  that  future  generations  of  Marines  will  benefit  from 
our  traditionally  outstanding  leadership. 

b.  Casualties  will  occur  during  war.     When  leaders  become 
casualties,   and  they  will,    someone  must  be  ready  to  step  into 
their  shoes.     If  that  means  that  a  lance  corporal  must  lead  a 
platoon,    then  that  is  what  will  happen.     Again,    it  is  our  duty  to 
prepare  our  Marines  for  that  eventuality,    for  their  sake  and  for 
the  sake  of  the  other  Marines  in  the  unit. 


20-1 


"These  men  are  in  the  formative  period  of  their  lives, 
and  officers  owe  it  to  them,    to  their  parents,   and  to  the  nation, 
that  when  discharged  from  the  services  they  should  be  far  better 
men  physically,   mentally,   morally  than  when  they  were  enlisted.  11 

General  John  A.  Lejeune 
Marine  Corps  Manual 

c.  Basically  we  have  a  moral  obligation  to  develop  our 
Marines  into  better  all  around  people.     A  big  part  of  this 
process  is  to  develop  their  character  to  enable  them  to  lead, 
whether  or  not  they  continue  on  in  the  Corps . 

d.  Our  philosophy  of  command  stresses  the  need  for 
decentralized  action.     This  demands  initiative  at  all  levels  of 
command,   and  that  initiative  can  only  come  from  solid  leadership 
throughout  the  ranks . 

e.  In  a  decentralized  system,   how  important  is  leadership 
throughout  the  ranks?     Very  important.     A  decentralized 
philosophy  of  command  demands  initiative  and  leadership  among 
subordinate  leaders.     Warfare,   which  by  its  nature  is  filled  with 
confusion  and  the  fog  of  war,   demands  leaders  at  all  levels  who 
can  think  on  their  feet  and  take  the  initiative  in  unexpected 
situations.     So  this  is  another  reason  why  we  must  take  time  to 
develop  those  leaders . 

f .     The  relationship  between  officers  and  enlisted  Marines 
should  " . . .be  consistent  with  traditional  standards  of  good  order 
and  discipline  and  the  mutual  respect  that  has  always  existed 
between  Marines  of  senior  grade  and  those  of  lesser  grade."  The 
Marine  Corps  Manual  talks  about  the  "Father  and  Son"  and  "Teacher 
and  Scholar"   relationship.     What  is  meant  by  these  phrases? 

(1)    "Father  and  son"  means  that  the  leader  must  provide 
guidance,    support,   and  direction  to  the  subordinate  leader.  The 
leader  must  be  willing  to  spend  time  with  his/her  Marines  and  be 
available  to  them.     For  example,   a  father  has  to  decide  whether 
or  not  to  let  his  son  borrow  the  car.     He  does,   but  only  because 
he  trusts  his  son.     He  trusts  his  son  because  over  the  years,  his 
son  has  proven  himself  responsible  through  his  actions.  Further, 
his  son  understands  his  obligation  to  prove  himself  to  his  father 
before  being  trusted  with  a  major  responsibility. 


20-2 


(2)   A  father  must  guide  and  encourage  his  son  if  that  son 
is  to  achieve.     The  father  must  also  be  willing  to  discipline  his 
son  when  the  situation  warrants  such  action.     It  is  the  same  for 
the  leader  of  Marines.     The  teacher  and  scholar  relationship  is 
self-evident.     We  must  teach  our  Marines  what  they  need  to  know 
with  the  goal  of  developing  them  to  the  point  where  they  can  take 
what  knowledge  we  have  give  them  and  draw  upon  it  to  learn  on 
their  own.     We  want  the  scholar  to  eventually  surpass  the  teacher 
if  possible. 

g.     Additional  points  for  possible  discussion. 

(1)  Teacher/  Scholar-two  way  instruction. 

(2)  Looking  out  for  Marines    (pay,    leave,   awards) . 

(3)  Mission  orders  and  then  hold  their  feet  to  the  fire. 

(4)  All  leaders  should  make  themselves  expendable. 
5 .  Discussion 

a.     Insist  on  the  use  of  the  chain  of  command. 

(1)  Hold  subordinate  leaders  responsible  for  the  actions 
of  those  under  them. 

(2)  Delegate  authority  commensurate  with  responsibility. 


(3)   Decisions  should  be  made  and  problems  solved  at  the 
lowest  level  in  the  chain  of  command. 

b.     Teach  your  subordinates  what  to  do. 

(1)  Set  standards  and  goals  that  can  be  met. 

(2)  Lofty  goals  and  objectives  have  their  place,  but 
subordinate  leaders  need  day-to-day  objectives. 

(3)  Instruct  on  what  you  want  done,    trying  to  avoid  the 

how . 

(4)  As  general  of  the  Army  Omar  Bradley  wrote,    "There  is 
no  better  way  to  develop  a  person's  leadership  than  to  give  him  a 


20-3 


job  involving  responsibility  and  let  him  work  it  out.     We  should 
try  to  avoid  telling  him  how  to  do  it.     That  principle,  for 
example,    is  the  basis  of  our  whole  system  of  combat  orders.  We 
tell  the  subordinate  unit  commander  what  we  want  him  to  do  and 
leave  the  details  to  him.     I  think  this  system  is  largely 
responsible  for  the  many  fine  leaders  in  our  services  today.  We 
are  constantly  training  and  developing  younger  officers  and 
teaching  them  to  accept  responsibility. " 

c.  Recognize  achievement  and  accomplishment. 

(1)  Judicious,  timely,  and  effective  use  of  meritorious 
masts,  meritorious  promotions,  awards,  and  special  liberty  will 
enhance  leadership  in  a  command. 

(2)  Frequent  oral  and  written  encouragement  also  serves 
to  raise  morale  and  initiative.     However,   do  not  give  out  awards 
like  candy,    for  this  tends  to  lessen  their  worth  and 
effectiveness.     Marines  are  not  stupid,   and  they  know  who  among 
them  deserves  recognition  and  who  doesn't.     When  an  undeserved 
award  is  given  out,    it  cheapens  the  meaning  of  that  award  for 
those  who  really  deserve  them  and  demotivates  those  who  have 
worked  hard  and  received  no  recognition. 

d.  Give  those  that  demonstrate  potential  increased 
responsibility . 

(1)   Use  natural  leaders  to  their  fullest  extent. 
Outspoken  individuals  sometimes  can  be  a  valuable  aid  in 
influencing  subordinates . 

(2)   Use  the  "hard  chargers"   to  the  maximum  extent 
possible.     This  should  again  raise  the  example  of  the  father  and 
son,  with  the  son  being  given  even  greater  responsibility  as  he 
proved  that  he  could  handle  it.     Also,    it  is  just  common  sense, 
since  we  must  allow  our  Marines  to  crawl  before  they  can  walk. 

e.  Give  positive  and  direct  correction  of  errors  in  judgment 
and  initiative. 

(1)   Honest  mistakes  can  be  tolerated  if  used  as  teaching 

points . 


20-4 


(2)  Correction  of  error  early  in  the  development  of 
subordinate  leaders  will  enhance  their  growth.     Do  not  let 
mistakes  grow  into  sore  points. 

(3)  Mistakes  are  to  be  considered  essential  to  the 
learning  process  and  thus  cast  in  a  positive  light.     The  focus 
should  not  be  on  whether  the  leader  did  well  or  poorly,   but  on 
what  progress  he/she  was  making  overall  to  develop  as  a  leader. 
Damaging  the  leader's  self-esteem,    especially  publicly,    should  be 
strictly  avoided.     The  key  here  is  that  we  don't  want  to  totally 
destroy  a  potentially  good  subordinate  leader  for  making  an 
honest  mistake  --  he/she  is  trying  to  learn.     By  focusing  on  what 
went  wrong  rather  than  on  what  the  leader  did  wrong,    the  lesson 
is  learned  and  the  subordinate  retains  some  measure  of 
self-confidence . 

f.  Encourage  initiative  and  resourcefulness. 

(1)  Initiative  is  the  stimulant  to  growth  for  any 
organization . 

(2)  Recognize  a  new  way  to  accomplish  a  task. 

(3)  Resourcefulness  is  desirable  in  all  leaders.  A 
subordinate  who  is  an  initiator  and  resourceful  is  highly 
desired . 

g.  Hold  subordinates  responsible  for  their  actions. 

Not  only  are  subordinate  leaders  responsible  for  their 
personal  actions,    they  are  also  responsible  for  the  actions  of 
those  they  lead.     This  is  sometimes  a  tough  message  to  get  across 
to  subordinate  leaders. 

h.  Instill  values. 

(1)   Leaders  must  emphasize  the  core  professional  values 
of  our  leadership  philosophy;   i.e.   loyalty  to  the  nation  and  the 
Marine  Corps,    loyalty  to  the  unit,   personal  responsibility,  and 
selfless  service. 

i.  Accept  increased  responsibility  willingly  and  insist  that 
subordinates  do  the  same. 


20-5 


"Can  do"   is  a  motto  that  bears  attention.  Seeking 
responsibility  is  the  mark  of  a  leader.     As  leaders  we  must  seek 
increased  responsibility  for  ourselves  and  our  subordinates . 


j .     Stress  the  fact  that  the  leader  must  be  approachable  by 
subordinates  in  an  informal  but  not  a  familiar  way. 

This  is  not  an  open  door  policy.     It  means  a  frank,  open 
approach  to  problems  or  mistakes .     A  relationship  must  be 
fostered  between  subordinates  and  leaders  that  is  based  on  trust 
and  confidence,   not  on  fear  of  retribution.  Familiarity, 
favoritism,    or  undue  friendliness  are  not  the  marks  of  a  leader 
and  must  be  avoided  at  all  costs. 

k.     Ensure  subordinates  receive  the  proper  feedback  about 
their  performance  through  timely  counseling. 

Subordinates  will  continue  to  make  errors  unless  they  are 
guided  along  in  the  right  direction.     Additionally,  counseling 
lets  them  know  that  you  are  concerned  with  their  development. 

6.     Summary .     You  have  the  responsibility  to  look  after  the 
training  and  development  of  your  subordinate  leaders.   If  you  fail 
to  do  this,   you  will  not  only  damage  the  effectiveness  of  your 
unit,   but  you  will  possibly  negatively  impact  the  Marines  who 
serve  under  your  subordinates . 


20-6 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

COMBAT  LEADERSHIP 

1.  Introduction .     Combat  leadership  is  the  application  of 
leadership  traits  and  principles  under  conditions  of  extreme 
stress  caused  by  enemy  fire  or  the  high  probability  of  direct 
physical  contact  with  the  enemy.     It  is  not  necessary  to  have 
experienced  combat  to  understand  the  essential  requirements  for 
leading  men  under  stress.   However,    it  is  a  fundamental 
responsibility  of  the  leader  to  be  mentally  prepared  for  the 
experience  of  battle,    and  to  adequately  prepare  one's  Marines  for 
this  event. 

2.  Overview.     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  instruction  is  to 
stimulate  dialogue  relating  to  the  role  of  the  leader  in  a  combat 
environment.     This  discussion  is  intended  to  enhance  the 
understanding  and  appreciation  Marines  have  for  developing 
leadership  standards  within  their  unit  that  will  contribute  to 
combat  readiness.   This  will  help  to  instill  an  understanding  of 
the  leader's  role  in  combat  and  to  enhance  your  ability  to  apply 
requisite  leadership  skills  to  be  successful  in  a  hostile 
environment . 

3.  References .     Include  the  following: 
Determination  in  Battle  by  Ma j Gen  T.S.  Hart 

Battle  Doctrine  for  Front  Line  Leaders  for  3d  Marine  Division 
Combat  Leadership  by  S.L.A.  Marshall 

Americans  in  Combat  excerpt  from  The  Armed  Forces  Officer 

Legacy  of  Esprit  and  Leadership  by  Ma j Gen  John  A.  Lejeune 

Peleliu  -  Recollections  of  a  PFC  by  E.B.  Sledge 

Combat  Service  Support  Case  Study 

Combat  Leadership  Problems 

Men  Against  Fire  by  S.L.A.  Marshall 

Battle  Leadership  by  Adolf  Von  Schell 

4 .  Discussion  Leader  Notes 

a.     Effective  combat  leadership  is  the  knowledge  and 
application  of  the  unchanging  concepts  of  human  behavior  in 
battle,   and  a  mastery  of  the  ever-changing  tactics,  doctrine, 
equipment  and  weapons  necessary  for  combat .     Preparation  for 


21-1 


combat  leadership  is  accomplished  through  study  and  training. 
The  appendices  are  provided  to  assist  in  this  effort. 

b.  All  appendices  could  be  distributed  prior  to  the 
discussion  so  that  all  participants  will  have  had  an  opportunity 
to  read  these  introductory  articles.     The  discussion  should 
stimulate  an  interest  in  additional  professional  readings  to 
enhance  your  Marines'   understanding  of  combat  leadership. 

c.  Men  Against  Fire  by  S.L.A.  Marshall  and  Battle  Leadership 
by  Adolf  Von  Schell  are  highly  recommended  readings  for  the 
discussion  leader.     Additionally,    if  all  participants  are  also 
provided  an  opportunity  to  read  one  or  both  of  these  books  prior 
to  the  discussion,    the  effectiveness  of  instruction  will  be 
enhanced.   However,    this  is  not  a  requirement  for  conducting  the 
discussion . 

d.  Four  hours  should  be  scheduled  for  the  discussion.  If 
films  are  available,    consider  utilization  of  a  scene  showing 
intense  combat  from  one  of  the  recommended  films  prior  to  the 
discussion's  introduction.     Another  opportunity  for  utilizing  a 
film  is  after  completing  the  first  hour  of  discussion  or  after 
the  second  hour. 

e.  This  discussion  guide  is  just  that,   a  guide,   and  is  not 
meant  to  be  the   "end-all"   of  leadership  instruction  on  the 
subject.     However,    it  does  provide  the  basic  points  for 
discussion.     Only  you,    the  leader,   know  what  your  unit  needs 
most,   and  therefore,   you  must  evaluate  what  needs  to  be 
emphasized,   modified,    or  expanded. 

f.  When  leading  this  discussion,   remember  that  the 
effectiveness  of  the  group  learning  experience  is  primarily 
dependent  upon  your  preparation  and  your  ability  to  fulfill  your 
duties  as  discussion  leader. 

5.  Discussion .  Today  we  will  discuss  combat  leadership,  a 
subject  vital  to  our  existence.     But  first,    let's  find  out: 

a.     WHO  IS  A  COMBAT  LEADER? 

Let's  read  from  a  Marine's  diary.      "Briefly,    the  First 
Battalion  did  not  fare  too  well  before  they  departed  from 
Guadalcanal.      'A'   Co.   left  San  Diego  with  a  total  of  196, 
including  corpsmen,    in  the  company;  when  relieved  from 
Guadalcanal  there  were  about  47  of  the  original  company  still 
remaining.     In  three  attacks  to  the  west  of  Matanikan,  between 


21-2 


Point  Cruz  and  Kohumbona,    'A'   Co.  was  assigned  as  lead  Company  in 
the  Battalion  attack  on  November  2,    10  &  11,   and  took  a  large 
number  of  casualties. 

By  the  time   'A'   Company  was  relieved,   all  the  officers  had 
been  killed  or  wounded;   the  First  Sergeant  was  killed  and  the 
Gunnery  Sergeant  wounded;   two  of  the  four  platoon  sergeants  had 
been  wounded  and  more  than  half  of  the  corporals  and  sergeants  in 
the  company  had  been  killed  or  wounded.     For  a  time,    the  CO  of 
'A'   Company  was  Sergeant  Burgess." 

(Extract  from  a  Marine's  Diary,    Sgt .   James  Sorensen,   Rifle  Squad 
Leader,   Company  A,    1st  Battalion,    2nd  Marines.) 

b.  Everyone  is  a  potential  combat  leader  regardless  of  rank 
or  MOS  and  should  be  prepared  for  that  eventuality.     Combat  may 
be  just  around  the  corner,   and  tomorrow  each  of  us  could  find 
ourselves  in  a  combat  leadership  position. 

c.  Regardless  of  how  well  a  unit  or  air  crew  is  trained, 
leaders  must   "steel"   themselves  for  the  first  action.     The  first 
time  a  unit  comes  under  fire  or  meets  the  enemy  is  a  very  crucial 
time.     A  unit  hit  by  enemy  fire  for  the  first  time  tends  to 
become  disorganized,   and  consequently  less  effective.     The  men 
hit  the  deck,    take  cover,   and  wait  for  somebody  to  do  something. 
Generally,   everyone,    including  fire  team  leaders,    squad  leaders, 
and  platoon  leaders,   react  in  this  manner.     This  is  the  baptism 
of  fire,   what  may  be  the  most  important  moments  in  the  life  of 
the  individual  Marine  and  the  unit. 

d.  If  the  unit  or  air  crew  fails  to  react  properly  and 
overcome  its  initial  fears,    its  failure  will  be  reflected  for  a 
long  time  in  future  actions.     Confidence  at  this  point  is 
essential,    for  it  becomes  contagious.     The  Marines  in  the  unit 
must  have  confidence  in  themselves,    their  comrades,   and  their 
leaders . 

e.  At  this  crucial  moment,    if  all  leaders  at  all  levels 
supply  the  drive  and  enthusiasm  needed  to  weld  the  unit  together 
as  a  team  again,    the  Marines  under  their  command  will  react 
accordingly.     If  Marines  are  well  disciplined  and  have  been 
trained  for  this  moment,   all  that  is  necessary  is  the  igniting 
spark  of  leadership  that  will  get  the  team  moving  again  quickly. 
Each  leader  must  commence  carrying  out  the  troop  leading  steps. 

6 .     Troop  leading  steps 


21-3 


a.  Although  this  discussion  is  not  about  troop  leading 
steps,    they  must  know  the  basics;   review  quickly  as  appropriate. 
If  they  don't  know  them,    this  will  indicate  where  additional  work 
is  required. 

b.  Your  Marines'    leadership  and  aggressive  action  will 
provide  contagious  confidence  that  reassures  every  individual 
during  combat.     Once  aggressive  action  begins,    the  unit  will 
function  as  it  has  been  trained  to  function.     During  this 
discussion  we  will  accomplish  the  following: 

(1)  Discuss  the  nature  of  combat. 

(2)  Discuss  the  leadership  challenges  faced  in  combat. 

(3)  Discuss  how  to  develop  combat  readiness. 
7 .     The  nature  of  combat 

a.     During  this  period  we  will  discuss  the  nature  of  combat. 
We  will  first  define  what  we  mean  by  combat,    then  identify  the 
various  stresses  that  are  characteristic  of  the  combat 
environment.     Having  identified  the  stresses,   we  will  then 
determine  what  effect  they  have  on  the  individual  Marine  and  the 
leader.   Our  focus  will  be  on  the  basic  factors  that  are  essential 
for  unit  survival  and  accomplishment  of  the  mission  in  combat. 

(1)  WHAT  IS  COMBAT? 

(a)  For  our  purposes,    combat  will  be  defined  as 
engaging  the  enemy  with  individual  or  crew  served  weapons;  being 
exposed  to  direct  or  indirect  enemy  fire;   and  otherwise 
undergoing  a  high  probability  of  direct  contact  with  enemy 
personnel  and  firepower,    to  include  the  risk  of  capture. 

(b)  All  Marines,   regardless  of  MOS,   must  be  prepared 
to  succeed  in  combat.     The  fluid  nature  of  modern  combat 
operations  demands  that  everyone  on  the  battlefield  be  ready  to 
fight  and  provide  the  necessary  leadership. 

(2)  WHAT  ARE  COMMON  ELEMENTS  FOUND  IN  THE  COMBAT 
ENVIRONMENT? 

(a)   The  combat  environment  varies  for  Marines 
depending  upon  MOS,   duties,    tactics,    type  of  conflict,  etc. 
(Discuss  this  for  awhile  and  allow  various  group  members  to 
describe  what  they  have  experienced  or  expect  to  experience  in 


21-4 


combat.     It  would  be  useful  to  write  down  these  inputs  to  assist 
in  defining  the  nature  of  the  combat  environment.     It  should 
become  clear  that  the  real  challenges  facing  Marines  are 
generally  the  same  even  though  the  experiences  and  situations 
vary.)      Some  common  elements  found  in  the  combat  environment  are: 

[1]  Confusion  and  lack  of  information. 

[2]  Casualties. 

[3]  Violent,   unnerving  sights  and  sounds. 

[4]  Feelings  of  isolation. 

[5]  Communication  breakdowns. 

[6]  Individual  discomfort  and  fatigue. 

[7]  Fear,    stress,   and  mental  fatigue. 

[8]  Continuous  operations. 

[9]  Homesickness. 

(b)  In  Appendix  F,   E.   B.   Sledge  describes  his 
experiences  as  a  PFC  on  Peleliu: 

"For  us,    combat  was  a  series  of  changing  events  characterized 
by  confusion,   awesome  violence,   gripping  fear,   physical  stress 
and  fatigue,    fierce  hatred  of  the  enemy,   and  overwhelming  grief 
over  the  loss  of  friends.  We  endured  vile  personal  filth  in  a 
repulsive  environment,    saturated  with  the  stench  of  death  and 
decay. . . 

...In  combat  I  saw  little,   knew  little,    and  understood  still  less 
about  anything  that  occurred  outside  K3/5.  We  had  our  hands  full 
fighting  and  trying  to  survive  moment  to  moment." 

(c)  In  the  January  1983  Marine  Corps  Gazette  article 
entitled  "Understanding  Limited  War, "   the  author  provides  some 
thoughts  on  what  combat  may  mean  to  an  individual . 

"Nations  may  pursue  war  on  a  limited  basis  to  ensure 
survival,   yet  combatants  pursue  it  in  all  its  totality  for  the 
same  reason.     To  the  individual  engaged  in  isolated  combat,  there 


21-5 


is  no  big  or  small  battle,    only  the  fight  for  survival, 
fails  to  survive,    that  nondescript  battle  suddenly  became 
ultimate  conflict.     An  isolated  confrontation  on  a  lonely 
trail  becomes  World  War  III  to  the  participant." 

(d)    Some  additional  questions  to  consider: 

[1]   How  does  the  combat  environment  change 
depending  upon  one's  rank  and  billet? 

[2]   How  can  these  differences  present  different 
leadership  challenges? 

[3]   How  did/do  the  leadership  challenges  differ 
between  operations/missions  in  Desert  Storm  and  Somalia? 

(3)  WHAT  STRESSES  DO  YOU  EXPECT  TO  EXPERIENCE  IN  COMBAT? 

(a)  List  responses  on  a  chalkboard.     The  following 
should  be  discussed  in  detail: 

[1]    Extreme  risk  and  fear. 

[2]   The   "fog  of  war. " 

[3]   Discomfort  and  fatigue. 

[4]  Casualties. 

[5]  Boredom. 

(b)  The  combat  environment  is  characterized  by  long 
periods  of  routine  activity  that  tend  to  create  a  false  feeling 
of  security.     When  combat  actually  occurs,    it  is  frequently 
sudden,   unexpected,   and  characterized  by  extremely  violent 
action,    savage  behavior  and  intense  danger.     Everyone  on  the 
battlefield,    including  headquarters  and  service  support 
personnel,   must  be  prepared  for  combat  at  any  time. 

Now  let ' s  examine  these  stresses  in  greater  detail  to  determine 
their  effect  upon  the  individual  Marine  and  you,    the  leader. 

(4)  WHAT  ARE  SPECIFIC  SOURCES  OF  FEAR  IN  COMBAT? 


21-6 


(a)  The  possibility  of  being  killed,   wounded,  or 
captured  is  always  present. 

(b)  The  noise  and  sights  of  combat  have  a  traumatic, 
shocking  impact  upon  the  senses,   causing  confusion,    and  a  sense 
of  chaos  that  may  become  particularly  unnerving. 

(c)  The  apprehension  that  you  might  not   "measure  up" 
as  a  Marine  under  fire  or  let  your  buddies  down. 

(d)  Anticipation  of  the  unexpected;   constant  anxiety 
about  the  enemy's  location,    strength,   or  intentions.  Knowledge 
that  if  the  enemy  succeeds  in  creating  a  situation  which  was 
totally  unexpected,   he  may  have  a  decisive  advantage.   This  is  the 
element  of   "surprise"   in  reverse. 

(e)  Fatigue  itself  is  a  source  of  fear.  As 
individuals  become  physically  exhausted,    they  may  begin  to 
perceive  themselves  to  be  helpless  or  unable  to  continue  to 
fight.  Air  crews  experiencing  fatigue  may  begin  to  make  critical 
mistakes  in  maintenance  procedures  or  may  begin  overext ending 
their  own  capabilities  and  that  of  their  aircraft. 

(5)    WHAT  EFFECT  DOES  THE  STRESS  OF  FEAR  HAVE? 

(a)    Extreme  fear  brings  out  our  instinct  for 
self-preservation.     Survival  is  clearly  a  very  strong  motivation 
and  will  generally  be  a  priority  concern.     In  combat,   killing  the 
enemy  helps  remove  that  threat  to  your  life.     The  alternative  of 
not  killing  the  enemy  increases  the  likelihood  that  he  will  kill 
you . 

(b)  Physically,  the  body  reacts  when  threatened  or 
there  is  anticipation  of  danger.  During  World  War  II,  General 
George  S.   Patton,   USA,   wrote  a  friend: 

"It  is  rather  interesting  how  you  get  used  to  death.     I  have 
had  to  go  inspect  the  troops  everyday,    in  which  case  you  run  a 
good  chance... of  being  shot.     I  had  the  same  experience  everyday, 
which  is  for  the  first  half  hour,    the  palms  of  my  hands  sweat  and 
I  feel  very  depressed.     Then,    if  one  hits  near  you,    it  seems  to 
break  the  spell  and  you  don't  notice  them  anymore." 

(c)  Some  other  physiological  reactions  are: 
[1]  Trembling. 


21-7 


[2]    Pounding  heart. 
[3]    Irrational  laughter. 
[4]  Sweating, 
(d)    Psychological  reactions  might  include: 
[1]    Inability  to  make  decisions. 

[2]   Over-fixation  with  minor  details. 
[3]   Displaying  lack  of  confidence. 

(6)  WHY  IS   IT  IMPORTANT  TO  KNOW  AND  BE  ABLE  TO  RECOGNIZE 
THESE  REACTIONS? 

(a)  The  leader  may  not  normally  see  these 
manifestations /reactions  in  peacetime.     Fear  must  be  recognized 
and  dealt  with  promptly.     Fear  is  infectious  and  can  destroy  the 
effectiveness  of  a  unit. 

(b)  Extreme  reaction  to  fear  occurs  when  the 
individual  confronts  a  situation  where  death  appears  to  be 
imminent.     During  such  instances  two  basic  forms  of  behavior  have 
been  observed. 

[1]    "We  fought  like  rats,   which  do  not  hesitate 
to  spring  with  all  their  teeth  bared  when  they  are  cornered  by  a 
man  infinitely  larger  than  they  are." 

(Statement  of  German  soldier  on  Eastern  Front  during  World  War  II 
describing  how  they  reacted  when  overrun  by  Russian  hordes .  From 
Combat  Motivation  by  Anthony  Kellet.) 

[2]    "They  sat  there  dumbly  in  the  line  of  fire, 
their  minds  blanked  out,    their  fingers  too  nerveless  to  hold  a 
weapon."     This  has  been  termed  "freezing  under  fire."     From  Men 
Against  Fire  by  S.L.A.  Marshall,   writing  about  soldiers  on  Omaha 
Beach  in  World  War  II. 

(7)  WHAT  IS   IT  THAT  ENABLES  MARINES  TO  OVERCOME  FEAR? 


21-8 


(a)    (Allow  some  discussion) .     Many  experts  have  tried 
to  answer  this  question,   however,    center  attention  on  the 
following  areas: 

[1]    Identity .     Our  identity  as  Marines  conveys  a 
special  meaning  to  our  fellow  Marines;   one  Marine  will  not  let 
another  Marine  down.     The  "felt"  presence  of  another  Marine  who 
is  counting  on  you  to  do  a  particular  job  is  usually  sufficient 
to  overcome  most  fears. 

[2]   Discipline .     Everyone  is  afraid  in  combat, 
but  this  fear  has  to  be  controlled  so  that  the  job  can  get  done. 
All  Marines  must  have  the  will  power  to  force  fear  out  of  their 
minds  or  to  overcome  it  and  replace  it  with  action.  Concentrate 
on  your  job  and  actively  support  your  fellow  Marines.  Everything 
we  do  as  Marines  reflects  on  the  quality  of  our  discipline, 
something  we  recognize  as  essential  to  success  in  combat. 

[3]   Esprit  de  corps.     We  are  a  Brotherhood  of 
Marines.     Fierce  pride  in  our  Corps  and  our  unit  is  a  source  of 
enduring  strength.      "The  Few,   The  Proud,   The  Marines"   is  more 
than  a  recruiting  slogan;   it's  a  way  of  life. 

[4]   Tradition .     We  fight  and  win.     Every  Marine 
must  have  knowledge  of  and  pride  in  our  history  and  traditional 
values.     We  will  do  no  less  than  the  Marines  who  have  come  before 
us  . 

[5]   Training .     Training  develops  confidence  in 
our  leadership,   our  fellow  Marines,   and  ourselves.     It  builds 
morale,   discipline,    esprit,   pride,   and  develops  physical  stamina 
and  teamwork. 

(8)  WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE  DOES  FEAR  HAVE  TO  YOU,    THE  LEADER? 

(a)   Though  leaders  share  the  same  risks  and  fears, 
they  must  be  able  to  overcome  their  own  fears,    and  provide  the 
leadership  necessary  to  achieve  success  in  combat.     They  must 
understand  the  conditions  that  stimulate  fear,   and  be  able  to 
inspire  confidence  and  courageous  actions  by  their  Marines. 

(9)  WHAT  ARE  THE  CONDITIONS  THAT  STIMULATE  FEAR? 

(a)   The  unexpected.     Whenever  the  enemy  actions 
appear  as  a  surprise  it  will  have  a  powerful  impact  upon  your 


21-9 


Marines.  Being  surprised  by  the  enemy  has  been  described  as 
causing  the  "will  that  controls  fear  to  sag  and  crumble."  At 
such  moments  leaders  must  exert  a  strong  influence  upon  their 
Marines  to  maintain  control  over  the  unit's  actions. 

(b)   The  unknown. 

[1]   There  is  a  tendency  to  think  that  the  enemy 
is  much  greater  in  strength  or  ability  than  he  really  may  be.  Do 
not  allow  yourself  to  be  deceived  as  to  enemy  strength  or 
capabilities  through  exaggerated  impressions. 

[2]   Regardless  of  how  well  you  or  your  Marines 
are  trained  for  combat,    the  first  shock  of  realizing  that  the 
enemy  actually  intends  to  kill  you  is  a  powerful  factor  everyone 
will  have  to  face.     Until  this  threshold  is  crossed  and  your 
Marines  become  accustomed  to  functioning  under  fire,    the  leader 
must  act  decisively  to  ignite  the  confidence  and  individual 
actions  that  will  transform  fear  into  an  aggressive  unit 
response . 

[3]   The  presence  of  a  leader  has  tremendous 
value  in  overcoming  fear,   particularly  at  night,    in  adverse 
weather,    or  during  lulls  in  the  action  when  everyone's 
imagination  runs  wild  and  Marines  think  they  may  be  alone  or 
isolated . 

[4]   A  feeling  of  helplessness.     It  is  the  leader 
who  must  prevent  this  from  taking  hold.     The  leader  must  act  to 
direct  and  inspire  the  response  against  the  enemy.     Everyone  has 
a  job  that  must  be  accomplished  and  it  is  the  leader  who  must  see 
that  everyone  is  doing  what  must  be  done.     Action  is  a  key  to 
preventing  this  feeling  of  helplessness  from  taking  hold.  Keep 
your  Marines  engaged.     Read  or  tell  the  story  of  the  following 
excerpt  from  Guadalcanal  Diary  to  make  the  point  that  the  timely, 
reassuring  presence  of  a  leader  is  of  immeasurable  value  to 
combatants . 

"He  was  firing  from  behind  a  log.     His  face  was  gray,  his 
eyes  were  dull  and  without  hope.     He  stopped  firing  and  looked 
around . 

'It  didn't  do  any  good, '   he  said.     His  voice  was  flat,   and  he 
was  speaking  to  no  one  in  particular. 


21-10 


'I  got  three  of    'em,   but  it  don't  do  any  good,    they  just  keep 
coming . ' 

Platoon  Sergeant  Casimir  Polakowski,   known  as  Ski,  said, 
'What  the  hell  are  you  beefing  about?     You  get  paid  for  it  don't 
you?  ' 

The  kid  managed  a  grin.     As  Ski  crawled  on  down  the  line,  the 
boy,   now  a  man,   was  once  more  squeezing   'em  off." 

This  excerpt  identified  another  important  factor  that  helps  the 
individual   "bear  up"  under  stressful  combat  circumstances.  The 
importance  of  humor. 

(10)    WHAT  ACTIONS  CAN  THE  LEADER    (YOU)    TAKE  TO  HELP 
OVERCOME  FEAR? 

(a)    S.L.A.  Marshall  stated,    "...even  if  they  (the 
troops)   have  previously  looked  on  him   (the  leader)   as  a  father 
and  believed  absolutely  that  being  with  him  was  their  best 
assurance  of  successful  survival,    should  he  then  develop  a  dugout 
habit,    show  himself  as  fearful  and  too  careful  of  his  own  safety, 
he  will  lose  his  hold  on  them  no  less  absolutely. " 
Actions  the  leader  can  take  include: 

[1]   Be  fearless,    confident,   and  decisive.  Don't 
let  fear  be  reflected  in  your  looks  or  actions . 

[2]   Ensure  your  Marines  are  able  to  recognize 
the  causes  and  reactions  of  fear.     It  is  important  knowledge  that 
will  enable  Marines  to  help  their  buddy. 

[3]    Instill  a  sense  of  unit  cohesion,   a  belief 
in  the  band  of  brothers  concept,    and  develop  esprit. 

[4]   Do  not  tolerate  self-pity. 

[5]   Talk  to  your  Marines  and  encourage  them, 
particularly  just  before  a  battle. 

[6]   Do  not  tolerate  rearward  movement  especially 
when  under  fire  without  your  order. 

[7]   Take  physical  corrective  action  as 

necessary . 


21-11 


[8]  If  a  subordinate  appears  to  be  losing 
control,  help  him  regain  a  positive  control  through  direct 
personal  leadership  and  then  let  him  continue  to  march. 

(11)  WHAT  DO  WE  MEAN  BY  THE    "FOG  OF  WAR?" 

This  expression  describes  both  the  literal  fog 
created  by  the  dust,   smoke,   and  debris  of  the  battlefield,  and 
more  importantly  the  mental  fog  of  confusion  and  uncertainty 
created  by  lack  of  knowledge  of  the  enemy,    the  chaotic  noise, 
mental  and  physical  fatigue,   and  fear. 

(12)  WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE  DOES  THIS   STRESS  HAVE  TO  THE 
INDIVIDUAL  MARINE? 

As  with  the  condition  of  risk  and  fear,  the 
individual  must  be  able  to  function  in  an  environment  that  may 
appear  confusing  and  chaotic.     By  focusing  his/her  attention  on 
the  task  at  hand,    on  working  with  fellow  Marines,   and  on  the 
leader's  commands,    the  individual  will  overcome  this  stress. 

(13)  WHAT  SIGNIFICANCE  DOES  THE    "FOG  OF  WAR"   HAVE  TO  YOU, 
THE  LEADER? 

The  leader  must  be  aware  of  the  problems  caused  by 
the  confusion  of  battle.     Tired  as  he  or  she  may  be,    they  must 
realize  that  their  Marines  are  equally  tired.     They  must  have  yet 
additional  strength  to  see  that  commands  are  obeyed  and  essential 
tasks  accomplished.     They  must  help  cut  through  the  fog  and 
confusion  of  combat  by  keeping  orders  clear,    simple,   audible,  and 
understood,   ensuring  that  the  unit  continues  to  function  as  a 
team.     Most  of  all,    they  must  make  certain  that  their  Marines 
never  become  confused  about  their  own  unit's  ability  to  fight. 
Leader  must  ensure  their  units  are  a  cohesive  force  on  the 
battlefield  regardless  of  the  chaos  and  confusion. 

(14)  WHAT  DOES  FATIGUE  MEAN  TO  THE  LEADER? 

(a)  The  leader  is  not  immune  to  fatigue.     As  he/she 
becomes  increasingly  tired,   he/she  may  lose  the  ability  to  make 
decisions  rapidly,    and  may  become  more  easily  confused, 
disoriented,   and  ultimately  ineffective. 

(b)  Leaders  must  understand  the  effects  of  fatigue  on 
themselves  and  on  their  Marines  and  know  when  to  provide  rest.  In 


21-12 


Appendix  C,    S.L.A.   Marshall  states:    "Right  on  the  battlefield, 
with  an  attack  pending  they  would  halt  everything  to  order  a  rest 
or  a  sleep  if  they  felt  that  the  condition  of  the  troops  demanded 
it."     The  leader  must  know  when  to  rest,    especially  amidst  the 
chaos  and  confusion  of  battle.     Without  it,   a  unit  will  lose  its 
effectiveness  as  surely  as  if  by  enemy  fire.     The  leader  must  be 
able  to  recognize  when  fatigue  is  beginning  to  adversely  affect 
the  unit . " 

(15)  WHAT  ARE  SOME  KEY  INDICATORS  OF  FATIGUE? 

(a)  Reckless  disregard  for  the  safety  of  the 
individual  or  the  safety  of  fellow  Marines. 

(b)  Excessive  caution  or  unwillingness  to  expose 
oneself  to  even  the  slightest  risk. 

(c)  Failure  to  fire  weapons. 

(d)  Lack  of  concern  for  the  cleanliness  of  weapons, 
the  condition  of  vehicles,    or  other  essential  equipment. 

(e)  Lack  of  attention  to  aircraft  maintenance/ flight 

procedures . 

(f)  Lack  of  concern  for  personal  cleanliness;  refusal 
to  shave,   wash,  eat,    or  drink. 

(16)  WHAT  HAPPENS  TO  MARINES   IF  FATIGUE   IS  IGNORED? 

As  individuals  become  more  fatigued  their  mental 
condition  can  deteriorate  from  mere  weariness  to  becoming  a 
psychological  casualty.     Rest  is  a  preventive  cure  that  works  to 
keep  psychiatric  casualties  from  occurring.      (Appendix  A  provides 
further  insight  on  prevention  of  psychiatric  casualties.) 

(17)  HOW  DOES  DISCOMFORT  AFFECT  INDIVIDUALS   IN  COMBAT? 

(a)   Admittedly,   discomfort  is  probably  the  least  of 
a  Marine's  concerns  when  actually  engaged  in  combat.  However, 
the  degree  to  which  he/she  has  been  adversely  affected  by  being 
wet,    cold,   hungry,    thirsty,    or  weary  does  have  an  effect  on  how 
well  he/she  can  respond  to  the  enemy.     Marines  tend  to  develop  a 
high  tolerance  for  enduring  the  extremes  of  weather  and  making  do 
without  much  support;   however,    there  is  a  point  where  morale 


21-13 


begins  to  be  affected  and  a  unit 1 s  actual  ability  to  fight 
becomes  questionable.   It  is  essential  that  the  leader  take  care 
of  his/her  Marines,   and  at  the  first  opportunity,   provide  for  dry 
clothing,   protection  from  the  cold,    food,   or  water.  The 
following  excerpt  from  S.L.A.  Marshall's  book,   Battle  At  Best, 
describes  how  taking  care  of  your  Marines  pays  its  dividend  in 
combat    (The  discussion  leader  can  read  this  or  relate  the  story) : 

"At  dark  on  8  December,    the  snowfall  ceased  and  the  cold 
intensified.     Down  along  the  canyon  road  near  the  water  gate,  a 
brisk  wind  was  piling  the  drifts  as  high  as  a  man's  head. 

At  the  Battalion  CP,   which  was  partly  sheltered  by  the  canyon 
wall,    the  thermometer  read  thirty  degrees  below  zero.     Up  on  the 
wind-swept  crags  where  Able  Company  was  clearing  Chinese  dead 
from  the  bunkers  to  make  room  for  its  own  ranks,   and  at  the  same 
time  preparing  to  evacuate  its  own  casualties  down  the  iced 
slopes  of  the  mountain,    it  must  have  been  a  touch  colder  than 
that,    though  there  was  no  reading  of  the  temperature. 

All  batteries  had  frozen.     Weapons  were  stiffening.   The  camp 
long  since  had  run  out  of  water  because  of  the  freezing  of 
canteens.     To  ease  their  thirst,    the  men  ate  snow  and  seemed  to 
thrive  on  it. 

But  of  the  many  problems  raised  by  the  weather,    the  most 
severe  one  was  getting  an  average  good  man  to  observe  what  the 
field  manuals  so  easily  describe  as  a   'common  sense  precaution. ' 

For  example,   prior  to  marching  from  Chinhungni ,  Captain 
Barrow  of  Able  had  made  certain  that  each  of  his  men  carried  two 
spare  pairs  of  socks.     But  that  safeguard  did  not  of  itself 
ensure  his  force,    though  the  men,   with  feet  sweating  from  the 
rigors  of  the  day,   were  all  at  the  point  of  becoming  frostbite 
casualties  by  the  hour  of  the  bivouac. 

Let  Barrow  tell  it.      'I  learned  that  night  that  only 
leadership  will  save  men  under  winter  conditions.     It's  easy  to 
say  that  men  should  change  socks;   getting  it  done  is  another 
matter.     Boot  laces  become  iced  over  during  prolonged  engagements 
in  snowdrifts.     It's  a  fight  to  get  a  boot  off  the  foot.     When  a 
man  removes  his  gloves  to  struggle  with  the  laces,    it  seems  to 
him  that  his  hands  are  freezing.     His  impulse  is  all  against  it. 
So  I  found  it  necessary  to  do  this  by  order,    staying  with  the 
individuals  until  they  had  changed,    then  making  them  get  up  and 
move  about  to  restore  circulation. ' 


21-14 


That  process,    simple  in  the  telling,    consumed  hours.   By  the 
time  Barrow  was  satisfied  that  his  command  was  relatively  snug, 
it  was  wearing  on  toward  midnight.   Right  then,   his  perimeter  was 
hit  by  a  counterattack,   an  enemy  force  in  platoon-strength-plus 
striking  along  the  ridge  line  from  1081  in  approximately  the  same 
formation  which  Barrow  had  used  during  the  afternoon. 

All  that  needs  be  told  about  this  small  action  is  summed  up 
in  Barrow's  brief  radio  report.      'They  hit  us.     We  killed  them 
all  -  all  that  we  could  see.     We  have  counted  eighteen  fresh 
bodies  just  outside  our  lines!"      (Note:     Captain  Barrow  became 
our  2  7th  Commandant.) 

(b)    In  this  case,    looking  after  the  men's  welfare 
was  translated  directly  into  enabling  a  company  of  Marines  to 
succeed  in  battle.     Leaders  must  continually  concern  themselves 
with  the  needs  of  their  Marines  so  that  they  will  be  ready  to 
accomplish  the  mission. 

(18)  WHAT  IS  THE  SIGNIFICANCE  OF  ENDURANCE  TO  THE 
INDIVIDUAL  MARINE? 

Killing  the  enemy  that  is  trying  to  kill  you  is  only 
half  the  battle;   endurance  is  the  other  half.     To  the  individual 
Marine,   enduring  discomfort  and  fatigue  and  the  other  hazards  and 
stresses  of  combat  is  what  must  be  done  so  that  he  can  succeed  in 
combat.     The  individual  Marine  must  be  physically  strong  and 
capable  of  perseverance.     He/she  must  know  that  fatigue  causes 
the  behaviors  that  we  have  described;   the  loss  of  concern  for 
survival,    the  erosion  of  will  to  fight,   and  a  general  apathy. 
These  must  be  resisted  with  self -discipline  and  the  reservoir  of 
strength  that  is  deep  within  every  Marine.     When  necessary  we 
can,   and  will  endure  as  Marines  have  done  before. 

(19)  WHAT  EFFECT  DO  CASUALTIES  HAVE  ON  INDIVIDUAL 

MARINES? 

Seeing  a  fellow  Marine  go  down  has  traumatic  impact 
upon  the  individual.     Combat  is  a  brutal  event  and  casualties  are 
to  be  expected.     The  shock  of  seeing  buddies  wounded  or  killed, 
and  the  possibility  that  it  may  happen  to  one's  self  adds  to  the 
fear  and  apprehension  of  survivors;   it  increases  the  reluctance 
to  take  risks  and  obey  the  leader.     How  individuals  respond  after 
they  take  casualties  is  a  key  indicator  of  the  effectiveness  of 
their  training,    self -discipline ,   and  preparation  for  combat. 


21-15 


(20)    HOW  SHOULD  MARINES  RESPOND  TO  CASUALTIES? 


(a)  Proper  care  for  your  wounded  has  a  great  effect 
upon  morale.     Every  Marine  must  be  assured  that  if  he  is  hit,  his 
fellow  Marines  will  take  care  of  him.     There  is  an  unwritten 
contract  among  Marines  that  if  wounded  and  unable  to  fend  for 
oneself,   another  Marine  will  come  to  one's  aid  and  do  all  he/she 
can  to  help. 

(b)  During  the  assault,   Marines  cannot  stop  to  aid  a 
fallen  buddy,   and  each  Marine  must  know  this.     Casualties  are  the 
job  of  the  corpsman.     This  is  the  reason  corpsmen  are  not  armed 
with  rifles  or  machine  guns.     It  is  their  job  to  look  after  the 
wounded,   not  to  fight.     Most  corpsmen  are  "gung-ho"   and  many  want 
to  employ  weapons  other  than  their  T/O  9mm  pistol;   this  should 
not  be  allowed  as  they  may  tend  to  fire  rather  than  take  care  of 
the  wounded. 

(c)  At  the  very  first  opportunity,    casualties  should 
be  looked  after  by  their  leaders  and  comrades .     Every  Marine  must 
be  accounted  for.     Dead  and  wounded  are  removed  from  the  combat 
area  as  soon  as  possible. 

(21)    WHAT  IS  THE  RESULT  WHEN  CASUALTIES  ARE  NOT 
EXPEDITIOUSLY  EVACUATED? 

(a)  The  presence  of  dead  and  wounded  for  a  prolonged 
period  of  time  hurts  the  morale  of  survivors.     It  is  important  to 
always  care  for  casualties  and  impart  confidence  that  whatever 
the  cost,   your  fellow  Marines  will  do  all  that  can  be  done  under 
the  circumstances.     If  combat  prevents  the  prompt  evacuation  of 
casualties,    they  should  be  moved  to  a  position  of  relative  safety 
and  receive  care  until  they  can  be  evacuated. 

(b)  Another  important  task  of  the  leader  occurs 
after  the  casualties  have  been  evacuated.     At  the  first 
opportunity,    communicate  with  the  next  of  kin.     It  is  also 
reassuring  to  the  surviving  members  of  the  unit  to  know  that  they 
will  not  be  forgotten. 

(22)    IS  BOREDOM  A  FACTOR  IN  COMBAT? 

(a)  Boredom  is  not  something  one  would  expect  to 
find  during  combat.  However,  the  combat  environment  is  often 
composed  of  long  periods  of  inactivity  that  often  lead  to 


21-16 


careless  behavior,    thereby  reducing  everyone's  chances  of 
survival  when  combat  next  occurs.     Leaders  must  not  allow 
idleness  or  slovenly  and  careless  behavior  to  happen.     When  enemy 
contact  appears  remote,    every  action  must  be  oriented  toward 
improving  the  unit's  readiness  to  defeat  the  enemy.  Training 
does  not  cease  in  combat,    it  continues  and  intensifies. 

(b)   We  have  described  some  of  the  conditions  that  we 
will  experience  in  combat.   Combat's  nature  is  violent  and  brutal, 
generating  chaotic  confusion  that  can  destroy  the  combatant ' s 
will  to  fight.     Specific  stresses  we  can  expect  are: 

[1]   Extreme  risk  and  fear 

[2]   Confusion,    the  so  called  "fog  of  war 
[3]   Discomfort  and  fatigue. 
[4]  Casualties. 
[5]  Boredom. 

During  the  next  phase,   we  will  examine  how  the  leader  can 
maintain  morale,   motivation,   discipline,   proficiency,   and  esprit 
de  corps  under  combat  conditions. 

8 .     Leadership  challenges  faced  in  combat. 

a.     During  this  period  we  will  discuss  some  psychological 
leadership  challenges;  how  to  maintain  morale,  motivation, 
discipline,   proficiency,   and  esprit  de  corps  in  the  combat 
environment.     While  the  discussion  will  focus  on  the  role  of  the 
leader,   bear  in  mind  that  all  Marines  share  in  leadership 
responsibility.     Since  one  objective  of  the  enemy  will  be  to 
break  the  individual  Marine's  will  to  persevere  in  battle, 
overcoming  these  psychological  challenges  are  crucial  to 
achieving  success  in  combat.   Every  Marine  must  develop  an 
instinctive  understanding  of  these  factors  and  devote  his  efforts 
to  strengthening  them  in  the  unit.      (If  necessary,   refer  to 
"Foundations  of  Leadership"   for  other  ideas  in  leading  this 
discussion . ) 

(1)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  LEADERSHIP  CHALLENGES  THE  LEADER  MUST 
DEAL  WITH  IN  COMBAT? 


21-17 


(a)   There  are  basically  two  types  of  challenges 
leaders  face  in  combat : 

[1]     Challenges  that  you  have  little  or  no 
control  over,   but  must  try  to  understand,    to  endure,   and  to 
explain . 

[2]     Challenges  that  you  can  influence. 

(2)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  CHALLENGES  YOU  HAVE  LITTLE  OR  NO 
CONTROL  OVER? 

(a)    Some  challenges  you  have  little  or  no  control 
over  include: 


[1] 

The 

type  of  conflict. 

[2] 

The 

duration . 

[3] 

The 

political  guidelines  and  rules  of 

[4] 

The 

enemy's  actions. 

[5] 

The 

public's  reaction  and  support. 

[6] 

The 

location,   weather,   and  terrain. 

[7] 

The 

organization's  mission. 

[8] 

The 

organization's  history. 

[9] 

The 

availability  and  quality  of  replacements 

(personnel  and  equipment) . 

(3)    WHAT  IS  AN  EXAMPLE? 

An  obvious  one  from  Lebanon  is  the  limitations  placed 
on  Marines  from  entering  into  full  combat  with  hostiles.   This  can 
create  stress  from  frustration  and  have  an  adverse  effect  on 
individuals  and  units  if  we  are  not  careful.   This  frustration  of 
never  "getting  at  the  enemy"  was  considered  an  underlying 
explanation  in  the  breakdown  of  discipline  of  the  Army  unit  in 
the  My  Lai  incident  during  Vietnam. 


21-18 


(4)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  CHALLENGES  YOU  MAY  BE  ABLE  TO 
INFLUENCE? 


Some  challenges  you  may  be  able  to  influence  are: 
[1]  Morale 
[2]  Discipline 
[ 3 ]   Esprit  de  corps 
[4]  Proficiency 

(5)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  PSYCHOLOGICAL  CHALLENGES  FACED  BY 
COMBATANTS  THE  LEADER  MUST  BE  AWARE  OF? 

(a)    In  Annex  A,   MGen  T.   S.   Hart  outlines  the 
following  challenges  that  affect  an  individual's  willingness  and 
ability  to  fight  during  combat. 

[1]   Fear,    real  or  imagined,    is  the  major  stress 
faced  by  all  men  in  battle.     In  Battle  Leadership,   Captain  Von 
Schell  states: 

"In  peace  we  learn  how  to  lead  companies,  battalions, 
regiments,   even  divisions  and  armies.     We  learn  in  books  and  by 
maps  how  one  fights  and  wins  battles,   but  we  are  not  instructed 
in  the  thoughts,    the  hopes,    the  fears  that  run  riot  in  the  mind 
of  the  front  line  soldier." 

[2]   The  unexpected  presents  challenges  that  they 
may  not  have  been  prepared  for.     Clausewitz  summed  it  up: 

"It  is  of  first  importance  that  the  soldier  high  or  low  should 
not  have  to  encounter  in  war  things  which,    seen  for  the  first 
time,    set  him  in  terror  or  perplexity. " 

[3]   The  unknown  is  what  the  Marine  has  not  seen 
and  does  not  know  about,   but  has  yet  to  be  affected  by.  This 
worry  and  apprehension  begins  to  eat  at  the  individual .     As  the 
author  states,    "I  would  add  that  this  fear  of  the  unknown  is  most 
marked  when  the  soldier  is  isolated,   or  at  night." 

[4]  Fear  of  failure  may  be  common  among  Marines, 
particularly  those  who  have  yet  to  "prove"  themselves  in  combat. 
This  is  a  real  stress  and  many  times  plays  an  important  role  in 


21-19 


tight  cohesive  organizations  during  combat.     S.L.A.  Marshall 
states : 

"When  fire  sweeps  the  field,   nothing  keeps  a  man  from  running 
except  a  sense  of  honor,    if  bound  by  obligation  to  the  people 
right  around  him,    of  fear  of  failure  in  their  sight,   which  might 
eternally  disgrace  him. " 

[5]   The  noise  and  sights  of  the  battle  can  be 
particularly  unnerving.     No  peacetime  training  can  completely 
prepare  an  individual  for  the  carnage  or  emotional  impact  of 
combat . 

[6]   Fear  of  killing  is  not  uncommon.   Peace  time 
training  may  not  prepare  all  individuals  for  the  reality  that  it 
is  often  simply  a  matter  of  kill  or  be  killed. 

[7]   Exhaustion  is  a  reality  and  a  constant  danger 
during  combat  operations.  When  confronted  daily  and  constantly 
with  the  stress  of  combat,   men  can  come  apart  at  the  seams.  In 
Annex  A,    the  author  writes: 

"There  is  no  doubt  that  troops,   however  well  led,   can  only 
take  the  stress  of  battle  for  so  long  then  they  break.  Any 
commander,   at  any  level,   who  tries  to  overdraw  the  account  is 
courting  disaster." 

"...the  mental  and  the  physical  constantly  interact. 
Therefore,   physical  fatigue,   hunger,   disease,    thirst,   and,  above 
all,    the  stress  of  adverse  climatic  conditions,   can  reduce  the 
physical  state  of  the  soldier  to  such  an  extent  that  his  will  to 
fight  is  broken. " 

(6)    WHAT  TYPES  OF  REACTIONS  CAN  THESE  PSYCHOLOGICAL 
CHALLENGES  CREATE? 

(a)   Units  are  made  up  of  individuals,    an  obvious 
statement,   but  often  it  only  takes  one  to  inspire  a  unit  to 
victory  or  lead  it  to  defeat.     Therefore,   we  must  prepare  each 
link  in  the  chain  sufficiently  to  ensure  success .     To  do  this  we 
must  understand  how  these  challenges  can  affect  individual 
performance.     There  are  common  factors  that  challenge  all 
combatants . 

[1]  Stress  As  previously  discussed,  individual 
stress  can  have  a  devastating  effect  on  individual  performance. 
In  combat  it  is  ever  present  and  even  more  important  that 


21-20 


individuals  be  able  to  cope  with  it.  If  not,  then  as  the  author 
in  Annex  A  offers: 


"Despite  all  our  efforts,   when  stress  becomes  too  much,   or  the 
soldier  has  been  under  stress  for  too  long,    the  will  breaks  and 
the  soldier  suffers  psychiatric  breakdown.     This  breakdown  can  be 
present  in  many  forms : 


[a]  Panic  states  which  result  in  headlong 

flight . 

[b]  Acute  depression  where  the  patient  sits 

mute  and  motionless . 


[c]  Acute  anxiety  with  extreme  restlessness 

and  agitation. 

[d]  Exhaustion  states  where  troops  show 

abnormal  feelings . 


[f]     Hysterical  reactions  including 
hysterical  blindness,   paralysis,  etc. 

(b)  It  is  to  our  credit  that  Marines  have  not  been 
overcome  by  these  problems  to  any  great  extent  in  the  past. 

(c)  Some  additional  reactions  include: 


[1]   Freezing  under  fire. 

[2]    Inability  to  make  decisions. 


[3]   Over-fixation  with  minor  details. 

[4]   Lack  of  confidence. 

[5]   Breakdown  of  discipline 


(7)    WHAT  ABOUT  INDIVIDUALS  WHO  ARE  NOT  CONSTANTLY  EXPOSED 
TO  THE  RIGORS  AND  DEMANDS  OF  THE  FRONTLINE,    WHAT  PSYCHOLOGICAL 
CHALLENGES  DO  THEY  FACE? 

(a)     These  units  whose  situations/missions  may  or  may 
not  bring  them  in  direct  confrontation  with  the  enemy  often 
present  the  greatest  leadership  challenge.     They  often  are 
affected  by: 


21-21 


[1]   The  stress  of  going  back  and  forth  from  a 
high  risk  environment  to  a  relatively  safe  one    (e.g.,   air  crews, 
pilots,   motor  transport  personnel,    etc.) . 

[2]   Boredom  brought  on  by  a  "business  as  usual" 
routine  day  today   (e.g.,    rear  area  headquarters  personnel,  supply 
personnel,   rear  security  area  personnel,  etc.). 

[3]   Frustration  from  wanting  to  be  at  the  front, 
but  being  in  the  rear. 

(8)  WHAT  IMPACT  DO  THESE  CHALLENGES  HAVE  ON 
ORGANIZATIONAL  EFFECTIVENESS? 

(a)   Discuss  the  effects  of  these  factors  on  units. 
Try  and  focus  on  how,    if  ignored  or  not  noticed,    they  can  erode 
the  basic  fiber  of  an  organization.     Again,    it  might  be  useful  to 
look  at  how  the  factors  affect  various  units    (ground,  support, 
and  air) .     Consider  using  the  following  indicators  to  assist  this 
part  of  the  discussion: 

[1]  Morale. 

[2]  Discipline. 

[ 3 ]  Esprit  de  corps. 

[4]  Proficiency. 

(9)  MARINES  FREQUENTLY  CONFUSE  MORALE  WITH  MOTIVATION. 
WHAT  DO  THESE  TWO  TERMS  REALLY  MEAN? 

(a)   Allow  some  discussion  to  define  the  two  terms. 
Both  terms  are  used  to  describe  the  willingness  of  individuals  to 
fight  and  their  readiness  to  die  for  something  more  important 
than  themselves;   their  fellow  Marines,    their  unit,    their  Corps, 
their  country,   or  all  of  these  combined. 

[1]   Good  morale  is  the  confident,  resolute, 
willing,    often  self-sacrificing,   and  courageous  attitude  of  an 
individual  to  do  the  tasks  expected  of  him  /her  by  a  group  of 
which  he/she  is  a  part.     It  is  based  upon  pride  in  the 
achievements  and  aims  of  the  group,    faith  in  its  leadership  and 
ultimate  success,   a  sense  of  participation  in  its  work,   and  a 
devotion  and  loyalty  to  the  other  members  of  the  group. 


21-22 


[2]   Morale  is  a  fragile  thing  that  tends  to 
fluctuate  even  among  the  best  Marine  units.     It  must  be  a 
constant  concern  for  the  leader,   because  it  is  the  foundation 
element  of  discipline. 

[3]   Motivation  answers  the  question  "why" 
individual  Marines  fight.     Motivation  is  based  on  psychological 
factors  such  as  needs,   desires,    impulses,   etc.   that  cause  a 
person  to  act.     For  a  Marine,    commitment  to  and  pride  in  the  unit 
and  Corps  is  generally  the  basis  for  combat  motivation. 

(10)    HOW  DO  LEADERS  MAINTAIN  MORALE  IN  THEIR  UNIT? 

(a)  Teach  a  belief  in  the  mission.     This  involves 
not  just  development  of  confidence  that  the  job  must  be  done  and 
can  be  done,   but  the  deeper  understanding  that  their  efforts  and 
sacrifice  are  necessary  as  well.     Belief  in  the  hallowed  words, 
"Duty,    Honor,    Country"  must  be  a  deep  inner  conviction  on  the 
part  of  the  leader,   and  must  be  reflected  in  his/her  actions. 
Marines  who  must  endure  combat  will  look  to  their  leader  for 
reassurance  that  the  cause  is  just  and  their  duty  to  Corps  and 
Country  is  clear. 

(b)  Instill  confidence.     Maintain  a  positive 
attitude  and  cultivate  trust  and  confidence  in  your  Marines.  They 
must  have  confidence  in  their  own  abilities,    in  their  leaders, 
their  training,   and  their  equipment.      "Leadership  from  the  front" 
can  be  particularly  effective  in  combat.     Marines  will  always 
respond  when  they  see  their  leader  willing  to  take  the  same 
risks,   capable  of  demonstrating  the  proper  standards,   and  showing 
how  things  are  to  be  done.     Nothing  instills  confidence  quicker 
than  seeing  effective  leadership  by  example. 

(c)  Consider  job  assignments  carefully. 

[1]   Risks  must  be  shared  within  a  combat  unit  as 
much  as  possible.     Alternate  assignments  on  point  or  flank 
security,    rotate  the  dangerous  duties,   and  resist  the  temptation 
to  always  utilize  the   "best"  man  for  such  duty.     If  not,  morale 
will  drop  when  this   "best"  man  becomes  a  casualty  because  of 
prolonged  exposure  to  risks. 

[2]   Do  not  ask  for  volunteers  for  a  particularly 
dangerous  task.     Marines  must  depend  on  one  another  as  a  team, 
not  develop  an  excessive  reliance  upon  one  of  its  members.   It  is 


21-23 


the  leader  who  must  make  sure  the  team  has  the  right  people  in 
the  right  jobs  for  obvious  reasons. 

[3]   Avoid  using  any  individual  in  a  manner  that 
may  affect  the  morale  of  the  unit;   avoid  assigning  jobs  to 
individuals  who  obviously  will  have  difficulty  accomplishing  the 
tasks  required.     For  instance,   a  machine  gunner  or  radio  operator 
must  be  physically  able  to  carry  and  maneuver  with  a  heavier  load 
than  the  average  Marine . 

[4]   Demonstrate  concern  and  attentiveness  to  the 
welfare  of  your  Marines.     This  means  not  only  providing  rest, 
food,   and  water.     It  means  checking  to  see  that  positions  and 
weapons  are  properly  located,   equipment  and  weapons  are 
maintained  properly,   and  attending  to  the  numerous  other  details 
that  make  a  unit  effective.     It  means  a  habit  of  training  and 
critiquing  so  that   "lessons  learned"  don't  have  to  be  relearned. 
It  means  talking  to  your  Marines  as  if  they  are  members  of  your 
family.   It  means  looking  out  for  your  Marines  as  they 
instinctively  do  for  you. 

(11)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  OF  THE  SPECIFIC   INDICATORS  OF  MORALE 
THAT  THE  LEADER  MUST  BE  CONTINUALLY  AWARE  OF? 

(a)  Appearance .     If  an  individual  begins  to  look 
sloppy,    it  may  be  an  indicator  that  something  is  affecting 
his/her  behavior.     Likewise,    if  conditions  do  not  allow  your 
Marines  to  wash,    shave,    or  obtain  clean  uniforms  for  prolonged 
periods,    it  can  cause  morale  to  drop.     Beware  of  the  tendency  of 
some  Marines  to  take  on  a  "salty"   attitude  and  appearance.  A 
tolerance  for  sloppy  appearance  standards  in  the  field  may  lead 
to  an  equally  sloppy  attitude  regarding  attention  to  details  and 
basic  field  discipline,   and  may  result  in  additional  combat 
casualties . 

(b)  Personal  conduct.     Be  alert  for  behavior  that  is 
out  of  character.     Moodiness,    sullenness,   quiet  withdrawal,  or 
any  sudden  unexplainable  change  in  an  individual ' s  behavior  is 
cause  for  concern. 

(c)  Standards  of  military  courtesy.     Units  having 
pride  and  confidence  in  their  leaders  maintain  high  standards  of 
military  courtesy  all  the  time.     Changes  may  be  indicative  of 
lower  morale  and  will  erode  unit  discipline. 

(d)  Personal  hygiene.     If  individuals  allow  this 
standard  to  drop  it  can  quickly  affect  the  morale   (not  to  mention 


21-24 


health)    of  the  entire  unit.     Nobody  wants  to  live  m  filth  and 
regardless  of  how  miserable  the  circumstances  may  actually  be,  we 
must  do  what  we  can  to  make  conditions  habitable.  Always 
establish  designated  latrine  areas,    cat  holes,    etc.,   and  see  to 
it  that  they  are  used  and  properly  maintained. 

(e)  Excessive  quarreling.     Cooperation  and  mutual 
trust  and  confidence  in  one  another's  ability  can  be  adversely 
affected  when  Marines  quarrel  among  themselves.     Settle  arguments 
quickly.     Excessive  quarreling  is  a  sign  that  something  is  wrong 
that  must  be  fixed.     Find  the  source  of  irritation  before  it 
affects  unit  efficiency.     Direct  energies  toward  the  enemy  not 
fellow  Marines. 

(f)  Rumors .     Lack  of  information  is  common  in 
combat.     Rumors  can  plant  the  seeds  of  fear  that  will  grow  way 
out  of  proportion.     The  leader  must  be  a  source  of  facts,  and 
when  events  do  not  occur  as  planned,    find  out  what  happened  and 
pass  the  word.     Keep  your  Marines  informed  and  cultivate  their 
trust  and  confidence. 

(g)  Care  of  equipment  and  weapons .     Failure  to 
accomplish  proper  maintenance  is  an  indicator  that  the  individual 
doesn't  care  or  is  becoming  excessively  fatigued.     On  the  other 
hand,    if  you  fail  to  provide  the  means  to  keep  your  Marines  gear 
properly  maintained   (lubrication,   grease,    etc.),    the  absence  of 
the  material  to  properly  care  for  their  equipment  can  erode 
morale . 

(h)  Response  to  shortages .     Always  be  alert  when 
your  unit  experiences  shortages  of  anything,   particularly  food, 
water,   boots,    oil,   ammunition,   medical  supplies,    or  even  mail. 
When  this  occurs,   how  do  your  Marines  react?     Do  they  share  what 
is  available  instinctively,    or  do  some  hoard  what  they  have?  The 
unit  with  high  morale  and  strong  unit  cohesion  will  instinctively 
divide  what  is  available  and  become  an  even  stronger  outfit 
because  of  it.     The  unit  that  fails  to  develop  this  quality  will 
disintegrate  quickly  in  combat. 

(i)  Motivation .     When  given  an  unpleasant  task,  or 
any  job  that  must  be  done,   how  does  the  unit  or  individual 
respond?     Do  they  respond  enthusiastically  and  make  it  their  best 
effort,    or  are  they  going  to  do  just  enough  to  get  by?  How 
closely  do  leaders  have  to  supervise,   and  how  often  must  jobs  be 
done  again  because  they  weren't  accomplished  adequately  the  first 
time?     Are  your  Marines  willing  to  help  one  another  without  being 
told?     We  will  deal  with  motivation  in  more  detail  shortly.  The 


21-25 


leader  must  recognize  the  extreme  importance  morale  has  to  the 
combat  effectiveness  of  the  unit.     Consider  the  following 
observations  of  great  leaders  from  earlier  periods  of  history: 

"Whichever  army  goes  into  battle  stronger  in  soul,  their 
enemies  generally  cannot  withstand  them. " 

The  Greek  Warrior,   Xenophon  more 
than  two  thousand  years  ago . 

"The  human  heart  is  the  starting  point  in  all  matters 
pertaining  to  war." 

Frederick  the  Great,   King  of 
Prussia,    1120  A . D . 

"Morale  makes  up  three  quarters  of  the  game;   the  relative 
balance  of  manpower  makes  up  only  the  remaining  quarter." 

Napoleon  Bonaparte,   Emperor  of 
France,    1804  A.D. 

"We  have  already  trained  our  men  to  the  highest  possible  level 
of  skill  with  their  weapons  and  in  their  use  of  minor  tactics. 
But  in  the  end  every  important  battle  develops  to  a  point  where 
there  is  no  real  control  by  senior  commanders .     Every  soldier 
feels  himself  to  be  alone.     Discipline  may  have  got  him  to  the 
place  where  he  is,   and  discipline  may  hold  him  there  for  a  time. 
Cooperation  with  other  men  in  the  same  situation  can  help  him  to 
move  forward.     Self  preservation  will  make  him  defend  himself  to 
the  death,    if  there  is  no  other  way.     But  what  makes  him  go  on, 
alone,   determined  to  break  the  will  of  the  enemy  opposite  him,  is 
morale.     Pride  in  himself  as  an  independent  thinking  man,  who 
knows  why  he's  there,   and  what  he's  doing.  Absolute  confidence 
that  the  best  has  been  done  for  him,   and  that  his  fate  is  now  in 
his  own  hands.     The  dominant  feeling  of  the  battlefield  is 
loneliness,   gentlemen,    and  morale,   only  morale,    individual  morale 
as  a  foundation  under  training  and  discipline,   will  bring 
victory. " 

Major  General  Sir  William  Slim  as 
quoted  by  John  Masters  in 
The  Road  Past  Mandalay 

(12)    HOW  DO  YOU  MAINTAIN  MORALE  IN  A  COMBAT  ENVIRONMENT? 

(a)   The  following  responsibilities  of  the  leader 
should  be  instinctive;   omission  of  any  of  these  directly  results 
in  lower  morale.      (These  responsibilities  are  also  important  in 
peacetime . ) 


21-26 


realistic . 


[ 1 ]   Be  positive,    optimistic,   enthusiastic,  and 


[ 2 ]   Be  able  to  recognize  when  a  Marine  is 
experiencing  personal  problems.     You  are  the  one  he/she  should 
turn  to  for  help,   advice,   and  good  counsel.     Always  be  willing  to 
listen.     Know  who  gets  mail,   who  doesn't,   and  what  reaction  it 
causes.     Be  alert  for  bad  news  from  home  and  be  ready  to  offer 
good  counsel.     Know  who  is  married  and  who  isn't.     Know  what  your 
Marines  are  thinking  about.     Care  about  them. 

[3]   Maintain  health  discipline.   Check  the 
physical  condition  of  your  Marines.   Feet  checks,    changes  in 
clothing,   hygiene  enforcement,   and  overall  personal  cleanliness 
must  be  rigorously  maintained.   The  primitive  conditions  in  a 
combat  environment  will  adversely  affect  morale  unless  you  do 
what  can  be  done  to  improve  their  circumstances;   conduct  frequent 
inspections  to  insure  that  proper  care  is  taken  of  cuts, 
blisters,   minor  wounds,    rashes,    or  other  conditions  that  can  get 
worse  without  attention.   Shaving  daily,   haircuts,   and  basic 
cleanliness  results  in  Marines  feeling  better  about  themselves. 

[4]    Provide  rest.   Fatigue  will  erode  morale  and 
fighting  ability.   Weary  people  tend  to  forget  things,  behave 
irrationally,   become  inattentive,   and  do  not  think  clearly.  The 
leader  and  his/her  Marines  must  have  rest,   and  an  opportunity  to 
sleep.   Rotate  the  watches,   get  rest  regularly.   If  possible, 
position  two  or  three  Marines  together  so  that  security  and  rest 
can  be  obtained  at  the  same  time.   Your  unit's  survival  depends  on 
it ! 

[5]    Provide  a  break  in  the  routine.   If  possible 
provide  an  opportunity  for  relaxation  and  recreation.   On  Con 
Thien  in  1967,    during  a  prolonged  period  under  enemy  artillery 
fire,    one  unit  held  a  tobacco  spitting  contest  judging  accuracy 
and  range.   Everyone  participated  and  some  humorous  situations 
resulted.  Any  type  of  break   (and  humor  is  especially  beneficial) 
from  the  constant  rigor  of  combat  will  provide  an  outlet  for 
frustration,   prevent  boredom,    stimulate  competition,  build 
teamwork,   and  is  an  opportunity  for  the  leader  to  participate  and 
show  that  he/she  is  also  part  of  the  team. 

[6]    Provide  food.   In  combat  the  provision  for 
food  is  always  inconvenient  and  sometimes  not  in  adequate  supply. 
This  does  not  reduce  its  importance  as  a  factor  in  morale. 
Whenever  a  shortage  exists,    share  what  you  have.   Make  the  best 
use  of  your  facilities  to  prepare  food  well  at  every  opportunity. 


21-27 


Take  turns  within  the  squad,  fire  team,  or  small  unit  to  have  one 
individual  prepare  a  special  meal  for  the  team. 

[7]   Maintain  standards.   The  combat  environment  is 
no  place  to  allow  discipline  to  become  slack. 

[8]   Keep  Marines  informed.   Include  subordinates 
in  the  decision  making  process  whenever  possible.  You  never  have 
all  the  answers. 

[9]   Tend  to  administration.   Combat  does  not 
eliminate  the  various  administrative  events  that  impact  upon  the 
individual  Marine's  welfare.  Allotments,   pay,   and  other 
administrative  matters  while  not  an  immediate  concern  to  the 
Marine  in  combat,   weigh  heavily  on  his  mind  when  they  get  awry. 
Make  sure  that  your  Marines  are  properly  taken  care  of 
administratively,    especially  relative  to  pay.     If  administrative 
is  fouled  up,   the  individual  who  is  affected  suspects  that  other 
things  are  probably  fouled  up  as  well  and  confidence  in  the  unit 
commences  to  erode. 

[10]   Tend  to  quarters .     Combat  usually  entails 
primitive  living  conditions.     Sleeping  on  the  deck  under  a  poncho 
"hooch"   is  a  luxury.     It  is  a  primary  concern  of     leaders  to 
ensure  that  the  positions  occupied  by  their  Marines  are 
adequately  constructed  and  offer  suitable  protection  from  enemy 
fire  and  observation,   and  the  weather. 

[11]   Care  for  equipment  and  weapons .  Continuous 
concern  for  proper  maintenance  is  essential.     Ensure  that 
adequate  means  exist  to  properly  care  for  weapons  and  equipment, 
and  that  proper  action  is  being  taken.     Priority  of  work  should 
always  provide  for  the  care  of  equipment /weapons  before,  the 
routine  care  of  human  needs . 

[12]  Know  your  Marines .  Marines  are  by  nature 
fiercely  loyal,  proud,  and  determined.  It  is  not  uncommon  for 
Marines  to  refuse  to  admit  that  they  are  hurt  or  injured  and  to 
believe  they  can  do  more  than  is  prudent  at  the  time.  Leaders 
must  be  especially  watchful  over  the  health  and  physical 
condition  of  their  Marines  to  ensure  that  minor  wounds  receive 
proper  care,   and  that  adequate  rest  is  provided. 

[13]   Make  assignments  carefully.  Place 
qualified,   capable  individuals  in  key  billets  and  give  them 
latitude  to  operate.     Remove  those  who  don't  produce.  Properly 
integrate  and  assimilate  green  troops  and  replacements;  spread 


21-28 


them  out  among  seasoned,    experienced,    solid  leaders  who  have 
proven  ability  to  train  and  look  out  for  them. 

Morale  describes  an  individual's  general  state  of  mind.  With 
effective  leadership  and  attentive  concern  for  maintaining  high 
morale,   motivation  will  also  be  high.     However,   motiA/ation  is 
much  more  than  just  an  indicator  of  morale.     It  is  a  key  element 
that  must  be  understood  by  everyone  in  the  unit.    In  combat, 
motivation  has  special  significance  to  Marines.     It  describes 
what  being  a  Marine  is  really  all  about.     Read  the  following  to 
the  group : 

"In  a  foxhole  in  the  center  of  the  tenuous  line  he  had  done 
much  to  hold,    Private  First  Class  John  Ahrens ,   an  Able  Company 
automatic  rifleman,    lay  quietly,   his  eyes  closed,  breathing 
slowly.     Ahrens  was  covered  with  blood.     He  was  dying.     Next  to 
him  lay  a  dead  Japanese  sergeant,   and  flung  across  his  legs,  a 
dead  officer.  Ahrens  had  been  hit  in  the  chest  twice  by  bullets, 
and  blood  welled  slowly  from  three  deep  puncture  wounds  inflicted 
by  bayonets .     Around  this  foxhole  sprawled  thirteen  crumpled 
Japanese  bodies.     As  Captain  Lewis  W.  Walt  gathered  Ahrens  into 
his  arms  to  carry  him  to  the  Residency,    the  dying  man,  still 
clinging  to  his  BAR,    said,    'Captain,    they  tried  to  come  over  me 
last  night,   but  I  don't  think  they  made  it. ' 

'They  didn't,   Johnny, '   Walt  replied  softly.      'They  didn't."' 

From  U.   S.  Marine  Corps  in  World 
War  II,   by  S.E.  Smith. 

(13)    WHY  DO  MARINES  FIGHT  LIKE  PFC  AHRENS?     WHAT  CAUSES 
MARINES  TO  HAVE  THIS  MEASURE  OF  TENACITY,    THE  ABILITY  TO  CONTINUE 
TO  FIGHT  WHEN  OTHERS  WOULD  GIVE  UP? 

(a)   Allow  some  discussion;   the  following  factors 
should  be  discussed  in  detail. 

[1]     Patriotism .     Marines  are  oriented  from  the 
first  day  of  boot  camp  to  their  identification  with  service  to 
Corps  and  Country. 

[2]   Aggression .     Training  provides  for 
development  of  an  aggressive  character  in  Marines. 

[3]    Punishment / fear .     Fear  of  punishment  for 

failure . 


21-29 


[4]   Rewards .     Recognition  for  performance. 


[5]   Tradition .     Identity  with  the  unit's  history 

and  standards . 

[6]    Social  Identity.     Identity  with  your  fellow 
Marines.     Not  wanting  to  let  your  buddies  down. 

(14)    CONSIDERING  ALL  OF  THESE  FACTORS,    WHICH  DO  YOU  THINK 
ARE  PARTICULARLY  SIGNIFICANT  IN  MOTIVATING  MARINES? 

(a)   Numerous  historians,    sociologists,  and 
psychologists  have  studied  Marine  behavior  under  fire  in  an 
effort  to  find  out  why  we  fight  as  we  do.     In  explaining  what 
motivates  Marines  to  persevere  in  battle,   experts  have  come  to 
the  conclusion  that  several  factors  are  significant. 

[1]   Tradition .     Marine  values  and  attitudes  are 
stressed  from  the  first  day  in  the  Marine  Corps  and  are 
constantly  reinforced  until  a  Marine  finally  passes  on  to  guard 
the  heavenly  gates.     We  are  told  over  and  over  again:    "a  Marine 
never  quits";    "a  Marine  never  surrenders";    "a  Marine  never 
retreats";    "Marines  never  leave  their  dead  and  wounded."  These 
values  and  impressions  of  proper  Marine  behavior  become  ingrained 
into  the  very  being  of  every  Marine,   a  key  part  of  every  Marine's 
values,   and  describe  proper  behavior  when  in  the  company  of 
fellow  Marines.     Behaving  in  an  aggressive  manner  and  putting 
forth  a  maximum  effort  is  a  natural  outgrowth  of  Marine  identity 
and  is  expected  from  your  fellow  Marines.     The  degree  to  which  we 
have  internalized  these  traditional  values  and  beliefs  is  a 
partial  explanation  for  our  combat  performance.     Consider  the 
following : 

"The  average  Marine,    if  such  a  condition  exists,  is 
definitely  not  the  lad  represented  on  the  recruiting  poster.  More 
likely  he  is  a  small,   pimple-faced  young  man  who,   because  it  has 
been  so  skillfully  pounded  into  him  at  boot  camp,   believes  he  can 

lick  the  world."  The  Last  Parallel,   Cpl  Martin  Russ, 

USMC . 

"The  men   (Marines)   were  not  necessarily  better  trained,  nor 
were  they  any  better  equipped;   often  they  were  not  so  well 
supplied  as  other  troops.     But  a  Marine  still  considered  himself 
a  better  soldier  than  anybody  else,    even  though  nine- tenths  of 
them  didn't  want  to  be  soldiers  at  all." 

Last  Chapter,    Ernie  Pyle. 


21-30 


"Men  take  a  kind  of  hard  pride  in  belonging  to  a  famous  outfit 
even  when  doing  so  exposes  them  to  exceptional  danger.  This  is  an 
essential  element  in  the  psychology  of  shock  troops." 

Fear  in  Battle,   John  Dollard. 

[2]    Social  identity.     Social  factors  affecting 
the  Marine's  primary  group   (squad,    fire  team  or  section),  are 
recognized  by  many  military  and  nonmilitary  writers  as  one  of  the 
most  significant  aspects  of  achieving  combat  motivation.  Marines 
commonly  express  this  in  terms  of  not  wanting  to  let  their 
buddies  down.     This  unit  cohesiveness  is  perhaps  the  most 
powerful  motivational  factor  in  combat.     When  traditional  Marine 
Corps  values  stimulate  and  foster  a  closeness  among  the 
individuals  in  a  unit,   the  result  is  a  unit  that  is  able  to 
maintain  tactical  cohesion  and  achieve  the  desired  combat 
performance.   Consider  the  following: 

"Four  brave  men  who  do  not  know  each  other  will  not  dare  to 
attack  a  lion.     Four  less  brave,   but  knowing  each  other  well, 
sure  of  their  reliability  and  consequently  of  mutual  aid,  will 
attack  resolutely.     There  is  the  science  of  the  organization  of 
armies  in  a  nut-shell." 

 Battle  Studies,    Col  Ardant  du  Picq. 

"I  hold  it  to  be  one  of  the  simplest  truths  of  war  that  the 
thing  which  enables  an  infantry  soldier  to  keep  going  with  his 
weapons  is  the  near  presence  or  presumed  presence  of  a  comrade." 

Men  Against  Fire,    S.L.A.  Marshall. 

[3]    Patriotism.     The  idea  of  conscious 
identification  with  a  cause  is  a  factor  in  morale  and  generally 
functions  as  the  reason  men  respond  to  the  call  to  arms.  Every 
Marine  must  be  convinced  of  the  rightness  of  his/her  country's 
cause.   This  is  usually  a  significant  factor  in  the  decision  to 
join  the  Marine  Corps.      Patriotism  is  a  spiritual   foundation  to 
morale.   In  combat  it  is  an  important  leadership  responsibility  to 
sustain  the  strength  of  this  foundation.     As  casualties  occur  and 
the  fight  becomes  difficult,   Marines  will  look  to  their  leader 
for  reassurance  that  the  sacrifices  borne  are  necessary. 

[4]   Aggression .     We  do  not  develop  a  "killer 
instinct"   that  can  be  turned  on  and  off  at  will.     Compassion  for 
the  enemy  and  noncombatants  is  a  characteristic  that  is  not 
uncommon  among  Marines  on  the  battlefield.     However,   we  do 
recognize  that  aggressive  fighting  style  is  our  trademark  and 
seek  to  keep  our  reputation  secure  from  any  doubt.     We  will  fight 
as  long  and  as  hard  as  necessary  to  overcome  the  enemy.  Likewise, 


21-31 


brutal  leadership  is  not  characteristic  of  the  Corps  either. 
Marine  leaders  must  understand  that  they  sustain  the  confidence 
of  their  men  by  accomplishing  the  mission  at  the  lowest  possible 
cost  in  casualties.     The  leader  must  maintain  effective 
discipline  and  control  to  ensure  moral  standards  of  conduct 
amidst  the  destruction  of  combat. 

[5]   Rewards / Puni shment / Fear .     When  it  comes  to 
combat,    there  is  no  amount  of  pay  that  can  adequately  reward 
Marines  for  risking  their  lives  to  achieve  a  particular 
objective.  Also,    there  are  no  medals  that  will  provide  adequate 
incentive  either.     Not  even  survival  can  be  considered  a  reward 
because  it  is  clearly  beyond  anyone's  control  and  unless  we 
change  the  policy  that  has  governed  our  Armed  Forces  for  the  past 
hundred  years,   any  brig's  punishment  would  be  a  safe  haven 
compared  to  the  environment  on  the  battlefield.     When  Marines  who 
have  experienced  combat  are  questioned  on  this  factor  they  tend 
to  respond  that  their  greatest  "fear"  was  being  perceived  as  less 
than  adequate  in  the  eyes  of  their  fellow  Marines.     Their  only 
"reward"  was  the  respect,   praise,   and  recognition  which  came  from 
camaraderie  and  acceptance  within  the  unit.     The  purpose  of  our 
system  of  rewards  in  combat  is  intended  to  reflect  Marines ' 
recognition  of  one  another  as  warriors.     This  recognition  of 
heroic  efforts,    sacrifices  in  behalf  of  your  fellow  Marines,  and 
maximum  efforts  are  important  leadership  responsibilities. 

(15)  SO  WHY  DO  MARINES  FIGHT  SO  WELL? 

(a)  Commitment:  more  than  anything  else,   men  have 
fought  and  teams  have  won  because  of  commitment.     More  often  than 
not,    it  is  a  commitment  to  a  leader  and  to  a  small  brotherhood 
where  the  important  things  are  mutual  respect,   confidence,  shared 
hardships,    shared  dangers,    shared  victories,   discipline  and 
perseverance.     A  Marine  advances  under  fire  because   "the  sergeant 
said  so, "   or  "I  can  do  it  if  they  can, "   or  "I  can't  let  them 
down .  " 

(b)  Morale  and  motivation  provide  the  foundation  for 
discipline      More  than  being  a  simple  mechanism  for  maintaining 
order,   discipline  is  the  essential  condition  within  a  unit  that 
allows  it  to  overcome  the  extreme  fear  and  fatigue  of  combat. 

(16)  WHAT  IS  DISCIPLINE? 

Willing  obedience  to  orders  will  be  the  most  common 
definition  given  by  Marines.     Quite  simply,   discipline  is  the 
situation  where  the  individual  has  been  taught  to  sacrifice 


21-32 


his/her  own  interests  for  the  common  good,   and  will  respond  from 
a  sense  of  duty  which  is  more  important  than  individual  rights  or 
wants.     It  also  ensures  prompt  obedience  to  orders  and  guides  an 
individual's  or  unit's  actions  in  the  absence  of  orders. 

(17)  HOW  IS  DISCIPLINE  DEMONSTRATED? 

(a)   Obedience,    initiative,    self-reliance,  and 
self-control . 

[1]   Obedience .     When  all  respond  to  orders  as  a 
team,   a  sense  of  unity  is  created  whereby  everyone  recognizes 
that  their  role  is  to  contribute  to  something  more  important  than 
any  one  individual.     An  unorganized  crowd  of  individuals  is 
useless  in  a  crisis.     The  strength  to  overcome  the  extreme  crisis 
of  combat  is  greatly  affected  by  the  individuals '    comprising  the 
unit  abilities  to  respond  as  a  team.     The  unit  is  capable  of 
dealing  with  the  chaos  of  combat.     The  individual  is  generally 
only  effective  so  long  as  his/her  actions  are  a  part  of  the  unit 
effort . 

[2]    Initiative .     Marine  Corps  leadership  is  based 
upon  a  concept  of  trust  and  confidence  in  each  individual 
Marine's  quality  of  self  discipline.     The  modern  battlefield  has 
become  an  extremely  deadly  place.     As  the  destructive  power  of 
weapons  has  increased,    it  has  become  increasingly  more  difficult 
for  leaders  to  maintain  positive  control  over  every  action.  We 
rely  on  a  high  degree  of  initiative,    individual  courage,   and  the 
ability  of  the  individual  Marine  to  take  proper  action  when  the 
situation  is  in  doubt.     The  responsibility  of  every  Marine  in 
such  situations  is  clear.     They  must  support  their  fellow  Marines 
aggressively  using  their  own  initiative  to  join  their  force  to 
others . 

[3]    Self-reliance .     During  long  periods  of 
monotony  and  apparent  lack  of  enemy  contact,    or  long  hours  of 
darkness  when  imagination  runs  wild  and  fear  begins  to  creep  up 
on  him  gradually,   discipline  will  steady  a  Marine's  nerves  and 
allow  him  to  deal  with  the  frightening  conditions  of  battle. 

[4]    Self-control .     Discipline  enables  the  Marine 
who  sees  a  fellow  Marine  suddenly  killed  and  immediately 
recognizes  his/her  own  peril,    to  exercise  self-control  over 
his/her  own  behavior. 

(18)  ARE  THERE  DIFFERENT  TYPES  OF  DISCIPLINE,    IF  SO,  WHAT 
ARE  THEY? 


21-33 


(a)   There  are  essentially  three  types  of  discipline: 
[1]    Self -discipline . 
[2]   Unit  discipline. 
[3]    Imposed  discipline. 

(19)  WHAT  ARE  THE  DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN  THESE  TYPES  OF 
DISCIPLINE  AND  WHICH  IS  MOST  IMPORTANT  TO  MAINTAIN? 

(a)  Self -discipline  is  the  most  important  quality  to 
develop.     It  means  that  the  individual  has  a  sense  of  personal 
duty  to  the  unit,    to  fellow  Marines,   and  to  the  nation.  This 
type  of  discipline  will  hold  Marines  steady  against  anything  the 
enemy  may  throw  at  them,   because  he  has  a  firm  conviction  that 
will  not  let  him  let  their  fellow  Marines  down.     This  is  the 
quality  of  discipline  demonstrated  by  PFC  Ahrens . 

(b)  Unit  discipline  is  the  behavior  that  results  from 
the  expectations  of  your  fellow  Marines  in  the  unit.  A  Marine 
knows  that  to  belong,   he/she  must  conform.     This  particular 
quality  of  discipline  will  steady  the  Marine  so  long  as  he/she  is 
in  the  company  of  fellow  Marines. 

(c)  Imposed  discipline  is  behavior  that  is  motivated 
primarily  by  the  immediate  supervision  of  leaders.  It 

lacks  the  permanence  of  unit  discipline  and  the  special  strength 
of  self -discipline .     Under  extreme  combat  conditions,   all  leaders 
may  be  required  to  resort  to  this  form  of  discipline.     This  was 
the  only  way  Captain  Barrow  was  able  to  force  the  necessary 
actions  on  the  ridge  in  Korea. 

(20)  HOW  IS  DISCIPLINE  DEVELOPED  IN  MARINES? 

(a)   Recruit  Training.     Recruit  training  is  dedicated 
to  preparing  and  conditioning  young  recruits  mentally, 
physically,   and  emotionally  to  meet  the  experience  of  combat.  It 
is  designed  to  instill  the  skills,   knowledge,   discipline,  and 
self-confidence  to  make  a  them  worthy  of  recognition  as  Marines; 
to  develop  a  sense  of  brotherhood,   patriotism,  loyalty, 
interdependence,   and  determination  to  be  victorious;   to  imbue 
them  with  the  instinct  of  obedience;  but  most  of  all  it  develops 
in  them  a  sense  of  commitment.     Through  imposed  discipline, 
recruits  become  familiar  with  Marine  Corps  norms  and  standards. 


21-34 


Self  discipline  and  obedience  are  stressed.     Marine  values  are 
crystallized  here. 

[1]   Unit  Training.     After  recruit  training  the 
Marine ' s  values  and  appreciation  for  Marine  Corps  norms  and 
standards  are  further  developed,    expanded,   and  reinforced. 
Through  developing  a  stronger  bond  with  fellow  Marines, 
perfecting  skills,   and  experiencing  high  unit  standards,  a 
quality  of  resilient  self -discipline  should  become  evident  as 
mutual  trust  and  confidence  grows. 

[2]   Leadership  Training.     Every  Marine  is  trained 
to  be  ready  for  the  responsibility  of  leadership.  This 
development  of  a  broad  base  of  leadership  within  the  unit 
establishes  a  capability  for  the  individual  to  influence  fellow 
Marines  during  particularly  tough  periods  when  self  discipline  is 
faltering  and  unit  discipline  begins  to  erode  because  of  the 
rigors  of  combat  at  such  times  leadership  is  on  trial .     How  well 
you  train  your  Marines  to  lead  before  combat  will  be  decisive. 

(21)    WHAT  ARE  THE  SPECIFIC  ACTIONS  THAT  A  LEADER  CAN  TAKE 
TO  IMPROVE  UNIT  DISCIPLINE? 

(a)  Set  the  example  with  personal  high  performance 
standards  and  expect  the  same  from  your  Marines .     Give  your 
maximum  effort,    expect  theirs. 

(b)  Encourage  peer  discipline,    i.e.,    a  Marine 
becomes  offended  when  a  peer  disgraces  the  unit   (e.g,   UA,  drugs, 
etc.)   and  tells  him/her  so.     When  pride  and  loyalty  permeate  a 
unit  to  the  degree  that  Marines  won't  tolerate  a  peer  "screwing 
up"  because  it  makes  him  and  the  unit  look  bad,   many  problems 
will  vanish  and  the  unit  will  be  solid. 

(c)  Know  your  Marines,    look  out  for  their  welfare. 

(d)  Be  fair  in  assigning  duties;   ensure  everyone 
shares  risks,   as  well  as  menial  tasks.     Eliminate  meaningless  or 
unnecessary  tasks . 

(e)  Praise  in  public,   admonish  in  private. 

(f)  Reward  good  work.     Recognition  that  a  job  has 
been  "well  done"  by  a  leader  is  important  to  the  individual. 

(g)  Be  fair  and  impartial  when  correcting  poor 
performance  or  taking  action  to  effect  punishment. 


21-35 


(h)  Develop  mutual  trust  and  confidence  by  giving 
responsibility  to  subordinates  and  holding  them  accountable. 
Train  as  you  expect  your  unit  to  be  able  to  fight.  Develop 
subordinates  to  take  charge  and  have  confidence  in  their  ability 
to  keep  essential  equipment  functioning. 

(i)  Encourage  and  foster  the  development  of 

self -discipline  by  providing  guidance  and  assistance  without  over 
supervising . 

(j)   Be  alert  to  conditions  conducive  to  breaches  of 
discipline  and  eliminate  them  where  possible. 

(k)   Encourage  initiative  and  innovation  in  your 
subordinates  by  allowing  them  to  learn  from  mistakes  during 
training  and  to  develop  the  habit  of  applying  "lessons  learned" 
instinctively . 

(22)  HOW  IMPORTANT  IS  SELF  RESPECT  TO  ACHIEVING  SELF 
DISCIPLINE? 

The  individual  Marine  must  be  determined  to  be 
tough,   alert,    courageous,   and  an  important  part  of  the  unit. 
He/she  must  have  this  self-image  and  perceive  that  fellow  Marines 
have  this  image  of  him/her.     Development  of  self-image  is  crucial 
to  developing  and  maintaining  self -discipline .     According  to 
S.L.A.   Marshall,    the  most  important  image  to  the  individual  in 
combat  is  the   "reputation  to  be  a  man  amongst  men." 

(23)  WHAT  IS  THE  LEADER'S  RESPONSIBILITY  FOR  DEVELOPING 
SELF-RESPECT  IN  HIS/HER  MARINES? 

The  leader  must  cultivate  the  self-respect  of 
his/her  Marines.     It  is  the  leader's  responsibility  to  build 
pride,    confidence,   and  determination  in  each  of  his/her  Marines. 

(24)    HOW  DOES  THE  LEADER  DEVELOP  SELF-RESPECT  IN  HIS/HER 

MARINES? 

(a)   Respect  them.     To  develop  respect  in  someone 
requires  letting  them  know  that  you  respect  them,   especially  if 
you're  an  important.,  person  in  their  eyes.     So,    first  of  all,  be 
that  important  leader  and  secondly,   respect  them  and  encourage 
them . 


21-36 


(b)  Maintain  a  religious  and  moral  environment  where 
the  values  learned  will  function  as  a  firm  base  for  proper 
behavior  in  the  unit.     Adherence  to  religious  and  moral 
principles  will  help  to  steady  the  individual  under  fire. 

(c)  Dress  and  cleanliness  standards  provide  everyone 
an  opportunity  to  demonstrate  their  pride  and  high  standards. 
Generally,    if  one  looks  good  they  tend  to  feel  good  about 
themselves.     These  standards  will  pay  off  in  the  harsh 
environment  of  combat. 

(d)  Stress  efficiency  and  reliability.     A  Marine  who 
feels  reliable  will  respect  him/herself  and  take  pride  in  his/her 
accomplishment.     Over-supervision  may  be  perceived  by  the 
individual  as  evidence  of  distrust. 

(e)  Show  personal  interest  in  your  Marines.  A 
Marine's  self-respect  and  pride  is  raised  immensely  just  by 
knowing  that  his  efforts  are  appreciated.     A  pat  on  the  back  or 
simple  "well  done"   at  the  right  moment  works  wonders. 

(25)  WHY  IS   PROFICIENCY  A  LEADERSHIP  CHALLENGE? 

Proficiency  is  defined  as  the  technical,  tactical, 
and  physical  ability  of  the  individuals  in  the  unit  to  accomplish 
the  mission.     How  your  Marines  actually  accomplish  their  jobs  is 
a  technical  question,   however,   when  Marines  must  accomplish  their 
jobs  under  enemy  fire,    it  becomes  a  matter  of  willpower. 
Technical  training  alone  creates  qualified  technicians.  Do 
Marines  have   "the  right  stuff"   to  do  their  jobs  when  it  is 
critically  necessary? 

(26)  WHAT  CAN  A  LEADER  DO  TO  DEVELOP  THE  SORT  OF 
PROFICIENCY  THAT  IS    "THE  RIGHT  STUFF"    IN  COMBAT? 

(a)   Be  proficient  and  instill  in  your  Marines  the 
immense  pride  that  you  cannot   "stump"   them  about  anything 
relative  to  the  performance  of  their  assigned  job. 

(b)  Thoroughly  train  your  Marines  to  do  their  duties 
as  well  as  they  can  be  done  under  any  conditions    (e.g.,  in 
garrison,    field,   adverse  weather,   at  night,    etc.) .     There  is  no 
substitute  for  their  best  effort,   and  always  work  to  improve 
that . 

(c)  Emphasize  teamwork  and  the  chain  of  command. 


21-37 


(d)  Cross-train  your  Marines  so  that  essential 
equipment /weapons  will  be  able  to  remain  in  action. 

(e)  Train  as  you  intend  to  fight.     Attempt  to 
accomplish  as  realistic  training  as  possible.     Make  everyone 
aware  that  combat  will  require  your  unit  to  endure  conditions  and 
stresses  that  are  unique  to  the  combat  environment  and  will 
exceed  what  exists  in  training.     Train  to  be  flexible,   and  to  be 
able  to  apply  "lessons  learned"  quickly  and  continuously. 

(f)  Provide  subordinates  with  frequent  opportunities 
to  lead  at  the  next  higher  level .     Every  Marine  has  to  be  ready 
to  lead  if  the  situation  requires  it. 

(g)  Set  high,   attainable  performance  standards  and 
stick  to  them. 

The  previous  leadership  challenges  have  dealt  with  the 
attitude  of  the  individual.     Esprit  de  corps  is  something  that 
describes  the  character  of  the  group,   not  the  individual.  It 
more  than  anything  else  describes  what  it  is  to  be  a  Marine. 
Esprit  de  corps  implies  devotion  and  loyalty  to  the  Corps,  as 
well  as  a  deep  regard  for  the  history,    traditions,   and  honor  that 
the  Corps  and  the  unit  have  acquired. 

(26)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  OF  THE  INDICATORS  THAT  A  UNIT  HAS 
ESPRIT  DE  CORPS? 


(a)    Some  are: 


[1]   Expressions  by  the  members  of  the  unit 
showing  pride  and  enthusiasm  for  their  outfit. 


[2]   A  good  reputation. 


[3]    Strong  competitive  spirit  with  other  units. 
[4]  Willingness  of  its  members  to  participate  in 


unit  activities 


[5]   Obvious  pride  in  the  history  of  the  unit  and 
observance  of  traditions. 

(27)    IS  THERE  SOMETHING  SPECIAL  ABOUT  A  UNIT  HAVING 
ESPRIT  DE  CORPS  THAT  YOU  CAN  DETECT  RIGHT  AWAY? 


21-38 


(a)   A  unit  with  esprit  de  corps  has  a  degree  of  zeal, 
snap,   and  pride  that  clearly  indicates  that  it  is  functioning  by 
a  force  of  its  own.     A  unit  functioning  by  only  the  will  of  its 
commander  will  pale  in  comparison.     The  truly  decisive  difference 
will  be  realized  when  the  unit  enters  combat.   Read  the  following: 

"A  British  military  observer,   while  watching  the  Marine 
Brigade  move  against  a  Communist  Division  in  a  last  ditch  effort 
to  save  the  Pusan  perimeter,   our  last  toehold  in  Korea,  said: 

'They  are  faced  with  impossible  odds,   and  I  have  no  valid 
reason  to  substantiate  it,   but  I  have  a  feeling  they  will  halt 
the  enemy.     I  realize  my  expression  of  hope  is  unsound,   but  these 
Marines  have  the  swagger,    confidence,   and  hardness  that  must  have 
been  in  Stonewall  Jackson's  Army  of  the  Shenandoah.     They  remind 
me  of  the  cold  streams  at  Dunkerque .     Upon  this  thin  line  of 

reasoning,    I  cling  to  hope  of  victory. ' " 

This  Kind  of  War,   T.   R.  Fehrenback 

(b)   The  development  and  maintenance  of  this  "esprit" 
is  a  responsibility  of  Marine  Corps  leadership. 

(28)    HOW  DOES  THE  LEADER  DEVELOP  ESPRIT  DE  CORPS? 

(a)  Teach  the  history  of  the  unit  and  maintain  its 
traditions.     Cultivate  a  deep  and  abiding  love  of  Corps  and 
country . 

(b)  Ensure  that  everyone  understands  the  mission  and 
activities  of  their  unit,   and  takes  pride  in  unit 
accomplishments . 

(c)   Develop  the  feeling  that  the  unit  must  always 
succeed,   and  every  individual  member  must  contribute  to  its 
success . 

(d)  Reinforce  success  with  an  effective  means  of 
recognizing  the  efforts  of  individuals  who  distinguish  themselves 
in  behalf  of  the  unit. 

(e)  Encourage  competition  with  other  units  in  events 
that  provide  for  participation  by  everyone  and  foster  an 
unquenchable  thirst  for  victory.     Winning  is  one  objective  of 
sports,   but  the  only  objective  in  combat. 


21-39 


(f)   Everything  any  member  does  reflects  upon  the 
unit.     Make  sure  everyone  realizes  this  fact  of  life  and 
tolerates  no  poor  reflections .     Strong  peer  pressure  to  keep  the 
unit's  honor  and  reputation  clean  is  an  indicator  of  esprit. 

(29)    SUMMARY  OF  LEADERSHIP  CHALLENGES  FACED  IN  COMBAT 

(a)  Success  in  combat  is  the  payoff.     The  degree  to 
which  the  individual  Marines  have  high  morale,  discipline, 
proficiency,   and  esprit  de  corps  largely  determines  how  they  will 
perform  in  combat.     During  operations  in  a  combat  environment  the 
essential  nature  of  these  factors  becomes  clearly  evident  to 
everyone,   particularly  the  leader. 

(b)  Success  in  combat  depends  upon  leadership  that 
can  keep  the  unit  cohesive,   disciplined,   and  capable  of 
destroying  the  enemy.     The  Marine  leader  today  has  the  heavy 
responsibility  of  ensuring  that  our  fighting  quality  as  Marines 
remains  at  least  as  strong  and  as  ready  for  combat  as  our  legacy 
has  proven  us  to  be  in  the  past. 

9 .     Discuss  how  to  develop  combat  readiness 

a.      WHAT  IS  COMBAT  READINESS? 

(1)  There  is  no  organization  in  the  world  where 
effectiveness  is  more  important  than  in  the  Marine  Corps.  Every 
individual  Marine  is  essential  to  the  performance  of  his  unit, 
and  all  Marine  units  depend  upon  the  effective  performance  of 
other  units.     With  us,   a  loss  in  effectiveness  can  result  in  the 
loss  of  Marine  lives.   Every  Marine  must  know  how  to  and  then  do 
his  job;   this  translates  into  unit  effectiveness.  But 
effectiveness  is  not  necessarily  combat  readiness. 

(2)  Combat  readiness  is  effectiveness  plus  the  desire  and 
ability  to  keep  on  fighting  until  the  mission  is  accomplished. 
Simply,    the  ability  to  maintain  efficient  and  effective 
performance  while  under  enemy  fire;   to  fight  and  win.  The 
objective  of  Marine  Corps  training  is  combat  readiness. 

(2)    HOW  DO  YOU  ACHIEVE  COMBAT  READINESS? 

(a)  Building  unit  discipline,   proficiency,  morale, 
and  esprit  de  corps. 

(b)  Training  to  enhance  each  Marine's: 


21-40 


[1]  Knowledge  of  the  job. 

[2]  Self -discipline . 

[3]  Self-confidence. 

[4]  Leadership. 

Discipline,   proficiency,   morale,    and  esprit  de  corps  are 
leadership  indicators  that  were  dealt  with  in  some  detail  as 
leadership  challenges.     They  are  reflections  of  the  willpower  of 
the  individuals  in  the  unit  and  are  crucial  to  combat  readiness. 
We  will  now  focus  on  the  training  concepts  that  contribute  to  a 
unit's  ability  to  succeed  in  combat. 

(3)    WHAT  CAN  WE  DO  DURING  PEACETIME  TO  PREPARE  OUR 
MARINES  TO  MEET  THESE  CHALLENGES? 

(a)  In  Appendix  A,    the  author  states,    "The  great 
majority  of  soldiers  overcome  fear,   as  they  have  done  throughout 
their  lives,   by  an  effort  of  will  and  by  support  from  others." 
Why  is  this?     Where/how  can  we  instill  the   "will?"     How  do  we 
ensure  individuals  will  receive  the  needed  support?  Some 
suggestions  by  follow: 

[1]  Develop  a  close  knit  and  cohesive  group. 

[2]  Avoid  personnel  turbulence. 

[3]  Know  your  Marines  and  be  known  by  them. 

[4]  Promote  and  retain  only  the  finest  leaders. 

[5]   Train  your  Marines  as  they  will  be  employed 
and  in  as  nearly  accurate  to  combat  environment  as  possible. 

[6]   Ensure  all  are  physically  fit. 

[7]   Train  to  ensure  competent  administration, 
logistics,   and  communication. 

(b)  In  Chapter  II  of  Battle  Leadership,   Captain  Von 
Schell  writes, 

"At  the  commencement  of  war,    soldiers  of  all  grades  are 
subject  to  a  terrific  nervous  strain.   Dangers  are  seen  on  every 

I 


21-41 


hand.     Imagination  runs  riot.     Therefore,   teach  your  soldiers  in 
peace  what  they  may  expect  in  war,    for  an  event  foreseen  and 
prepared  for  will  have  little  if  any  harmful  effect." 

(c)  Other  techniques  to  enhance  combat  readiness 

include : 

[1]   Train  on  how  to  identify  and  cope  with 
stress,    fear,  etc. 

[2]   Provide  realistic  and  stressful  training  to 
build  proficiency  and  confidence  in  leaders,   unit,  equipment, 
tactics,  weapons,   and  self. 

[3]   Provide  firm  fair  discipline  but  ensure  that 
you  emphasize  and  recognize  superior  performance . 

[4]   Cross  train  to  ensure  depth  in  unit 
proficiency  and  leadership. 

(d)  Annex  B,    "Battle  Doctrine  for  Front  Line  Leaders" 
also  provides  some  good  points  to  add. 

[1]   How  do  you  set  needed  training  priorities? 

[2]  What  is  a  realistic  training  environment? 

[3]   How  realistic  must  it  be?     Can  it  be? 

[4]   How  much  risk  is  necessary  to  create  the 
needed  simulated  stress? 

(e)  When  challenging  and  realistic  training  is  not 
provided,   morale,   discipline,   esprit,   and  proficiency  are 
adversely  affected. 

(4)    MARINES  MUST  TRAIN  THE  WAY  THEY  INTEND  TO  FIGHT.  HOW 
DO  YOU  DEVELOP  REALISM  WITHOUT  TAKING  EXCESSIVE  RISKS? 

(a)   Realistic  Training.     Combat  training  must  be 
stressful  and  incorporate  noise,    smoke,   danger,    confusion,  and 
fatigue  if  it  is  to  be  moderately  effective.     The  conditions  that 
are  anticipated  must  be  duplicated  as  much  as  possible.  Exercise 
your  ability  to  handle  in  training  everything  you  expect  to 
handle  in  combat.     Carry  heavy  loads;   go  on  forced  marches; 
conduct  low-level  flight  training;   operate  without  supplies  on 
occasion  to  simulate  the  necessity  of  sharing  rations;  water,  and 


21-42 


ammunition;  practice  care  for  casualties;   and  develop  physical 
strength  and  endurance  to  the  level  where  everyone  has  confidence 
in  their  ability  to  persevere.     Use  your  imagination;   it  is  the 
responsibility  of  the  leader  to  prepare  the  minds  of  Marines  for 
the  shock  of  combat.   Captain  Von  Schell  said  it  best  in  Battle 
Leadership : 

"In  peace  we  should  do  everything  possible  to  prepare  the 
minds  of  our  soldiers  for  the  strain  of  battle.     We  must 
repeatedly  warn  them  that  war  brings  with  it  surprise  and 
tremendously  deep  impressions.     We  must  prepare  them  for  the  fact 
that  each  minute  of  battle  brings  with  it  a  new  assault  on  the 
nerves.     As  soldiers  of  the  future  we  should  strive  to  realize 
that  we  will  be  faced  in  war  by  many  new  and  difficult 
impressions;   dangers  that  are  thus  foreseen  are  already  half 
overcome . " 

(b)   Train  in  the  basic  fundamentals 

[1]   Emphasize  camouflage;   cover  and  concealment; 
helo  operations;   movement;   preparation  of  battle  positions; 
accuracy,    control,   and  distribution  of  fire;   use  of  supporting 
arms;    land  navigation;   communicating  with  and  without  radios; 
noise  and  light  discipline;   and  other  basic  skills.     All  are 
essential  elements  the  combat  leader  must  teach  Marines  so  they 
can  survive  on  the  battlefield. 

[2]   Unit  leaders  must  learn  the  skills  and 
techniques  themselves  before  they  can  teach  them,   and  learn  how 
to  train  to  develop  them  in  their  Marines . 

[3]   Training  should  emphasize  the  attack.  We 
don't  win  by  defending.     Defense  is  something  that  is  only 
accomplished  when  we  are  preparing  to  continue  the  attack.  Even 
when  defending,   aggressive  patrol  actions  should  take  the  fight 
to  the  enemy,   and  familiarize  him  with  what  he  can  expect  if  he 
elects  to  attack.     Instinctively  think  of  forward  movement  and 
instill  a  desire  to  close  with  and  destroy  the  enemy.  Concentrate 
on  day  and  night  offensive  operations. 

(d)   Training  should  develop  an  aggressive  spirit  and 
confidence  in  the  fighting  ability  of  the  individual  and  the 
unit .     Emphasize  close  combat  training.     A  Marine  should  be  an 
expert  in  unarmed  combat  and  be  able  to  skillfully  fight  with  the 
knife  and  bayonet.     These  skill  areas  require  extensive  training 
to  master  requisite  speed  and  technique  for  effective  use,   but  it 
is  worth  it  and  Marines  thrive  on  it.     Hand-to-hand  combat 


21-43 


training,  bayonet  training,  unit  events  such  as  bear  pits,  push 
ball,  or  other  physical  team  oriented  efforts  develop  confidence 
and  aggressive  spirit. 

(e)  Cross  training  is  essential.     All  Marines  must 
not  only  be  able  to  perform  their  individual  jobs,    they  must  know 
how  to  keep  the  unit  operating  at  peak  efficiency.     This  means 
knowing  one  another's  job  and  being  able  to  keep  the  essential 
equipment /weapons  operating  when  combat  power  is  crucial.  Cross 
training  is  a  key  element  for  maintaining  cohesion  when  taking 
casualties.     All  Marines  must  understand  instinctively  that  their 
first  responsibility  in  combat  is  to  join  their  force  to  others; 
the  unit  must  prevail.     Only  through  effective  control  of  unit 
firepower  can  combat  success  be  attained.     Cross  training  will 
also  develop  a  depth  of  leadership  ability  that  will  allow  for 
the  continued  effectiveness  of  the  unit  if  any  leader  becomes  a 
casualty.     Train  all  your  Marines  to  be  ready  and  able  to  take 
charge  and  make  decisions  if  their  leader  is  hit! 

(f)  Train  under  adverse  conditions.     Combat  will  test 
your  ability  to  endure  hardship.     Marines  must  be  conditioned  to 
withstand  the  effects  of  weather.     Recall  the  experience  of 
Captain  Barrow  in  Korea.     Extreme  weather  conditions  offer  a 
distinct  advantage  to  the  side  best  prepared  to  continue  fighting 
amidst  such  hardships.     Training  in  adverse  weather  will  build 
confidence  in  your  Marines'   ability  to  care  for  weapons, 
equipment,   and  themselves.     Remember,   merely  enduring  is  not 
enough;   they  must  be  able  to  use  adverse  conditions  to  their 
advantage  to  fight . 

(g)  Drill .     Drill  is  the  beginning  of  the  process 
that  turns  an  uncoordinated  group  of  individuals  into  a  tight 
military  unit.     Drill  produces  a  habit  of  prompt  obedience  to 
orders  and  instills  pride,    a  sense  of  unity,   and  discipline.  The 
habit  of  responsiveness  that  is  developed  through  drill  will  help 
carry  the  unit  through  the  terrifying  moments  when  the  shock  of 
enemy  fire  is  first  felt. 

(5)    WHAT  SHOULD  WE  DO  DURING  COMBAT  TO  MEET  THESE 
CHALLENGES? 

(a)   Ask  the  group  to  provide  examples  from  their 

experiences.     Some  additional  questions  include: 

[1]   How  did  seniors  aid  them? 

[2]   How  did  seniors  impede  them? 


21-44 


[3]   Consider  the  situation  in  places  like 
Somalia;  what  types  of  challenges  do  leaders  face? 

[4]   How  can  we  assist  our  Marines  in 
understanding  and  dealing  with  an  often  hostile  press  and 
population  back  home? 

(b)  Appendix  A  addresses  the  importance  of: 

[1]  Keeping  the  troops  and  seniors  informed  to 
prevent  rumors  and  uncertainty. 

[2]   Demonstrating  personal  and  courageous 
leadership  by  example. 

[3]    Providing  "purposeful  actions"   to  keep  troops 
busy  and  active  as  an  "...antidote  to  the  poison  of  fear. 

(c)  In  Appendix  C,   Marshall  wrote  of  the  great 
importance  and  impact  of  a  leader's  personal  courage  and 
leadership  on  the  battlefield.     He  stated: 

"There  is  one  radical  difference  between  training  and  combat 
conditions. . .    In  combat  something  new  is  added.     Even  if  they 
have  previously  looked  on  him  as  a  father  and  believed  absolutely 
that  being  with  him  was  their  best  assurance  of  successful 
survival.     Should  he  then  develop  a  dugout  habit,    show  himself  as 
fearful  and  too  careful  of  his  own  safety. . . .     On  the  field  there 
is  no  substitute  for  courage,   no  other  bonding  influence  toward 
unity  of  action.     Troops  will  excuse  almost  any  stupidity; 
excessive  timidity  is  simply  unforgivable." 

(d)  There  are  other  examples  that  address  this  in 
Chapter  I  of  Von  Schell ' s  Battle  Leadership. 

(e)  Some  other  actions  a  leader  can  take  are: 
[1]   Ensure  proper  rest,    food,   etc.  (when 

possible) . 

[2]  Keep  a  close  watch  on  subordinates  for  any 
telltale  signs  of  excessive  stress  and  ensure  they  do  the  same 
for  their  Marines . 


21-45 


[3]   Ensure  the  maintenance  of  standards  (of 
discipline,   hygiene,   maintenance,  etc.) 


[4]   Ensure  replacements  are  properly  integrated, 
assimilated,   and  trained.     Von  Schell  addresses  this  in  Chapter 
IV  of  Battle  Leadership. 

(6)    WHAT  ARE  SOME  IMPORTANT  CONSIDERATIONS  WHEN 
INTEGRATING  OR  ASSIMILATING  UNTRIED  MARINES   INTO  YOUR 
ORGANIZATION? 

(a)   Considerations  include: 

[1]    Explaining  to  them  the  unit's  mission  and 
what  the  unit  has  accomplished  recently  and  any  future  plans. 

[2]    Personally  talking  with  each  Marine. 

[3]    Placing  inexperienced  Marines  with  an 
experienced  individual . 

[4]    Stressing  personal  discipline. 

[5]   Time  permitting,    training  under  difficult 

conditions . 

[6]   Keeping  troops  informed. 

[7]   Time  permitting,    allow  troops  to  slowly 
become  acclimatized  to:     their  unit,    their  leaders,  the 
environment  and  the  general  situation.     Exhausted  and  confused 
Marines  are  a  liability. 

(7)    HOW  CAN  THE  PROPER  INTEGRATION  OF  GREEN  TROOPS 
INFLUENCE  MORALE  AND  MISSION  PERFORMANCE? 

(a)   Von  Schell  states: 

[1]   They  quickly  gain  confidence. 

[2]  Veterans  regard  themselves  as  instructors  to 
their  young  comrades;   they  feel  responsible  for  them.  It 
contributes  to  unit  cohesion,   esprit  and  morale. 

(Note:     Appendix  B,    "Battle  Doctrine  for  Front  Line  Leaders"  is 
not  only  a  guide  for  proper  leadership  in  combat,    it  also  serves 


21-46 


as  a  guide  for  conducting  proper  training.     Although  many  of 
those  fundamental  leadership  principles  and  rules  based  on  combat 
experience  have  been  incorporated  in  this  discussion  guide,  it 
would  be  well  worth  the  time  to  give  copies  to  your  leaders  and 
discuss  each  one  of  these  truths  of  positive  combat  leadership. 
Appendix  D,    "Combat  Leadership  Problems"  presents  two  scenarios 
for  discussion) . 


10 .  SUMMARY 


a.     Combat  readiness  is  the  responsibility  of  every  leader. 
The  key  to  achieving  combat  readiness  is  in  properly  training 
your  Marines.     All  members  of  the  unit  must  know  their  jobs.  They 
must  understand  the  role  and  function  of  the  unit  and  be  able  to 
keep  the  unit  operating  when  it  comes  under  fire.     This  requires 
effective  leadership  before,   during,   and  after  combat.  Effective 
leadership  includes  high  standards  of  discipline,  proficiency, 
morale,   and  esprit  de  corps  that  will  enable  a  unit  to 
effectively  deal  with  the  shock  of  combat.     Effective  leadership 
provides  training  that  accomplishes  the  following: 

(1)  Prepares  individual  Marine  for  the  stress  of  combat 
(for  the  moment  they  hear  an  angry  bullet  crack  by  their  head  and 
realize  for  the  first  time  that  somebody  actually  intends  to  kill 
them) . 

(2)  Builds  confidence  in  individual  Marines,  their 
leaders  and  the  ability  of  the  unit  to  succeed. 

(3)  Builds  self -discipline . 

(4)  Develops  unit  cohesion  and  fighting  power. 

(5)  Instills  an  aggressive,   unconquerable  spirit,  and 
determination  to  succeed  in  combat. 


(6)  Individual  Marines  must  be  fit,   reliable,  tough, 
capable  of  effectively  using  weapons,   and  able  to  fight,  survive, 
and  win  on  a  lethal,   and  confusing  battlefield.     It  is  the  basic 
soldiering  skills  that  will  enable  us  to  succeed,   and  we  must  not 
forget  it. 

(7)  The  formula  for  positive  combat  leadership  which  we 
have  discussed  applies  to  all  leaders,   at  all  times,  regardless 
of  rank,    specialty  or  duty  assignment.     We  are  all  potential 
combat  leaders.     Failure  to  follow  these  basic  leadership 


21-47 


techniques  can  cost  the  lives  of  those  dependent  upon  our 
leadership,   and  spell  the  difference  between  defeat  and  victory. 

(8)    Success  in  combat  depends  upon  effective  leadership 
that  can  keep  the  unit  cohesive,   disciplined,   and  capable  of 
destroying  the  enemy.     Marine  leaders  today  has  the  heavy 
responsibility  to  ensure  their  units  are  as  strong  and  as  ready 
for  combat  as  our  legacy  has  proven  to  be  in  the  past. 

b.  The  following  is  a  description  of  the  Marines  who  landed 
to  fight  in  Korea: 

"And  these  men  walked  with  a  certain  confidence  and  swagger. 
They  were  only  young  men  like  those  about  them  in  Korea,   but  they 
were  conscious  of  a  standard  to  live  up  to,   because  they  had  good 
training,   and  it  had  been  impressed  upon  them  that  they  were 
United  States  Marines . 

Except  in  holy  wars,    or  in  defense  of  their  native  soil,  men 
fight  well  only  because  of  pride  and  training    pride  in 
themselves  and  their  service,    enough  training  to  absorb  the  real 
blows  of  war  and  to  know  what  to  do.     Few  men,   of  any  breed, 
really  prefer  to  kill  or  be  killed.     These  Marines  had  pride  in 
their  service,   which  had  been  carefully  instilled  in  them,  and 
they  had  pride  in  themselves,   because  each  man  had  made  the  grade 
in  a  hard  occupation.     They  would  not  lightly  let  their  comrades 
down.     And  they  had  discipline,   which  in  essence  is  the  ability 
not  to  question  orders  but  to  carry  them  out  as  intelligently  as 
possible . 

Marine  human  material  was  not  one  bit  better  than  that  of  the 
human  society  from  which  it  came.     But  it  had  been  hammered  into 
form  in  a  different  forge,   hardened  with  a  different  fire.  The 
Marines  were  the  closest  thing  to  legions  the  nation  had.  They 
would  follow  their  colors  from  the  shores  of  home  to  the  seacoast 
of  Bohemia,    and  fight  well  either  place." 

This  Kind  of  War,   T.   R.  Fehrenback. 

c.  The  books  that  record  the  Corps'   history  rarely  outline 
the  grand  political  strategy  of  theater  tactics,   but  record  the 
bloody  details  of  Marines  in  combat.     Marines  who  were  wounded  or 
killed  trying  to  save  a  buddy,   Marines  who  charged  a  position 
single  handedly,   Marines  who  despite  the  odds,    terrain,  or 
possible  outcome,    led,    followed,   and  were  successful.  The 
responsibility  for  the  preparation  of  future  combat  veterans  is 
an  awesome  moral  responsibility.     Winning  teams  do  not  just 
happen;   they  are  created  by  hard  work  and  lots  of  leadership. 


21-48 


11 .  Appendices 


Appendix  A: 
Appendix  B : 

Appendix  C : 
Appendix  D : 

Appendix  E : 
Appendix  F : 


Determination  in  Battle  by  Ma j Gen  T.S.  Hart 
Battle  Doctrine  for  Front  Line  Leaders  for  3d 
Marine  Division 

Combat  Leadership  by  S.L.A.  Marshall 
Americans  in  Combat  excerpt  from  The  Armed 
Forces  Officer 

Legacy  of  Esprit  and  Leadership  by  Ma j Gen  John 
A.  Lejeune 

Peleliu  -  Recollections  of  a  PFC  by  E.B.  Sledge 


21-49 


Deter  mi 


j 

mmm 

by  Major  GeneraMT.  S.  Hart 


Thit  or  tick  is  based  on  a presentation  made  by  General  Hart 
before  §  Royal  Armoured  Corps  Conference  in  late  1978. 
Although  a  part  of  It  is  directed  toward  the  British  Regimental 
System,  General  Hart  has  many  things  to  say  regarding  morale 
ana'  conduct  in  battle  that  are  pertinent  to  soldiers  of  all  ranks, 
whatever  their  Army.  ARMOR  is  pleased  to  pass  along  his 
remarks  to  Us  readers  worldwide.  ED. 


For  a  short  time  we  art  to  put  aside  tactical  doctrines,  the 
requirement  for  a  new  main  battle  tank,  restructuring, 
electronic  warfare,  and  all  the  other  familiar  subjects  which 
normally  dominate  Arms  and  Services  Directors'  Conferences. 

As  a  change,  1  have  been  asked  to  talk  about  the  soldier  and 
his  determination  in  battle.  Because  however  good  the  equip- 
ment, however  complete  the  staff  work  and  planning,  unless 
the  soldier  actually  fights,  defeat  is  inevitable.  Events  in 
Southeast  Asia  and  the  Middle  East  in  the  mid-seventies  have 
certainly  shown  that  the  time-honored  quotation,  "It  is  not 


the  number  of  soldiers,  but  their  will  to  win,  which  decides 
battles,  "  is  still  very  valid. 

I  first  researched  this  presentation  in  1974,  but  I  have  chang- 
ed but  little  from  my  original  script.  This  is  not  due  to  idleness 
but  the  realisation  that  with  the  possible  reduction  in  the  warn- 
ing lime  of  Warsaw  Pact  aggression  we  all  may  be  required  to 
react  as  quickly  as  the  3rd  Airponable  Division  was  expected 
to  react  in  the  old  days. 

Anyway,  the  principles  involved  in  determination  in  battle 
are  the  same  for  tr-  >ips  based  either  in  Tid worth  or  Falhng- 
boesiol,  Hohne  or  Colchester. 

Now  all  of  us  at  various  times  in  our  careers  have  attended 
lectures  on  morale  and  leadership.  M  many  cases  the  lecturer 
has  been  of  the  standing  of  Field  Marshals  Slim,  Waved,  or 
Harding:  commanders  with  quite  unique  experience  of  leading 
soldiers  in  major  battles.  It  would  be  tactically  unsound  for  a 
Director  of  Medical  Services  (DMS)  to  take  on  such  company. 
1  intend,  therefore,  to  look  at  (he  problem  in  a  slightly  dif- 
ferent and  more  academic  way — and  yet  frequently  refer  to 


ARMOR         may-Junn  1080 


A-l 


history  to  bring  my  academic  kite  Dying  back  to  earth. 

I  will  also  quote  from  a  variety  of  commanders  throughout 
history  who,  although  they  knew  nothing  of  the  modern  fields 
of  behavioural  psychology,  knew  instinctively  what  stimulated 
.heir  soldiers  to  deeds  of  valour. 

Tear  and  Courage 
When  discussing  human  behaviour,  we  are  immediately  on 
uncertain  ground.  There  are  many  varying  views,  especially 
among  experts.  Therefore,  when  discussing  courage,  deter- 
mination In  battle,  or  morale— call  it  what  you  will— we  have 
to  accept  some  basic  assumptions. 

First,  man  is  by  nature  an  aggressive  animal  and  unlike  other 
animals,  who  merely  seek  to  dominate,  man  is  prepared  to  kill. 

Next,  although  society  is  constantly  changing,  aggression  is 
innate  in  man  and  has  varied  little,  if  at  all,  in  recent  centuries. 

In  our  present  culture,  to  display  courage  is  still  considered 
to  be  major,  if  not  the  major,  virtue  of  the  male — and  deep 
down  nearly  all  men,  if  honest,  would  wish  to  succeed  as  a 
warrior,  if  given  the  chance.  Field  Marshal  Slim  summed  it  up 
well  when  he  said: 

"1  do  not  believe  that  there  is  any  man  who  would  not 
rather  be  called  brave  than  have  any  other  virtue  at- 
tributed to  him." 

What  then  is  the  problem?  Here  we  have  an  animal  that  is 
aggressive.  It  will  kill  and.  in  the  main,  still  holds  courage  in 
battle  to  be  a  virtue.  Unfortunately  in  human  behaviour 
nothing  is  quite  so  simple. 

Considering  the  problem  ia  purely  physical  terms,  when 
faced  with  danger  the  body  responds  by  certain  physiological 
changes.  The  number  of  blood  cells  increases,  the  time  blood 
takes  to  dot  is  reduced,  more  sugar  is  distributed  to  the 
muscks  and  many  other  changes  take  place  so  that  physically 
he  is  ready  to  launch  into  the  attack.  There  is,  however,  a  snag: 
fighting  may  lead  to  a  valuable  victory,  but  it  may  also  involve 
serious  damage  to  the  victor.  The  enemy  invariably  provokes 
fear  as  weU  as  aggression.  Aggression  drives  man  on;  fear 
holds  him  back.  Those  physical  changes  I  have  already 
described,  increase  in  number  of  blood  cells,  etc,  not  only 
prepare  the  body  to  fight— but  also  for  flight.  In  other  words 
all  that  blood  sugar  can  either  be  burned  in  combat  or  by  tak- 
ing off  at  high  speed  in  the  opposite  direction.  Physically,  the 
body  doesn't  care  which:  it  is  mentally  that  the  final  decision  is 
made  whether  to  stand  and  fight  or  cut  and  run.  Moran,  in  his 
classic  book  The  Anatomy  of  Courage,  defines  courage  as 
follows: 

"It  is  a  moral  quality,  it  is  not  a  chance  gift  of  nature 
like  an  aptitude  for  fames.  It  is  a  cold  choice  between 
two  alternatives,  it  is  the  fixed  resolve  hot  to  quit,  an  act 
of  renunciation  which  must  be  made  not  once  but  many 
times  by  the  power  of  will.  Courage  is  will  power." 

I  would  like  to  spend  a  little  time  examining  those  factors 
which  either  stimulate  courage  or  erode  it — for  it  must  be  ac- 
cepted that  all  men  have  some  degree  of  courage.  Many  things 
support  or  sap  the  will  of  the  soldier  and  their  importance  in 
many  cases  varies  as  society  changes.  However,  some  factors 
are  bask  and  remain  constant. 

Let  us  take  the  bad  news  first. 

The  major  stress  that  can  erode  and  destroy  a  man's  courage 
and  lead  to  mental  breakdown  is  fear. 

The  emotion  of  fear  is,  of  course,  a  perfectly  natural,  and 
defensive,  reaction  to  any  circumstances  which  threaten  to  en- 
danger the  safety  of  the  individual.  No  man  relishes  the 
thought  of  wounding,  or  death. 


in  battle,  Tear  varies  in  direct  proportion  to  the  real  or 
imagined  danger  from  the  enemy.  The  great  majority  of 
soldiers  overcome  fear,  as  they  have  done  throughout  their 
lives,  by  an  effort  of  will  and  by  support  from  others.  Certain 
situations,  however,  stimulate  or  magnify  fear  and  therefore 
increase  the  chance  of  mental  breakdown.  The  order  of  priori- 
ty being  a  matter  of  personal  choice.  I  would  put  the  following 
factors  on  my  list. 

The  Unexpected,  Soldiers  going  into  battle  have  received 
training  and  have  been  given  certain  information.  They  have, 
in  the  main,  mentally  adjusted  to  a  certain  course  of  events 
and  most  are  prepared  to  meet  what  comes.  If  they  arc 
presented  with  a  situation  for  which  their  training  has  been  in- 
adequate or  which  is  completely  unexpected,  then  the  will  that 
controls  fear  sags  and  crumbles.  1  am  sure  that  this  is  the  basis 
for  the  success  of  either  tactical  surprise  in  battle  or  the  in- 
troduction of  the  unexpected  onto  the  battlefield.  Examples 
abound  in  history  from  Hannibal's  elephants  to  the  use  of 
poison  gas  and  the  blitzkrieg.  Clausewitz  summed  it  up  when 
he  said: 

"It  is  of  first  importance  that  the  soldier  high  or  low 
should  not  have  to  encounter  in  war  things  which,  seen 
for  the  first  time,  set  him  in  terror  or  perplexity." 
The  Unknown.  What  man  has  not  seen,  he  always  expects 
will  be  greater  than  it  really  is.  The  modern  soldier  faces  a  bat- 
tery of  the  most  fearful  weapons.  Unless  he  is  well  trained  and 
fully  conversant  with  what  is  to  be  expected,  then  he  will  be 
anxious — and  apprehension  is  fear  in  its  infancy. 
In  the  words  of  Thomas  Hardy: 

"More  life  may  trickle  out  of  man  through  thoughts 
than  through  a  gaping  wound." 

I  would  add  that  this  fear  of  the  unknown  is  most  marked 
when  the  soldier  is  isolated,  or  at  night. 

Fear  of  Failure.  Nearly  ail  men  have  doubts  as  to  how  they 
will  behave  in  battle.  In  some,  this  fear  that  they  will  fail  and 
let  down  their  comrades  is  a  very  real  form  of  stress.  And  yet, 
perversely,  in  many  the  fear  of  failing  and  letting  down  the 
group  can  stimulate  men  to  great  deeds  of  heroism.  There  is  an 
old  German  proverb,  which  is  apt. 

"Some  have  been  thought  brave  because  they  were 
afraid  to  run  away." 

It  depends  on  the  man's  background  and  the  degree  of  his 
attachment  to  this  group. 

The  Noise  and  Sight  of  Battle.  Battles  can  be,  and  with  the 
Soviet  present  penchant  for  artillery  we  can  certainly  expect 
them  to  continue  to  be,  very  noisy  affairs.  The  sheer  battcrtng 
of  the  soldier  by  noise  can  destroy  his  will.  The  sights  to  be 
seen  on  the  battlefield  can  also  be  unnerving.  Widespread 
destruction,  in  many  cases,  does  not  seem  to  affect  the  soldier 
as  much  as  the  loss  of  one  of  his  immediate  group. 

Fear  of  Killing.  Although  we  have  at  the  onset  accepted  that 
man  will  kill;  some,  quite  reasonably,  because  of  their  up- 
bringing and  teaching,  are  averse  to  taking  a  human  life.  This 
can  in  some  cases  cause  a  real  and  deep  mental  conflict.  But  in 
most,  the  excitement  of  battle,  support  from  his  comrades 
and.  finally,  kill  or  be  killed,  results  in  most  men  overcoming 
this  fear. 

Exhaustion — Mental  and  Physical.  You  are  all  aware  of 
Moran 's  description  of  courage  and  his  view  that  men  have  on- 
ly a  certain  amount  of  courage  in  the  bank.  He  goes  on: 

"The  call  on  the  bank  of  courage  may  only  be  the 
daily  drain  or  it  might  be  a  sudden  draught  which 
threatens  to  close  the  account." 


ARMOR         may-june  1980 


There  is  no  doubt  that  troops,  however  well-led,  can  only 
take  the  stress  of  battle  for  so  long— then  they  break.  Any 
commander,  at  any  level,  who  tries  to  overdraw  the  account  is 
courting  disaster. 

So  far  we  have  tended  to  separate  the  mental  and  the 
physical.  This  Is,  of  course,  an  artificial  division— the  mental 
and  the  physical  constantly  interact.  Therefore,  physical 
fatigue,  hunger,  disease,  thirst  and,  above  all,  the  stress  of 
adverse  climatic  conditions,  can  reduce  the  physical  state  of 
the  soldier  to  such  an  extent  that  his  will  to  fight  is  broken. 
Taking  climate  as  an  example,  one  only  has  to  consider  the  ef- 
fect of  cold  on  most  of  Sir  John  Moore's  troops  in  the  Corrun- 
na  campaign— or  even  Napoleon's  army  in  Russia.  One  writer 
described  Napoleon's  retreat: 

"The  cold  was  the  abominable  thing:  the  dreadful 
enemy  against  which  man  could  not  fight  and  which 
destroyed  them.  The  cold  first  struck  on  the  night  of 
November  3-6  and  with  that  blow  the  dissolution  of  the 
grand  army  began." 

And  yet,  exactly  130  years  later,  Van  Paulus'  Sixth  Army 
fought  at  Stalingrad,  poorly  equipped  for  the  climate,  until 
early  February.  During  the  same  winter  Von  Manstein's  army 
fought  one  of  the  best  cavalry  and  armoured  delaying  battles 
of  all  time  in  the  Don  and  Doniu  basins. 

Really  delving  into  the  past— I  doubt  if  there  has  been  a 
more  disease  ridden  army  than  the  "British  Army"  that 
fought  at  Agincourt.  Many  could  hardly  stand  and  yet  they 
totally  defeated  the  heavy  armoured  box  of  their  day.  Why? 

I  think  it  is  now  time  to  leave  those  factors  which  sometimes 
cause  armies  and  soldiers  to  give  way  to  fear  and  despair.  We 
will  now  look  at  what  stimulates  and  maintains  courage  and 
enables  the  soldier  to  overcome  adversity  and  his  quite  natural 
fear. 

Again,  there  are  a  number  of  factors,  some  of  which  are 
constant  and  some  which  vary,  as  society  varies.  For  example 
in  Cromwell's  New  Model  Army,  a  major  force  was  religion. 
John  Baynes  in  his  excellent  book,  Morale,  when  examining 
the  2nd  Scottish  Rifles  who  fought  so  well  at  Neuve  Chapelle, 
found  that  religion  influenced  only  SO  percent  of  the  officers 
and  10  percent  of  the  soldiers.  I  am  pretty  certain  it  is  a  lower 
figure  today,  and  yet  psychologists  will  tell  you  that: 

"Those  with  deep  religious  convictions  have  a 
bulwark  against  loneliness,  terror,  fantasies  conjured  up 
by  the  unconscious  and  the  unleashing  of  deep-seated 
conflicts." 

Just  what  we  need  in  the  soldier  in  battle.  But  the  same 
psychologists  admit  that  such  people  form  a  minority  in  our 
conflict -ridden  society.  So,  much  as  we  might  like  to,  we  can- 
not count  on  religion  to  aid  more  than  a  few. 

Let  us  consider  patriotism.  Moran  describes  his  generation, 
as  follows: 

"We  went  into  the  enterprise,  the  high  adventure  of 
1914,  with  hearts  singing." 

Baynes,  talking  of  a  Scottish  unit— and  therefore  more  dour 
and  down-to-earth  folk— found  that  patriotism  was  certainly 
an  influence  on  the  behaviour  of  the  2nd  Scottish  Rifles;  but 
that  it  was  not  comparable  in  importance  with  other  factors. 
Certainly  in  our  present  society  patriotism  is  not  a  dominant 
force.  What  do  we  have  left?  I  think  we  have  the  same  basic 
factors  that  we  have  always  had— the  strength  of  the  well- 
integrated  group  and  the  individual  soldier's  identification 
with  that  group,  leadership,  discipline,  and  success. 

The  first  choice— the  strength  of  the  well  integrated 


group— may  surprise  you.  But  I  believe  it  is  the  major  force  in 
the  stimulation  of  courage  and  maintenance  of  good  morale. 
The  Well  Integrated  Group  and  Group  Identification 

The  fundamental  patterns  of  behaviour  laid  down  by  hunt- 
ing apes  millions  of  years  ago  still  shine  through  all  the  affairs 
of  modern  man.  We  did  not  evolve  to  live  in  huge  conglomera- 
tions of  tens  of  thousands  of  individuals.  Our  basic  behaviour 
is  designed  to  operate  in  the  hunting  group  or  as  part  of  a  tribe 
limited  to  hundreds— not  thousands — of  members.  Loyalty  to, 
and  dependence  on,  the  hunting  group— and  subsequently  the 
tribe— are  expressed  in  military  society  as  loyalty  to  the  pla- 
toon, the  company,  and,  lastly,  the  regiment. 

This  form  of  loyalty  and  dependence  goes  way  back  to  the 
very  roots  of  man.  Baynes,  in  his  very  deep  analysis  of  the  in- 
gredients that  made  up  the  quite  unquenchable  courage  of  2nd 
Scottish  Rifles  at  Neuve  Chapelle,  puts  regimental  loyalty — in 
my  view  quite  rightly — at  the  top  of  the  list.  I  believe  many  in 
the  Army  have  forgotten  the  cohesive  power  of  this 
loyalty— but  we  will  consider  that  later. 

Leadership.  Everyone  has  their  own  definition  of  leader- 
ship. While  researching  this  presentation,  I  studied  dozens  of 
definitions — but  the  one  that  really  comes  alive  for  me  is  that 
by  Correlli  Barnet: 

"Leadership  is  a  psychological  force  that  has  nothing 
to  do  with  morals  or  good  character  or  even  intelligence: 
nothing  to  do  with  ideals  or  idealism.  It  is  a  matter  of 
relative  will  powers,  a  basic  connection  between  one 
animal  and  the  rest  of  the  herd.  Leadership  is  a  process 
by  which  a  single  aim  and  unified  action  are  inparted  to 
the  herd.  Not  surprisingly  it  is  most  in  evidence  in  times 
or  circumstances  of  danger  or  challenge.  Leadership  is 
not  imposed  like  authority.  It  is  actually  welcomed  and 
wanted  by  the  led." 

That,  in  my  view,  is  what  leadership  is  all  about.  But  how  do 
you  select  such  leaders?  In  the  primitive  hunting  group  leaders 
were  accepted  only  after  the  most  ruthless  selection  process.  Is 
our  selection  adequate?  This,  we  will  consider  later. 

Discipline.  The  question  of  discipline  has  been  the  subject  of 
considerable  debate  in  a  modern  Army  plagued  by  difficulties 
in  recruiting  from  a  society  which  has  rejected  many  previously 
accepted  forms  of  discipline.  While  agreeing  with  all  that  has 
been  written  about  discipline  from  within  and  self-control,  I 
still  believe  that  discipline  of  the  more  traditional  kind  is  ex- 
tremely effective  in  battle.  De  Gaulle  summed  it  up  well: 

"Although  soldiers  carry  within  themselves  a  thou- 
sand and  one  seeds  of  diversity,  men  in  their  hearts  can 
no  more  do  without  being  controlled  than  they  can  live 
without  food  or  drink.  Discipline  is  thus  the  basic  con- 
stituent of  all  armies,  but  its  form  must  be  shaped  by  the 
conditions  and  moral  climate  of  our  times." 
Success.  Obviously  success  is  a  factor  of  great  importance: 
the  modern  soldier  no  longer  accepts  his  lot  stoically.  He  ex- 
pects things  to  go  well. 

I  include  under  this  heading  not  only  success  in  battle— but 
success  from  the  point  of  view  of  things  happening  as  planned. 
In  other  words  good  administration. 

Although  important,  I  would  not  rank  success  in  battle 
alongside  my  first  three  factors  because  history  has  countless 
examples  of  well-led  troops  who  pressed  on  through  defeat 
after  defeat. 

An  Example  From  History 
The  chances,  in  the  next  conflict,  of  a  "phony  war"  period 
in  which  units  can  shake  down  are  extremely  unlikely. 
I  have  therefore  examined  modern  history  to  find  a  bat- 


ARMOR         ma>  ,    a  1980 


le — preferably  a  worst  case— which  is  comparable  to  one  that 
he  Array  may  be  asked  to  fight.  Having  found  such  a  battle,  I 
xamined  what  were  the  factors  that,  from  the  morale  point  of 
iew,  made  the  battle  a  success  or  failure. 
The  battle  I  picked  was  the  defence  of  Calais  in  May  1940  by 
he  30th  Brigade.  The  brigade,  when  committed  to  Calais, 
om prised  Queen  Victoria's  Rifles  (TA);  2nd  Battalion,  60th 
Ufles;  1st  Battalion,  The  Rifle  Brigade;  and  3rd  Royal  Tank 
tegiment. 

Their  mission  was  to  defend  Calais  and  thereby  assist  the 
withdrawal  of  the  British  Expeditionary  Force  (BEF). 

The  enemy  units  were  the  1st  Panzer  Division,  at  the  onset, 
ollowed  by  the  10th  Panzer  Division  from  Guderian's  19th 
Torps— supported  by  massed  artillery  and  up  to  100  Stukas. 

Battalions  were  moved  at  literally  a  few  hours  notice  from 
last  Anglia  and  Southern  England  to  Calais,  and  in  a  matter 
if  hours  went  into  action. 

They  left  most  of  their  transport  and  much  of  their  ammuni- 
ion  in  the  United  Kingdom.  The  staff  work  of  their  move  was 
t  shambles.  As  they  arrived  in  Calais,  base  troops  and  wound- 
xl  were  being  evacuated  and  dead  were  laid  out  on  the  quay, 
fhy  had  no  artillery  support  even  though  the  Royal  Navy  did 
heir  best  with  destroyers.  The  town  was  full  of  refugees  and 
fifth  columnists  and  the  cellars  held  thousands  of  French  and 
Belgian  soldiers  who  had  had  enough. 

The  front  they  had  to  defend  stretched  for  6  miles.  The 
weather  was  extremely  hot  and  soon  after  battle  was  joined  the 
water  supply  was  virtually  destroyed. 


Both  battalions  had  trained  for  mobile  operations  as  part  of 
the  1st  Division,  but  then  were  committed  with  no  retraining  to 
street  fighting. 

The  noise  from  massed  artillery,  tanks,  and  Stukas  must 
have  been  unbearable. 

To  top  it  all,  for  2  days  the  troops  were  led  to  expect  that 
they  would  be  evacuated  by  sea  when  the  position  became 
untenable.  Then  they  were  asked  to  defend  to  the  last.  (I  did 
say  I  looked  for  a  worst  case). 

This  rather  doleful  tale  contains  every  one  of  my  adverse 
factors.  The  unexpected;  the  unknown;  fear;  exhaustion;  noise 
of  battle;  and  unpleasant  sights.  All  were  there  in  abundance. 

If  you  had  commissioned  a  psychiatrist  to  put  together  a 
situation  for  the  complete  demoralisation  of  troops,  I  doubt  if 
he  could  have  improved  on  this  situation. 

But  far  from  being  demoralised,  they  stood  and  fought  for  4 
days.  And  accounts  from  the  10th  Panzer  war  diaries  show 
that  at  times  they  fought  markedly  superior  German  forces  to 
a  standstill. 

On  the  very  last  morning,  the  26th  of  May,  1st  Battalion, 
The  Rifle  Brigade  was  down  to  14  officers  and  290  men.  One 
company  was  reduced  from  150  to  30  of  all  ranks.  The  60th 
was  probably  worse  off. 

And  yet  Heinz  Guderian  questioned  the  Commander,  10th 
Panzer,  as  to  whether  or  not  he  should  stop  the  attack  and  ask 
for  more  air  strikes— such  was  the  resistance. 

When  analysing  the  accounts  in  The  Rifle  Brigade 
1935-1945.  by  Hastings,  and  especially  in  Airey  Neave's  book 


A- 4 


ARMOR 


may-june  1980 


on  the  battle,  the  following  of  our  positive  factors  come  out 
time  and  time  again: 

Most  of  the  personnel — officers  and  men — of  the  Regular 
battalions  had  been  together  for  years.  Even  the  Reservists 
thai  rejoined  the  battalions  were  7-year  men,  who  slipped  back 
into  the  family  with  ease. 

Pride  in  the  regiment  was  enormous. 

Leadership,  from  Brigadier  Nicholson  down,  was  of  a  very 
high  order— one  company  commander,  wounded  on  three 
separate  occasions,  refused  to  leave  his  company. 

Thanks  to  Brigadier  Jimmy  Clover  I  found  one  more 
source,  Major  General  Tom  Acton,  who  was  Adjutant  to  1st 
Battalion,  The  Rifle  Brigade,  in  Calais. 

He  confirmed  the  shambles  and  many  of  the  facts  in  Neave's 
account— but  he  said  two  things  which  I  consider  to  be  of 
tremendous  value. 

Having  listened  to  his  account  of  how  everything  went 
wrong  I  asked  him  the  direct  question,  "Why  did  they  fight  so 
well?" 

After  quite  a  pause  he  said, 

"The  Regiment  had  always  fought  well,  and  we  were 
with  our  friends." 
Just  simply  that. 

When  asked  what,  apart  from  the  obvious  upset  the  men,  he 
said, 

"The  breakdown  of  the  normal  organisation  and 
break  up  of  previously  cohesive  groups  upset  the  men 
and  hod  an  adverse  effect  on  morale.  " 
1  will  end  this  account  with  two  quotations  from  Airey 
Neave: 

"It  may  be  fashionable  today  to  sneer  at  regimental 
loyalty,  but  Calais  could  not  have  been  held  long 
without  it." 

"So  strong  were  regimental  feelings  that  some  wound- 
ed had  to  be  taken  out  of  POW  columns  by  the  Germans 
for  treatment— even  when  they  had  been  on  the  march 
for  days." 

What  Can  Commanders  Do  in  Peace? 

"  1  think  from  the  factors  I  have  given  you,  and  the  account  of 
Calais,  you  will  have  worked  out  what  I  am  going  to  suggest.  I 
have  plugged  time  and  time  again  the  strength  of  the  well- 
trained,  well-knit  group.  At  the  beginning  of  this  lecture  1  said, 
"The  great  majority  of  soldiers  overcome  fear,  as  they  have 
done  throughout  their  lives,  by  an  effort  of  will  and  by  support 
from  others."  This  support  is  provided  by  the  group  and  their 
leaders.  But  the  group  is  only  effective  if  it  has  been  together 
for  some  time.  The  cohesive  bonds  having  formed,  and  iden- 

ARMOR        may-jc  .*  1980  A 


tificaiion  with  the  group  and  tribe  having  fully  developed. 

In  the  case  of  leaders,  trust  takes  time  to  develop  unless  the 
leader  has  that  instant  magnetism  that  is  found  only  in  one  in  a 
million  men. 

May  I  quote  from  Regulations  for  the  Rifle  Corps,  prepared 
in  1800,  by  Sir  John  Moofe  who  is  considered  by  many  the 
greatest  trainer  of  soldiers  the  British  Army  has  ever  had. 

"Having  formed  his  company  he  (the  captain)  will 
then  arrange  comrades.  Every  corporal,  private,  and 
bugler  will  select  a  comrade  of  the  rank  differing  from 
his  own,  i.e.  front  rank  and  rear  rank,  and  is  never  to 
change  him  without  the  permission  of  his  captain.  Com- 
rades are  always  to  have  the  same  berth  in  quarters  and, 
that  they  may  be  as  little  separated  as  possible  in  either 
barracks  or  the  field,  will  join  the  same  file  on  parade, 
and  go  on  the  same  duties  with  arms." 

Commanders  must  therefore  resist  turbulence  in  their  units. 
Every  effort  must  be  made  to  keep  companies,  platoons,  and 
sections  together  for  lengthy  periods  so  that  the  bonds  so 
necessary  in  war  can  be  forged  in  peace.  It  is  horrifying,  when 
one  examines  recent  operations,  to  see  how  the  ad  hoc  unit  has 
become  normal  practice.  In  war  such  an  organisation  is  a 
potential  mob.  When  we  either  hamper  the  buildup  of  com- 
pany and  regimental  loyalty,  or  deliberately  break  it  down,  we 
throw  away  one  of  our  few  major  assets. 

1  next  turn  to  leadership. 

Earlier,  I  mentioned  how  the  hunting  group  threw  up  its 
leaders  after  ruthless  selection  within  the  group. 

We  have  a  different  system.  Some  of  our  leaders,  often 
raised  in  a  society  with  different  values,  pick  the  next  crop  of 
young  leaders. 

Further  selection  takes  place  at  Sandhurst  and  then  in  the 
regiment  where  the  new  young  leader  is  imposed  on  his  group. 
(Remember  leadership  is  welcomed  by  the  group,  not 
imposed). 

In  the  pre-1914  Army  and,  to  a  slightly  less  extent  the 
pre- 1939  Army,  young  officers  spent  years  with  the  regiments 
and  the  weeding-out  process  was  quite  severe.  The  soldiers 
themselves,  to  some  extent,  played  a  part  in  selection.  Officers 
spent  many  years  in  close  contact  with  their  men  and  the 
grapevine  soon  made  clear  the  views  of  NCOs  and  men. 

Nowadays  young  officers  spend  less  time  with  their 
regiments  and  less  time  in  close  contact  with  their  men. 

Commanders  must  make  every  effort  to  halt  and,  if  possi- 
ble, reverse  this  trend. 

While  considering  selection,  you  may  ask  why  we  cannot 
pick  out  those  men  who  will  break  in  battle  and  become 
psychiatric  casualties.  If  possible,  now  is  the  lime  to  discover 
them  and  weed  them  out — not  as  that  armoured  box  motors 
past. 

Lord  Moran  in  his  book,  mainly  written  as  a  result  of  his  ex- 
periences as  a  Regimental  Medical  Officer  in  World  War  I, 
strongly  advocated  such  a  procedure.  In  World  War  II  at- 
tempts were  made  to  initiate  selection  procedures.  Despite 
these  efforts,  in  the  campaign  in  North  West  Europe  alone,  the 
British  Army  had  over  13,000  psychiatric  casualties. 

The  United  States,  in  World  II  had  overall  I'A  million 
psychiatric  casualties  admitted  to  hospitals,  with  nearly  'A 
million  being  invalided. 

Obviously  the  system  was  not  a  roaring  success. 

The  modern  view  is  that  preservice  selection  is  notoriously 
unreliable  and  it  can  be  expected  to  eliminate  only  the  more 
obviously  unintelligent,  unstable,  or  mentally  disordered. 

5 


It  is  more  practical  to  eliminate  the  vulnerable  on  the  basis 
of  their  performance  during  service  and  men  who  do  not  have 
the  necessary  fibre  to  make  soldiers  must  be  gotten  rid  of  by 
administrative  means. 

I  realise  that  there  are  great  pressures  to  keep  up  the 
numbers,  but  the  retention  of  the  grossly  inadequate  is  akin  to 
retaining  a  Trojan  horse  in  a  unit. 

The  importance  of  the  power  of  the  group  and  leadership 
have  been  stressed.  But  it  would  be  unwise  to  depend  on  these 
two  morale  factors  alone.  In  the  battle  we  may  have  to  Tight, 
we  must  take  into  account  every  means  of  encouraging  deter- 


mination in  battle. 

Earlier  we  considered  the  adverse  effect  of  the  unknown. 
Our  soldiers  are  being  asked  to  act  aggressively  against  a  quite 
alarming  enemy — namely  a  large  concentration  of  Russian  ar- 
mour. Even  Israeli  troops  on  the  Golan  Heights — troops  with 
battle  experience,  found  the  sight  unnerving. 

How  many  of  our  infantry  soldiers  have  worked  with  tanks? 
How  many  are  convinced  that  their  weapons  will  destroy 
enemy  armour?  How  many  of  our  infantry  soldiers  are  aware 
how'  vulnerable  the  tank  is  to  attack  at  very  close  range  by 
determined  troops— especially  in  close  country? 


A- 6 


ARMOR         mayjune  1980 


I 


Obviously  I  do/not  know  the  answers.  All  I  can  say  is  that  if 
all  our  troops  have  this  experience  and  knowledge,  there  is  one 
less  factor  to  cause  them -fear  and  despair. 

If  only  a  few  of  our  troop*  art  so  trained— wt  may  have 
ourselves  a  problem. 

Soldiers  should  be  given  every  opportunity  to  gain  ex- 
perience of  what  we  expect  of  them  on  the  battlefield. 

To  keep  a  soldier  away  from  what  war  is  really  like  until  he 
finds  out  for  himself  is  as  reasonable  as  keeping  a  medical  stu- 
dent away  from  disease. 

Physical  FUaea 

In  virtually  every  account  of  battle,  the  exhausting  effects  of 
even  short  bursts  of  fighting  is  stressed.  Only  the  really 
physically  fit  soldier  wiD  be  able  to  combat  such  fatigue. 

How  long  the  overweight  soldier,  or  the  man  who  cannot 
meet  standards  of  physical  efficiency,  win  survive  is  a  matter 
for  conjecture.  I  am  not  convinced  it  will  be  for  very  long. 

Remember  the  reply  of  the  Delphian  Oracle  when  asked 
what  Sparta  had  most  to  fear?  One  word,  luxury. 


Success 

I  included  administration  in  my  initial  consideration  of  suc- 
cess. Repeatedly  in  military  history — it  was  certainly  so  at 
Calais— the  well-administered  unit  is  seen  to  overcome  outside 
confusion  and  pressure. 

Soldiers  gain  tremendous  encouragement  from  the  know- 
ledge that,  whereas  the  whole  thing  might  appear  to  be  a 
shambles,  their  unit  moved  well  and  was  fed,  etc.  Obviously 
such  administrative  skill  is  built  up  in  peacetime. 

What  Can  Commanders  Do  In  War? 

Obviously  the  factors  I  have  already  mentioned  in  peace  are 
equally  applicable  in  war.  There  are,  however,  two  subjects  I 
would  like  to  discuss;  information  and  psychiatric  casualties. 

Information.  We  have  already  discussed  how  one  aspect  of 
the  power  of  the  unknown  undermines  the  soldier's  will.  There 
is  one  other;  namely  lack  of  information.  Lack  of  knowledge 
as  to  what  is  happening  both  to  our  own  troops  and  the  enemy 
can  lead  to  rumour  and  uncertainty. 

We  will  be  putting  troops  into  a  foreign  country  in  the  midst 


ARMOR        may -J  90 


of  chaos.  There  will  be  refugees  on  the  roads  and  possibly 
retreating  troop?  from  other  formations.  Rumour  can  hardly 
fail  to  spread  like  a  plague  in  such  a  situation.  The  only  an- 
tidote is  accurate-information.  While  security  places  certain 
limitations  on  the  amount  of  information  that  can  be  given, 
whenever  possible  the  soldier  must  be  kept  in  the  picture. 
Psychiatric  Casualties 

Despite  all  our  efforts,  when  stress  becomes  too  much,  or 
the  soldier  has  been  under  stress  for  too  long,  the  will  breaks 
and  the  soldier  suffers  psychiatric  breakdown.  This 
breakdown  can  present  in  many  forms: 

Panic  slates  which  result  in  headlong  flight. 

Acute  depression  where  the  patient  sits  mute  and  mo- 
tionless. 

Acute  anxiety  with  extreme  restlessness  and  agitation. 
Exhaustion  states  where  troops  show  abnormal  fatigue. 
Hysterical  reactions,  including  hysterical  blindess,  paralysis, 
etc. 

A  word  of  caution.  It  is  to  be  expected  that  in  battle 
everybody  will  be  keyed  up.  Men  can  well  sweat,  have  tremors, 
and  be  short  tempered  without  being  on  their  way  to  a 
psychiatrist.  However,  commanders  at  all  levels  must  watch 
for  the  first  signs  of  defeat  in  a  soldier  and  come  to  the  man's 
rescue.  Leaders,  officers  or  NCOs,  who  have  been  with  their 
men  for  some  tir/.e  and  know  them  well  will  quickly  recognise 
the  first  signs.  It  h  at  this  stage  that  a  joke,  asking  the  man  to 
carry  out  a  simple  act,  the  odd  word,  or  even  a  hand  on  the 
shoulder,  will  give  him  the  support  he  needs. 

How  many  times  have  we  read  in  descriptions  of  a  battle 
that,  just  before  the  action  started,  in  that  terrible  short  period 
of  inactivity  when  the  will  begins  to  ebb  away,  "The  leader 
moved  amongst  his  men."  This  sort  of  situation  is  the  test  of 
real  leadership.  If  a  man  is  causing  concern  to  a  leader,  asking 
that  man  to  accompany  him  as  he  moves  about  often  gives  the 
soldier  the  support  he  needs. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  inactivity  at  a  time  of  tension  breeds 
fear  and  that  the  best  antidote  to  the  poison  of  fear  is  pur- 
poseful actions. 

Once  action  begins,  obviously  the  most  steadying  act  by  the 
soldier  is  to  fire  his  weapon.  This  may  seem  a  blinding  glimpse 
of  the  obvious,  but  Brigadier  General  (then  Colonel)  S.L.A. 
Marshall,  United  States  Army,  carried  out  a  survey  involving 
several  hundreds  of  U.S.  Army  infantry  companies  in  World 
War  II.  He  found  that  only  some  13  to  20  percent  of  rifle  com- 
pany personnel  actually  fired  upon  the  enemy  or  exhibited  ap- 
propriate aggressive  activity  during  battle.  This  negative  at- 
titude by  some  members  of  the  group  will  present  the  leader 
with  his  greatest  challenge.  He  must  realise  it  may  happen  and 
be  prepared  for  it. 

So  far,  the  whole  of  this  has  been  geared  to  the  prevention 
of  psychiatric  battle  casualties.  What  do  we  do  when,  despite 
all  efforts,  some  of  our  men  really  start  to  break? 

Men  in  early  stages  of  psychiatric  breakdown  are  highly  sug- 
gestible and  can  still  be  retrieved,  especially  by  a  positive  ap- 
proach by  a  leader  the  man  trusts  and  respects.  I  would  suggest 
that  there  are  three  possible  courses  of  anion. 

If  it  is  still  possible  to  communicate  with  the  man,  attempts 
should  stiQ  be  made  to  stir  him  into  action  by  carrying 
messages,  helping  a  comrade,  etc.  This  activity  could  be  car- 
ried out  at  a  company  aid  post  or  company  headquarter  level. 

If  the  man  Is  incapable  of  such  action,  rest,  sleep,  food,  etc. 
actually  in  the  company  aid  post  can  often  work  wonders. 


Lastly,  there  is  the  psychiatric  casualty  who,  either  by  his 
position  in  the  company  hierarchy,  by  his  symptoms  is  causing 
unrest  amongst  the  others,  or  by  the  very  seriousness  of  his 
symptoms  cannot  be  treated  within  the  company  and  therefore 
has  to  be  evacuated. 

Even  in  the  case  of  the  last  group  I  would  suggest  nearly  all 
could,  and  should,  be  treated  at  the  regimental  level. 

There  is  one  final  point  I  would  like  to  make.  A  psychiatric 
casualty,  in  many  cases,  knows  he  has  failed.  Censure  and 
mockery  from  a  respected  member  of  the  group  will  do  him 
more  harm  than  good.  He  wants  firm  but  understanding  sup- 
port. He  needs  firm  direction  and  aid  from  a  member  of  his 
group  or  a  leader  he  respects.  He  does  not  need  a  shoulder  to 
cry  on  or,  in  most  cases,  certainly  not  a  psychiatrist. 
Conclusion 

As  a  parting  shot  I  would  like  to  make  one  last  quotation  to 
leave  in  your  minds  the  vital  part  the  well  integrated  group 
plays  in  defending  the  soldier  against  psychiatric  breakdown  in 
battle: 

"We  trained  hard,  but  it  seemed  (hat  every  time  we 
were  beginning  to  form  up  into  teams  we  would  be 
reorganised.  I  was  to  learn  later  in  life  that  we  tend  to 
meet  any  new  situation  by  reorganising.  And  a  wonder- 
ful method  it  can  be  for  creating  the  illusion  of  progress 
while  producing  confusion,  inefficiency,  and 
demoralisation." 

Petronious  Arbiter.  210  BC 
It  seems  that  man  doesn't  change  much — neither  do  the 
mistakes  he  makes.  If  you  are  to  remember  anything  from  this 
lecture,  remember  General  Action's  remark,  "The  Regiment 
had  always  fought  well.  We  were  amongst  our  friends.  " 


\  MAJOR  GENERAL  T.  S.  HART,  MB.  MFCM.  DPH, 
I  OTM&H,  Director  of  Medical  Services  United  Kingdom 
I  Land  Forces,  was  educated  at  Dulwich  College  and  train- 
ed In  medicine  at  Guy's  Wosiptial.  Commissioned  into 
the  Royal  Army  Medical  Corps  (RAMC)  In  1951,  he  was 
appointed  Regimental  Medical  Officer,  1st  Battalion, 
Royal  Norfolk  Regiment  and  served  with  the  unit  In 
Korea  and  Hong  Kong.  In  1953,  he  joined  the  British  Ar- 
my of  the  Rhine  (BAOR)  where  he  served  as  Second-in- 
Command  of  the  14th  Field  Ambulance  Company  and 
later  as  Deputy  Assistant  Director  of  Medical  Service,  2d 
Infantry  Division.  After  attending  Staff  College 
Camberley  in  1958,  he  held  an  appointment  in  the 
Ministry  of  Defence  (Army)  until  1961  when  he  attended 
the  Senior  Officers'  Course  of  the  Royal  Army  Medical 
College,  being  awarded  the  Montlfiore  Prize  and  Medal 
in  Military  Surgery.  Following  the  Senior  Officers' 
Course,  he  attended  the  London  School  of  Tropical 
Medicine.  Between  1963  and  1989  he  commanded  the 
British  Military  Hospital  Kluang,  Malaya;  attended  the 
Joint  Services  Staff  College  Latimer;  served  as  Assistant 
Director  of  Medical  Service  (ADMS),  Eastern  Command; 
and  commanded  the  Military  Hospital  Colchester. 
Following  a  tour  In  the  Manning  Branch  of  the  RAMC.  he 
attended  the  Royal  College  of  Defence  Studies  and 
subsequently  became  ADMS,  3d  Division.  In  1975,  he 
was  promoted  to  Brigadier  and  served  2  years  as  Deputy 
Director  of  Medical  Service  Corps,  BAOR.  He  joined 
Headquarters,  United  Kingdom  Land  Forces  as  a  Major 
General  In  1978  and  became  Director  of  Medical  Ser- 
vices. 

Reprinted  with  permission  of 
■  ARMOR  Magazine 


A- 8 


ARMOR         may-june  1980 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Leadership  Instruction  Department 
Education  Center 
Marine  Corps  Development  and  Education  Command 
Quantico,  Virginia  22134 

Appendix  B 

"BATTLE  DOCTRINE  FOR  FRONT  LINE  LEADERS" 


10  November  1981 

Originally  published  by  the  3d  Marine  Division  for  its  front 
line  leaders,  and  subsequently  distributed  Corps-wide  as  an  offi- 
cial training  guide  during  World  War  II  by  LtGen  A. A.  Vandegrif t , 
Commandant,  U.  S.  Marine  Corps,  this  pamphlet  contains  in  pure 
form  the  formula  for  positive  combat  leadership.     The  essence  of 
its  fundamentals  applies  both  on  and  off  the  field  of  battle  to 
all  leaders,  at  all  times,  regardless  of  rank,  specialty,  or  duty 
assignment.     I  commend  these  truths  to  your  careful  study.  Fail- 
ure to  follow  them  can  cost  your  professional  creditability  in 
peacetime,  and,  in  war,  £he  lives  of  those  dependent  upon  your 
leadership. 

(Signed)  D.  M.  TWOMEY 
Major  General,  U.  S.  Marine  Corps 
Director ,  Education  Center 


FOREWORD 

This  forceful  restatement  of  the  fundamental  principles  of 
troop  leadership,  supplemented  by  rules  based  on  combat  experi- 
ence in  the  Solomon  Islands  Area  was  prepared  by  the  Third  Marine 
Division,  Fleet  Marine  Force.     It  is  worthy  of  careful  study  by 
every  Marine  who  is  or  may  be  charged  with  the  leadership  of 
other  Marines  in  battle. 

(Signed)     A.  A.  VANDEGRIFT 


B-l 


INTRODUCTION 


The  senior  commander  of  a  force  plans  the  battle  in  its 
broader  sense  and  is  responsible  for  ultimate  success  or  failure. 
However,  once  a  subordinate  unit  has  been  committed  to  action,  he 
must,  for  the  time  being,  limit  his  activities  to  providing  the 
necessary  support  and  insuring  the  coordination  of  all  components. 
Regardless  of  how  well  conceived  the  Senior  commander's  plan  may 
be,  it  can  be  nullified  if  his  front  line  platoons  are  incapable 
of  carrying  out  the  mission  assigned. 

The  conduct  of  the  front  line  rests  with  company  commanders, 
and  their  platoon  and  squad  leaders.     The  front  line  leader  must 
plan  and  execute  his  own  battle.     He  must  know  his  enemy,  his  own 
men,  and  must  aggressively  employ  all  of  his  weapons  in  coordinat- 
ed fire  and  movement.     He  must  personally  lead  his  unit  to  success. 
The  paramount  importance  of  front  line  leadership  cannot  be  over- 
estimated. 

1.  The  prime  factor  in  a  successful  fighting  unit  is  esprit 
de  corps.     This  needs  no  explanation.     It  simply  means  that  no 
Marine  ever  lets  another  Marine  down.     The  expression,  "A  Squad 
of  Marines,"  has  for  over  a  hundred  years  been  synonomous  with 
such  other  expressions  ajs'  "coiled  rattlesnake,"  "concentrated 
dynamite,"  "powder  keg,"  etc.     Its  meaning  has  been  well-earned. 

2.  Of  almost  equal  importance  to  a  fighting  unit  is  disci- 
pline .     This  applies  to  all  activities  at  all  times.     It  must 
never  be  relaxed,  particularly  during  times  of  hardship,  discom- 
fort, or  danger.     It  spells  the  difference  between  a  "mob"  and  a 
"unit."    Discipline  is  obtained  mainly  through  diligence  of  the 
leader  in  insisting  that  things  be  done  "right,"  and  aided  by  the 
judicious  daily  application  of  rewards  and  punishments.  Justice, 
consistency,  firmness,  and  respect  are  the  roots  of  discipline. 
Men  like  to  serve  in  a  well-disciplined  unit.    Mob  methods  disgust 
them. 

3.  Be  neat  in  your  person;  habitually  wear  your  insignia  of 
rank  on  all  uniforms  and  have  all  your  subordinates  do  the  same. 
Insignia  may  be  dulled  or  blended  just  before  entering  close 
combat — but  not  before. 

4.  Exercise  and  display  absolute  loyalty  toward  a  superior, 
particularly  when  he  is  absent.     This  is  not  only  morally  correct, 
it  is  the  only  sure  footing  in  any  military  organization.     It  also 
enhances  your  personal  prestige  among  your  subordinates. 

5.  Refrain  from  "blowing  up"  under  stress  or  when  irritated. 

6.  Always  show  enthusiasm  -  it  is  infectious. 


B-2 


7.  Never  allow  yourself  to  be  unduly  rushed  or  stampeded. 
There  is  usually  ample  time  for  considered  judgment,  even  during 
battle.     Dignity  and  poise  are  invaluable  assets  to  a  leader. 

8.  In  the  field,  practice  the  habit  of  making  daily  inspec- 
tions (using  the  "sample"  method)   and  insist  on:     (1)  clean 
weapons,   (2)  presence  of  arms,  ammunition,  mess  gear,  helmets  and 
other  items  of  individual  equipment,    (3)  care  of  the  feet,  (4) 
alertness  while  on  watch.     See  that  rewards  and  punishments  are 
promptly  awarded. 

9.  At  the  front,  visit  all  of  your  men  frequently  —  talk 
to  them  —  be  sure  they  know  what  you  want  them  to  do  at  all 
times,  and  where  you  can  be  found. 

10.  Do  not  get  your  unit  lost  —  nothing  destroys  confidence 
quicker. 

11.  As  a  general  rule  do  not  call  for  volunteers  to  do  a 
dangerous  or  distasteful  job.     Pick  out  the  individuals  yourself 
and  assign  them  to  the  job  clearly,  and  in  the  presence  of 
others . 

12.  Give  your  orders  positively  and  clearly  at  all  times. 
Avoid  vagueness. 

13.  Never  allow  cruelty,  it  undermines  the  natural  courage 
and  manliness  of  the  perpetrator.  Be  respectful  to  the  dead  — 
even  the  enemy  dead.     Bury  the  dead  quickly. 

14.  Be  prompt  and  accurate  in  making  reports.     Send  back 
information  at  least  once  each  hour  during  an  action.     The  com- 
manding officer  can't  help  you  unless  he  knows  your  situation. 

15.  If  anything  goes  wrong,  do  not  be  too  quick  to  blame  our 
artillery,  aviation,  engineers,  supply  services,  or  any  other 
organization.     They  can  be  depended  upon  always  to  do  all  they 
can  with  the  information  and  means  at  hand.     They,  too,  have  a 
job  which  requires  courage  and  determination,  and  they  are  doing 
their  best  to  back  you  up. 

16.  Take  active  charge  of  all  activities  on  the  front  which 
lie  within  your  sphere  of  responsibility. 

17.  A  front-line  Marine  demands  little  from  his  leader, 
namely:     (1)  a  clear  conception  of  what  he  is  expected  to  do, 
(2)   ammunition,    (3)  drinking  water,   (4)  rations,    (5)  medical 
service,  and  eventually  (6)   cigarettes  and  mail.     These  items 
must  be  your  continuous  concern. 

18.  Always  arrange  for  the  comfort  of  your  men  before  you  do 
your  own. 


B-3 


19.  Maintain  your  leadership.     Nothing  is  more  humiliating 
to  a  nominal  leader  than  to  see  his  men  naturally  turning  to  a 
subordinate  for  direction  in  times  of  danger. 

20.  Arrange  continuously  for  your  men  to  get  as  much  rest  as 
the  situation  will  allow.    Avoid  unnecessary  harassments,  such  as 
"standing  by."    Unless  your  unit  is  on  the  move,  or  unless  you  or 
the  enemy  are  actually  attacking,  you  can  usually  arrange  for  at 
least  two-thirds  of  your  men  to  sleep  at  night. 

21.  Do  not  tolerate  any  evidences  of  self-pity  in  your  men. 
It  makes  any  difficult  situation  worse. 

22.  Keep  to  yourself  alone  any  concern  you  may  have  as  to 
your  general  situation,  and  do  not  let  it  be  reflected  in  your 
countenance  or  actions.     Remember  that  all  situations  look 
critical  at  times. 

23.  Encourage  common  decency  —  do  not  tolerate  vulgarity 
or  filthy  language  in  your  presence. 

24.  Insist  on  carrying  out  all  rules  for  field  sanitation, 
even  in  the  front  lines. 

25.  Do  not  encourage  rumors  —  they  are  usually  disturbing 
—  most  of  them  are  entirely  without  foundation.     Find  out  for 
yourself  and  be  the  first  to  tell  your  men  the  truth. 

26.  Win  a  reputation  for  moving  your  outfit  promptly. 
Depart  and  arrive  on  time. 

27.  Be  "time  and  space"  conscious.     By  practice,  know  the 
average  time  it  takes:    (1)   to  issue  your  orders,   (2)   to  assemble 
your  unit,   (3)   to  move  it  a  hundred  yards  over  varied  types  of 
terrain,   (4)   to  deploy  it  for  battle.    Always  have  your  watch 
set  at  the  correct  time. 

28.  Keep  your  men  informed  as  to  the  enemy  situation  and 
your  plans.     Devise  and  execute  plans  for  taking  prisoners. 

29.  Offensive  tactics,  briefly  summarized,  may  be  stated  as 
follows:     Hold  the  attention  of  your  enemy  with  a  minimum  force, 
then  quickly  strike  him  suddenly  and  hard  on  his  flank  or  rear 
with  every  weapon  you  have,  then  rush  him  when  his  fire  slackens. 
Any  plan  that  accomplishes  this  will  usually  win  if  it  is  driven 
home  quickly.     Be  slow  to  change  a  plan  —  the  reason  for  the 
change  should  be  obvious. 

30.  Remember  that  supporting  arms  seldom  destroy  —  they 
paralyze  temporarily.     Take  quick  advantage  of  their  support 
before  the  enemy  "comes  to."    Act  suddenly. 


B-4 


31.  In  a  surprise  meeting  of  small  forces,  hit  the  enemy 
immediately  while  he  is  still  startled;  don't  let  him  get  set,  be 
persistent,  and  "keep  him  rolling." 

32.  Be  prepared  always.    Anticipate  your  action  in  case  of 
an  emergency.    Ask  yourself  what  you  would  do  immediately  in  case 
the  enemy  should  suddenly  appear.     If  you  have  to  hesitate  in 
your  answer,  you  are  not  sufficiently  prepared.     Keep  thinking, 
and  at  all  times  be  one  jump  ahead  of  the  immediate  situation. 

33.  Never  permit  men  to  remain  inactive  under  machine  gun 
fire.     Give  orders  quickly. 

34.  Do  not  permit  the  slightest  rearward  movement  of  any 
individual  while  under  heavy  fire,  except  to  get  wounded  out,  or 
when  openly  directed  by  you.     It  is  usually  best  to  go  forward,  or 
dig  in  until  the  fire  ceases. 

35.  Always  endeavor  to  confront  your  enemy  with  a  superior 
volume  of  accurate  fire.     This  may  be  accomplished  at  any  given 
point  by  means  of  maneuver  and  coordination  of  the  fire  of  all 
weapons.     Use  every  weapon  you  have  —  they  are  all  especially 
effective  if  used  together. 

36.  A  great  and  successful  troop  leader  said  that  there 
comes  a  point  in  every  close  battle  when  each  commander  concludes 
that  he  is  defeated.     The  leader  who  carries  on,  wins. 

37.  It  has  been  recently  observed  that  an  enemy  often  slack- 
ens or  ceases  his  fire  right  at  the  time  he  appears  to  be  getting 
the  upper  hand.     He  then  simply  crouches  in  his  hole.     This  means 
that  he  cannot  sustain  a  fire  fight.     Stick  to  your  plan  and  hit 
him  harder. 

38.  Positions  are  seldom  lost  because  they  have  been  destroy- 
ed, but  almost  invariably  because  the  leader  has  decided  in  his 
own  mind  that  the  position  cannot  be  held. 

39.  Beware  of  daylight  withdrawals.     They  may  appear  logical 
in  a  classroom  but  they  are  always  dangerous  in  practice.     In  a 
tight  spot  hold  on,  at  least  until  nightfall. 

40.  Nothing  on  this  earth  is  so  uplifting  to  a  human  being 
as  victory  in  battle;  nothing  so  degrading  as  defeat. 

41.  "Battles  are  won  during  the  training  period." 


B-5 


Appendix  C 

COMBAT  LEADERSHIP 


"There  i: 


From  his  vast  experience  ac- 
quired during  military  service 
which  spanned  three  wars,  Brig 
Gen  S.  L.  A.  Marshall  (Ret)  has 
written  and  spoken  extensively, 
passing  on  his  keen  personal  ob- 
servations. Particularly  significant 
was  a  paper  which  he  read,  in  1957, 
at  the  Symposium  on  Preventive 
and  Social  Psychiatry.  Following 
is  a  condensation  of  that  paper. 

Editor. 

There  it  a  modern  tendency  to 
believe  that  science  may  find 
a  new  and  secret  key  to  the 
strengthening  of  moral  forces  with- 
in military  organisation  which  may 
have  eluded  the  most  gifted  cap- 
tains in  times  past  who  found  the 
right  way  through  instinct 

I  was  at  Pork  Chop  Hill  in  1953 
to  determine  how  our  troops  had 
behaved.  It  was  a  tactical  review  of 
the  meaning,  method,  and  man- 
ner of  leadership  under  the  most 
exasperating  of  field  conditions. 
The  men  were  green;  the  young 
leaders  hardly  knew  the  character 
of  their  following;  and  many  of  the 
men,  newly  arrived  replacements, 
were  total  strangers.  Certainly  here 
was  an  inviting  laboratory.  Yet 
when  the  seven  weeks'  work  was 
concluded,  I  had  found  nothing 
new  under  the  sun. 

More  recently,  I  was  in  the  Mid- 
dle East  with  the  Israeli  Army,  in 
Sinai,  studying  the  "100-Hour  War" 
of  November  1956.  Never  before  in 
human  history  have  troops  been 
pushed  as  hard  and  moved  as  con- 
cert edly  and  recklessly  to  a  dra- 
matic and  decisive  goal  in  war.  My 


no  new  tiling  under  the  sun."  - 


job  was  to  get  at  the  nature  of  that 
Army  by  examining  in  detail  its 
movements,  motives  and  moral 
forces  under  the  stress  of  battle. 
But  again  I  found  nothing  new  un- 
der the  sun. 

Every  rule  of  action,  every  pre- 
cept and  example  set  for  and  by 
leadership,  toward  the  end  that  an 
immediate  following  would  be 
stimulated  and  the  Army  as  a 
whole  would  respond  if  inspired, 
must  have  been  old  at  the  time  of 
Gideon. 

At  the  high  tide  of  danger,  lead- 
ers invariably  went   first.  They 
counseled  their  men  to  audacity  by 
being  themselves  audacious.  Amid 
dilemma,     they     resolved  their 
courses   by   taking   the    line  of 
greatest  daring,  which  they  reck- 
oned to  be  the  line  of  main  chance. 
Exercising  tight  control  amid  crisis, 
they  still  bubbled  with  good  hu- 
mor.   Yet    one    other  command 
attitude  was  even  more  conspicu- 
ous.  While   these   young   men — 
company,    battalion,    or  brigade 
leaders — demanded  an  utmost  per- 
formance from  their  troops  and 
pushed  them  many  times  toward 
the  fringe  of  exhaustion,  they  did 
not  go  beyond  it.  Right  on  the  bat- 
tlefield, with  an  attack  pending, 
they  would  halt  everything  to  or- 
der a  rest  or  a  sleep  if  they  felt 
that  the  condition  of  the  troops  de- 
manded it.  Too  often  we  tend  to  an 
opposite  course,  and  we  waste  men 
and  opportunity  because  of  it. 

I  have  heard  many  times,  in 
explanation  of  the  dynamism  of 
Israels  Army    that   "Of  course, 


siasres 


these  troops  are  highly  motivated. 
They  are  pioneers.  Their  land  is 
ever  in  danger  and  surrounded  by 
enemies."  No  one  would  deny  that 
these  are  factors  which  simplify 
Israel's  basic  training  situation  and 
enable    Government   to   make  a 
stern  requirement  of  the  individ- 
ual. But  for  my  own  part,  I  reject 
the  idea  that   the  extraordinary 
spirit  of  that  Army  in  combat  comes 
from  self-identification  of  the  in- 
dividual with  the  goals  of  his  nation 
when  his  life  is  in  danger.  That  is 
not  the  nature  of  man  under  battle 
stress;  his  thoughts  are  as  local  as 
his  view  of  the  nearest  ground 
cover,  and  unless  he  feels  a  soli- 
darity with  the  people  immediately 
around  him  and  is  carried  forward 
by     their     momentum,  neither 
thoughts  about  the  ideals  of  his 
country    nor   reflections   on  his 
love  for  his  wife  will  keep  him 
from  diving  toward  the  nearest 
protection. 

When  fire  sweeps  the  field, 
nothing  keeps  a  man  from  running 
except  a  sense  of  honor,  of  bound 
obligation  to  the  people  right 
around  him,  of  fear  of  failure  in 
their  sight,  which  might  eternally 
disgrace  him.  Generate  high  moti- 
vation and  the  spirit  of  dedication 
if  you  can,  but  don't  over-evaluate 
them  as  the  begin-and-end-all  of 
combat  efficiency.  Even  an  utterly 
unselfish  patriotism  (if  there  be 
such  a  motivation)  will  not  of  itself 
make  inspired  leading  or  generate 
its  prerequisite  —  that  personal 


C-1 


COMBAT 
LEADERSHIP  . 

c**Hi«t4  frtm  frtnt  Iniid*  cevtr 

magnetism  which  produces  group 
unity. 

I  recall  the  words  of  General 
Dayan  (Israeli  Army  Chief  of 
Staff):  "A  leader  should  be  moral. 
He  shouldn't  drink  heavily,  play 
around  with  women,  b*  careless 
Ln  his  private  affairs,  neglect  his 
work,  fail  to  know  his  men  inti- 
mately as  individuals.  And  you 
may  have  a  moral  paragon  who 
observes  all  the  rules  and  is  still 
not  a  leader.  In  fact,  if  he  is  that 
perfect,  combat  leading  may  be  the 
one  thing  at  which  he  will  certain- 
ly fail"  To  that,  amen! 

Thzu  is  no  point  in  repeating 
the  platitude  "nothing  suc- 
ceeds like  success."  But  there  is 
every  reason  to  state  again  and 
again  the  almost  disregarded  corol- 
lary that  within  military  organiza- 
tion, faith  in  ultimate  success  is  the 
broad  highway  to  success  itself.  1 
havt  been  fortunate.  Four  times  in 
my  military  service  I  have  had  the 
experience  of  taking  over  a  demor- 
alized, rundown  unit  in  wartime, 
with  the  charge  that  I  would  get 
it  up  and  going  again.  Were  that 
to  happen  to  me  a  fifth  time,  I 
would  want  nothing  better  than 
that,  at  the  earliest  moment,  those 
under  me  would  get  the  idea,  right 
or  wrong:  "This  man  is  bom  un- 
der a  lucky  star.  He  may  be  can- 
tankerous, demanding,  hartf  to  live 
with,  and  idosyncratic.  Maybe  his 
sense  of  right  and  wrong  wobbles 
a  bit  But,  if  we  stay  with  him,  this 
unit  is  coming  out  of  the  woods,  and 
I  personally  will  have  a  firmer  hold 
on  the  future."  Yes,  that  is  what 
I  would  like  them  to  say. 

In  this  business  of  rebuilding  I 
have  never  known  any  better 
therapy  than  to  talk  again  and 
again  about  the  importance  of 
group  success  as  a  foundation  for 
the  personal  life  while  taking 
actions     which     indicated  new 


direction. 

In  combat  or  out  of  it,  once  an 
organization    gets    the  conviction 
that  it  is  moving  to  higher  ground 
and  some  distinction  will  come  of 
it,    then    all    marginal  problems 
begin  to  contract.   Discipline  mid 
standards   of  courtesy  tighten  of 
themselves,  because  pride  has  been 
restored.  Malingering  in  the  form 
of  too   many  men    on   sick  call, 
AWOLs,  and  failure  to  maintain 
proper   inspection    standards  be- 
comes minimal  through  a  renewed 
confidence   and   an   upgrading  of 
interpersonal  relationships  at  lower 
levels.  When  the  group  gets  the 
feeling  of  new  motion,   it  centri- 
fugally  influences  anyone  who  tries 
to  stand  still.  It  can  even  make 
good  soldiers  out  of  potential  bad 
actors.  I  remember  a  dying  boy  at 
the  battle  of  Carentan.  He  had  been 
an  "eight  ball"  in  the  paratroop 
company.  Just  before  death  took 
him,  he  said,  "Tell  me  at  last,  Cap- 
tain, that  I  wasn't  completely  a 
foul-up."  So  saying,  he  expressed 
the  natural  longing  in  all  mankind. 

Just  as  motion  and  sense  of  di- 
rection rehabilitates  the  unit,  so 
they  tonic  the  leader  by  cutting 
pressure  from  higher  command. 
What  a  wonderful  thing  is  freedom 
of  motion  and  how  little  you  can 
get  it  with  someone  "riding  your 
neck!"  So  I  long  learned  that  when 
your  scoresheet  reads  no  VD,  no 
courts-martial  and  no  AWOLs,  out 
of  a  mistaken  impression  up  there 
in  heaven  that  these  things  connote 
operational  efficiency,  you  can  win 
the  right  to  be  left  along,  sans  in- 
spection, sans  interference;  and 
what  a  blessed  state  it  is! 

There  is  one  radical  difference 
between  training  and  combat  con- 
ditions. In  training,  the  commander 
may  be  arbitrary,  demanding  and 
a  hard  disciplinarian,  working  and 
sweating  his  troops  more  than  any 
company  along  the  line.  But  so  long 
as  his  sense  of  fair  play  in  his  han- 
dling of  his  own  men  becomes  evi- 
dent to  them,  and  provided  they 
become  aware  that  what  he  is  doing 


is  making  them  more  efficient  than 
their  competition,  and  better  pre- 
pared for  the  rigor  of  combat,  they 
will  approve  him,  if  grudgingly, 
stay  loyal  to  him,  and  even  possi- 
bly come  to  believe  in  his  lucky 
star. 

In  combat  something  new  is 
added.  Even  if  they  have  previous- 
ly looked  on  him  as  a  father  and 
believed  absolutely  that  being  with 
him  was  their  best  assurance  of 
successful  survival,  should  he  then 
develop  a  dugout  habit,  show  him- 
self as  fearful  and  too  careful  of 
his  own  safety,  he  will  lose  his  hold 
on  them  no  less  absolutely.  I  wit- 
nessed these  battlefield  transforma- 
tions in  France  in  1918.  In  the  wars 
since  then,  all  I  have  observed  of 
our  forces  and  others  has  served 
but  to  confirm  that  first  powerful 
impression.  On  the  field  there  is  no 
substitute  for  courage,  no  other 
bonding  influence  toward  unity  of 
action.  Troops  will  excuse  almost 
any  stupidity;  excessive  timidity  is 
simply  unforgivable. 

Being  a  fundamentalist,  I  see 
man  as  a  creature  under  daily  chal- 
lenge to  prove  to  himself,  by  one 
means  or  another,  the  quality  and 
character  of  his  own  manhood.  And 
I  am  quite  sure  that  in  his  working 
relations  with  all  other  men,  as  to 
whether  he  is  to  attain   to  firm 
ascendancy  over  them  in  a  com- 
mon   activity,    the    hallmark  of 
acknowledged  superiority  finally  is 
the  tested  and  proven  masculine 
elements  in  his  character.  That  im- 
plies the  readiness  to  accept  risk 
instead  of  putting  ever  uppermost 
the  quest  for  security — and  of  this 
we  hear  too  little  in  our  time.  It 
implies  also  a  capacity  for  com- 
pleting assigned  or  chosen  work, 
without  which  no  man  may  truly 
lead.  Around  two  such  fundamen- 
tals may  be  developed  the  aura, 
the  manner,  of  leadership.  If  they 
be  missing,  there  is  no  hope.  All  of 
this  is  to  be  found  in  Ecclesiastes, 
along  with  the  phrase:  "There  is 
no  new  thing  under  the  sun." 


Reprinted  with  permission  of 
INFANTRY  Magazine 


C-2 


Appendix  D 


Chapter  26 
AMERICANS  IN  COMBAT 

The  command  and  control  of  men  in  combat  can  be  mastered  by  the 
junior  leaders  of  American  forces  short  of  actual  experience  under 
enemy  fire. 

It  is  altogether  possible  for  a  young  officer  in  battle  for  the  first  time 
to  be  in  total  possession  of  his  faculties  and  moving  by  instinct  to  do  the 
right  thing,  provided  he  has  made  the  most  of  his  training  opportunities. 

Exercise  in  the  maneuvering  of  men  is  only  an  elementary  introduc- 
tion to  this  educational  process.  The  basic  requirement  is  a  continuing 
study,  first  of  the,  nature  of  men,  second  of  the  techniques  that  produce 
unified  action,  and  last,  of  the  history  of  past  operations,  which  are 
covered  by  an  abundant  literature. 

Provided  always  that  this  collateral  study  is  sedulously  carried  for- 
ward by  the  individual  officer,  at  least  90  percent  of  all  that  is  given 
him  during  the  training  period  becomes  applicable  to  his  personal 
action  and  his  power  to  lead  other  men  when  under  fire. 

Each  Service  has  its  separate  character.  The  fighting  problem  of 
each  differs  in  some  measure  from  those  of  all  others.  In  the  nature  of 
things,  the  task  of  successfully  leading  men  in  battle  is  partly  condi- 
tioned by  the  unique  character  and  mission  of  each  Service. 

It  would  therefore  be  gratuitous,  and  indeed  impossible,  to  attempt 
to  outline  a  doctrine  that  would  be  of  general  application,  stipulating 
methods,  techniques,  and  so  forth,  that  would  apply  to  all  Americans 
in  combat,  no  matter  in  what  element  they  engaged. 

There  are,  however,  a  few  simple  and  fundamental  propositions  to 
which  the  Armed  Forces  subscribe  in  telling  their  officers  what  may 
be  expected  of  the  average  man  of  the  United  States  under  the  con- 
ditions of  battle.  Generally  speaking,  they  have  held  true  of  Americans 
in  times  past  from  Lexington  on  April  19,  1775,  to  the  withdrawal 
of  the  last  brigade  from  Vietnam  toward  the  end  of  1972.  The  fighting 
establishment  builds  its  discipline,  training,  code  of  conduct,  and  pub- 
lic policy  around  these  ideas,  believing  that  what  served  yesterday 
will  also  be  the  one  best  way  tomorrow,  and  for  so  long  as  our  tradi- 
tions and  our  system  of  freedoms  survive.  These  propositions  are: 


(Excerpt  from  The  Armed  Forces 
Officer ) 


I 

When  led  with  courage  and  intelligence,  an  American  will  fight 
as  willingly  and  as  efficiently  as  any  fighter  in  world  history. 

II 

His  keenness  and  endurance  in  war  will  be  in  proportion  to  the 
zeal  and  inspiration  of  his  leadership. 

Ill 

He  is  resourceful  and  imaginative,  and  the  best  results  will  al- 
ways flow  from  encouraging  him  to  use  his  brain  along  with  his 
spirit 

IV 

Under  combat  conditions,  he  will  reserve  his  greatest  loyalty  for 
the  officer  who  is  most  resourceful  in  the  tactical  employment 
of  his  forces  and  most  careful  to  avoid  unnecessary  losses. 

V 

He  is  to  a  certain  extent  machine-bound  because  the  nature  of 
our  civilization  has  made  him  so.  In  an  emergency,  he  tends  to  look 
around  for  a  motor  car,  a  radio,  or  some  other  gadget  that  will 
facilitate  his  purpose,  instead  of  thinking  about  using  his  muscle 
power  toward  the  given  end.  In  combat,  this  is  a  weakness  which 
thwarts  contact  and  limits  communications.  Therefore  it  needs  to 
be  anticipated  and  guarded  against 

VI 

War  does  not  require  that  the  American  be  brutalized  or  bullied 
in  any  measure  whatever.  His  need  is  an  alert  mind  and  a  tough- 
ened body.  Hate  and  bloodlust  are  not  the  attributes  of  a  sound 
training  under  the  American  system.  To  develop  clearly  a  line  of 
duty  is  sufficient  to  point  Americans  toward  the  doing  of  it 

VII 

Except  on  a  Hollywood  lot  there  is  no  such  thing  as  an  Amer- 
ican fighter  "type."  Our  best  men  come  in  all  colors,  shapes,  and 
sizes.  They  appear  from  every  section  of  the  Nation. 

VIII 

Presupposing  soundness  in  their  officer  leadership  the  majority 
of  Americans  in  any  group  or  unit  can  be  depended  upon  to  fight 
loyally  and  obediently  and  will  give  a  good  account  of  themselves. 

IX 

In  battle,  Americans  do  not  tend  to  fluctuate  between  emotional 
extremes,  in  complete  dejection  one  day  and  in  exultation  the  next, 


D-2 


according  to  changes  in  the  situation.  They  continue,  on  the  whole, 
on  a  fairly  even  keel,  when  the  going  is  tough  id  when  things 
are  breaking  their  way.  Even  when  heavily  shocked  by  battle 
losses,  they  tend  to  bound  back  quickly.  Though  their  griping  is 
incessant,  their  natural  outlook  is  on  the  optimistic  side,  and  they 
react  unfavorably  to  the  officer  who  looks  eternally  on  the  dark 
side. 

X 

During  battle,  American  officers  are  not  expected  either  to  drive 
their  men  or  to  be  forever  in  the  van,  as  if  praying  to  be  shot.  So 
long  as  they  are  with  their  men,  taking  the  same  chances  as  their 
men,  and  showing  a  firm  grasp  of  the  situation  and  of  the  line  of 
action  that  should  be  followed,  the  men  will  go  forward. 

XI 

In  any  situation  of  extreme  pressure  or  moral  exhaustion,  where 
the  men  cannot  otherwise  be  rallied  and  led  forward,  officers  are 
expected  to  do  the  actual,  physical  act  of  leading,  such  as  per- 
forming as  first  scout  or  point,  even  though  this  means  taking  over 
what  normally  would  be  an  enlisted  man's  function. 

XII 

The  normal,  gregarious  American  is  not  at  his  best  when  play- 
ing a  lone-handed  or  tactically  isolated  part  in  battle.  He  is  not  a 
kamikaze  or  a  one-man  torpedo.  Consequently,  the  best  tactical 
results  obtain  from  those  dispositions  and  methods  that  link  the 
power  of  one  man  to  that  of  another.  Men  who  feel  strange  with 
their  unit,  having  been  carelessly  received  by  it,  and  indifferently 
handled,  will  rarely,  if  ever,  fight  strongly  and  courageously.  But 
if  treated  with  common  decency  and  respect,  they  wjll  perform 
like  men. 

XIII 

Within  our  school  of  military  thought,  higher  authority  does 
not  consider  itself  infallible.  Either  in  combat  or  out,  in  any 
situation  where  a  majority  of  militarily  trained  Americans  be- 
come undutiful,  that  is  sufficient  reason  for  higher  authority  to 
resurvey  its  own  judgments,  disciplines,  and  line  of  action. 

XIV 

To  lie  to  American  forces  to  cover  up  a  blunder  in  combat 
never  serves  any  valid  purpose.  They  have  a  good  sense  of  com- 
bat and  an  uncanny  instinct  for  ferreting  out  the  truth  when  any- 
thing goes  wrong  tactically.  They  will  excuse  mistakes,  but  they 
will  not  forgive  being  treated  like  children. 


D-3 


XV 

When  spit-and-polish  are  laid  on  so  heavily  that  they  become 
onerous,  and  the  ranks  cannot  see  any  legitimate  connection  be- 
tween the  requirements  and  the  development  of  an  attitude  that 
will  serve  a  clear  fighting  purpose,  it  is  to  be  questioned  that  the 
exactions  serve  any  good  object  whatever. 

XVI 

On  the  other  hand,  because  standards  of  discipline  and  courtesy 
are  designed  for  the  express  purpose  of  furthering  control  under 
the  extraordinary  frictions  and  pressures  of  the  battlefield,  their 
maintenance  under  combat  conditions  is  as  necessary  as  during 
training.  Smartness  and  respect  are  the  marks  of  military  alert- 
ness, no  matter  how  trying  the  circumstances.  But  courtesy  starts 
at  the  top  in  the  dealing  of  any  officer  with  his  subordinates,  and 
in  his  decent  regard  for  their  loyalty,  intelligence,  and  manhood. 

XVII 

Though  Americans  enjoy  a  relatively  bountiful,  and  even  lux- 
urious, standard  of  living  in  their  home  environment,  they  do  not 
have  to  be  pampered,  spoon-fed,  and  surfeited  with  every  comfort 
and  convenience  to  keep  them  steadfast  and  devoted,  once  war 
comes.  They  are  by  nature  rugged  men,  and  in  the  field  will  re- 
spond most  perfectly  when  called  upon  to  play  a  rugged  part  Soft 
handling  will  soften  even  the  best  men.  But  even  the  weak  man 
will  develop  a  new  vigor  and  confidence  in  the  face  of  necessary 
hardship,  if  moved  by  a  leadership  that  is  courageously  making 
the  best  of  a  bad  situation. 

XVIII 

Extravagance  and  wastefulness  are  somewhat  rooted  vin  the 
American  character  because  of  our  mode  of  life.  When  our  men 
enter  military  service,  there  is  a  strong  holdover  of  their  prodigal 
civilian  habits.  Even  under  fighting  conditions,  they  tend  to  be 
wasteful  of  drinking  water,  food,  munitions,  and  other  vital  sup- 
ply. When  such  things  are  made  too  accessible,  they  tend  to  throw 
them  away  rather  than  conserve  them  in  the  general  interest  This 
is  a  distinct  weakness  during  combat,  when  conservation  of  all 
supply  may  be  the  touchstone  of  success.  Regulation  of  supply  and 
prevention  of  waste  in  any  form  is  the  prime  obligation  of  every 
officer. 

XIX 

Under  the  conditions  of  battle,  any  extra  work,  exercise,  ma- 
neuver, or  marching  that  does  not  serve  a  clear  and  direct  opera- 
tional purpose  is  unjustifiable.  The  supreme  object  is  to  keep  men 


D-4 


as  physically  fresh  and  mentally  alert  as  possible.  Tired  men  take 
fright  and  are  half-whipped  before  the  battle  opens.  Worn-out 
officers  cannot  make  clear  decisions.  The  conservation  of  men's 
powers,  not  the  exhaustion  thereof,  is  the  way  of  successful 
operation. 

XX 

Wherr  forces  are  committed  to  combat,  it  is  vital  that  not  one 
unnecessary  pound  be  put  on  any  man's  back.  Lightness  of  foot 
is  the  key  to  speed  of  movement  and  the  increase  of  firepower. 
In  judging  these  things,  every  officer's  thought  should  be  on  the  op- 
timistic side.  It  is  better  to  take  the  chance  that  men  will  manage  to 
get  by  on  a  little  less  than  to  overload  them,  through  an  over- 
cautious reckoning  of  every  possible  contingency,  thereby  destroy- 
ing their  power  to  do  anything  effectively. 

XXI 

Even  thorough  training  and  long  practice  in  weapons  handling 
will  not  always  insure  that  a  majority  of  men  will  use  their  weap- 
ons freely  and  consistently  when  engaging  the  enemy.  In  youth 
they  are  taught  that  the  taking  of  human  life  is  wrong.  This  feeling 
is  deep-rooted  in  their  emotions.  Many  of  them  cannot  shake  it 
off  when  the  hour  comes  that  their  own  lives  are  in  danger.  They 
fail  to  fire  though  they  do  not  know  exactly  why.  In  war,  firing 
at  an  enemy  target  can  be  made  a  habit.  Once  required  to  make 
the  start,  because  he  is  given  personal  and  intelligent  direction, 
any  man  will  find  it  easier  to  fire  the  second  and  third  time,  and 
soon  thereafter  his  response  will  become  automatic  in  any  tactical 
situation.  When  engaging  the  enemy,  the  most  decisive  task  of 
all  junior  field  force  leaders  is  to  make  certain  that  all  men  along 
the  line  are  employing  their  weapons,  even  if  this  means  spending 
some  time  with  each  man  and  directing  his  fire.  Reconnaissance 
and  inspection  toward  this  end,  particularly  in  the  early  stages 
of  initial  engagement,  are  far  more  important  than  the  employ- 
ment of  weapons  by  junior  leaders  themselves,  since  this  tends 
to  distract  their  attention  from  what  the  men  are  doing. 

XXII 

Unity  of  action  develops  from  fullness  of  information.  In  combat, 
all  ranks  have  to  know  what  is  being  done,  and  why  it  is  being 
done,  if  confusion  is  to  be  kept  to  a  minimum.  This  holds  true 
in  all  types  of  operation,  whatever  the  Service.  However,  a  sur- 
feit of  information  clouds  the  mind  and  may  sometimes  depress 
the  spirit.  We  can  take  one  example.  A  commander  might  be  con- 
fronted by  a  complex  situation,  and  his  solution  may  comprise  a 
continuing  operation  in  three  distinct  phases.  It  would  be  advisable 


D-5 


that  all  hands  be  told  the  complete  detail  of  "phase  A."  But  it 
might  be  equally  sensible  that  only  his  subordinates  who  are  clos- 
est to  him  be  made  fully  informed  about  "phase  B"  and  "phase  C." 
Since  all  plans  in  combat  are  subject  to  modification  as  circum- 
stances dictate,  it  is  better  not  to  muddle  men  by  filling  their 
minds  with  a  seeming  conflict  in  ideas.  More  important  still,  if  the 
grand  object  seems  too  vast  and  formidable,  even  the  first  step 
toward  it  may  appear  doubly  difficult  Fullness  of  information 
does  not  void  the  other  principle  that  one  thing  at  a  time,  care- 
fully organized  all  down  the  line,  is  the  surest  way. 

XXIII 

There  is  no  excuse  for  malingering  or  cowardice  during  battle. 
It  is  the  task  of  leadership  to  stop  it  by  whatever  means  would 
seem  to  be  the  surest  cure,  always  making  certain  that  in  so  doing 
it  will  not  make  a  bad  matter  worse. 

XXIV 

The  Armed  Services  recognize  that  there  are  occasional  indi- 
viduals whose  nervous  and  spiritual  makeup  may  be  such  that, 
though  they  erode  rapidly  and  may  suffer  complete  breakdown 
under  combat  conditions,  they  still  may  be  wholly  loyal  and  con- 
scientious men,  capable  of  doing  high  duty  elsewhere.  Men  are 
not  alike.  In  some,  however  willing  the  spirit,  the  flesh  may  still 
be  weak.  To  punish,  degrade,  or  in  any  way  humiliate  such  men 
is  not  more  cruel  than  ignorant.  When  the  good  faith  of  any  in- 
dividual has  been  repeatedly  demonstrated  in  his  earlier  service, 
he  deserves  the  benefit  of  the  doubt  from  his  superior,  pending 
study  of  his  case  by  medical  authority.  But  if  the  man  has  been  a 
bad  actor  consistently,  his  officer  is  warranted  in  proceeding  on 
the  assumption  that  his  combat  failure  is  just  one  more  grave 
moral  dereliction.  To  fail  to  take  proper  action  against  such  a  man 
can  only  work  unusual  hardship  on  the  majority  trying  to  do 
their  duty. 

XXV 

The  United  States  abides  by  the  laws  of  war.  Its  Armed  Forces, 
in  their  dealing  with  all  other  peoples,  are  expected  to  comply 
with  the  laws  of  war  in  the  spirit  and  to  the  letter.  In  waging  war, 
we  do  not  terrorize  helpless  non-combatants  if  it  is  within  our 
power  to  avoid  so  doing.  Wanton  killing,  torture,  cruelty,  or  the 
working  of  unusual  and  unnecessary  hardship  on  enemy  prisoners 
or  populations  is  not  justified  in  any  circumstance.  Likewise,  re- 
spect for  the  reign  of  law,  as  that  term  is  understood  in  the  United 
States,  is  expected  to  follow  the  flag  wherever  it  goes.  Pillaging, 
looting,  and  other  excesses  are  as  immoral  when  Americans  are 


D-6 


operating  under  military  law  as  when  they  are  living  together 
under  the  civil  code.  Nonetheless,  some  men  in  the  American  forces 
will  loot  and  destroy  property  unless  they  are  restrained  by  fear 
of  punishment.  War  looses  violence  and  disorder;  it  inflames  pas- 
sions and  makes  it  relatively  easy  for  the  individual  to  get  away 
with  unlawful  actions.  But  it  does  not  lessen  the  gravity  of  his  of- 
fense or  make  it  less  necessary  that  constituted  authority  put  him 
down.  The  main  safeguard  against  lawlessness  and  hooliganism  in 
any  armed  body  is  the  integrity  of  its  officers.  When  men  know 
that  their  commander  is  absolutely  opposed  to  such  excesses  and 
will  take  forceful  action  to  repress  any  breach  of  discipline,  they 
will  conform.  But  when  an  officer  winks  at  any  depredation  by 
his  men,  it  is  no  different  than  if  he  had  committed  the  act. 

XXVI 

On  the  field  of  sport,  Americans  always  "talk  it  up"  to  keep 
nerves  steady  and  to  generate  confidence.  The  need  is  even  greater 
on  the  field  of  war,  and  the  same  treatment  will  have  no  less 
effect.  When  men  are  afraid,  they  go  silent;  silence  of  itself  further 
intensifies  their  fear.  The  resumption  of  speech  is  the  beginning  of 
thoughtful,  collected  action,  for  two  or  more  men  cannot  join 
strength  and  work  intelligently  together  until  they  know  one  an- 
other's thoughts.  Consequently,  all  training  is  an  exercise  in  get- 
ting men  to  open  up  and  become  articulate  even  as  it  is  a  process 
in  conditioning  them  physically  to  move  strongly  and  together. 

XXVII 

Inspection  is  more  important  in  the  face  of  the  enemy  than  dur- 
ing training  because  a  fouled  piece  may  mean  a  lost  battle,  an 
overlooked  sick  man  may  infect  a  fortress,  and  a  mislaid  message 
can  cost  a  war.  By  virtue  of  his  position,  every  junior  leader  is  an 
inspector,  and  the  obligation  to  make  certain  that  his  force  at  all 
times  is  inspection-proof  is  unremitting. 

XXVIII 

In  battle  crisis,  a  majority  of  Americans  present  will  respond  to 
any  man  who  has  the  will  and  the  brains  to  give  them  a  clear, 
intelligent  order.  They  will  follow  the  lowest-ranking  man  present 
if  he  obviously  knows  what  he  is  doing  and  is  morally  the  master 
of  the  situation,  but  they  will  not  obey  a  chuckle-head  if  he  has 
nothing  in  his  favor  but  his  rank. 

XXIX 

Americans  are  uncommonly  careless  about  security  when  in 
the  combat  field.  They  have  always  been  so;  it  is  part  of  their  na- 
ture. Operations  analysts  reckoned,  as  to  Vietnam,  that  this  fault 


D-7 


in  itself  accounted  for  approximately  one-third  of  our  casualties. 
This  weakness  being  chronic,  there  is  no  safeguard  against  it  ex- 
cept super  vigilance  on  the  part  of  officers,  and  the  habit  is  easiest 
formed  by  giving  foremost  attention  to  the  problem  during  train- 
ing exercises. 

XXX 

For  all  officers,  due  reflection  on  these  points  relating  to  the 
character  of  our  men  in  war  is  not  more  important  than  a  con- 
tinuing study  of  how  they  may  be  applied  to  all  aspects  of  train- 
ing, toward  the  end  that  we  may  further  strengthen  our  own  sys- 
tem. That  armed  force  is  nearest  perfect  which  best  holds  itself,  at 
all  times  and  at  all  levels,  in  a  state  of  readiness  to  move  against 
and  destroy  any  declared  enemy  of  the  United  States. 


D-8 


Appendix  E 


A  legacy  of  esprit  and  leadership 

by  MGen  John  A.  Lejeune 

t  "Combat  leader,  scholar,  thinker,  educator,  innovator  —  all  these  describe 
the  man  who  became  the  thirteenth  Commandant  of  the  Marine  Corps  and 
served  as  such  for  nine  years  during  the  1920's. "  With  these  words  Gen 
Lemuel  C.  Shepherd  Jr.,  20th  Commandant  describes  MGen  John  A.  Lejeune 
in  the  preface  to  the  new  edition  of  Reminiscenscs  of  a  Marine,  Lejeune 's 
memoirs,  republished  this  month  by  the  Marine  Corps  Association. 

Over  the  years  John  A.  Lejeune  has  become  almost  a  legend  in  the  Marine 
Corps.  "Besides  the  many  'firsts'  of  his  distinguished  thirty-nine  year  career,  " 
Gen  Shepherd  goes  on  to  say,  "Lejeune  can  perhaps  best  be  described  as  the 
man  who  charted  the  course  of  the  Corps  in  the  20th  century.  "And  indeed  he 
did,  when  he  directed  a  study  of  amphibious  warfare  at  Marine  Corps  Schools, 
Quant ico  from  which  the  Corps'  modern  amphibious  doctrine  evolved.  But 
above  all  else  Gen  Lejeune 's  legacy  comes  down  strongest  for  his  model  of 
leadership.  He  set  forth  the  "teacher-pupil"  approach  in  the  relationship  be- 
tween officer  and  enlisted  which  still  provides  the  hallmark  for  Marine  Corps 
leadership. 

On  18  January  1921  he  spoke  to  the  Army  General  Staff  College  (forerun- 
ner of  the  Army  War  College),  Washington,  D.  C.  about  esprit  and  leadership. 
He  found  the  two  inseparable.  His  message  is  timeless  and  proves  that  in 
leading  men,  leadership  doesn 't  change  much,  only  men  do.  On  the  59th  an- 
niversary of  Gen  Lejeune 's  appointment  as  Commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps,  we  publish  his  talk  on  leadership  as  he  gave  it  58  years  ago. 


When  General  Smith  wrote  to  me  and 
asked  me  to  come  down  to  the 
General  Staff  College  and  make  a 
talk  on  the  subject  of  esprit  and 
leadership,  I  was  very  loathe  to  accept.  In  the 
first  place,  I  had  been  at  the  school  here  for  14 
months  and  I  felt  like  a  fleet  officer  going  back 
to  the  Naval  Academy,  getting  up  on  the  plat- 
form and  talking  to  the  staff  and  students  of  the 
school.  In  the  second  place,  I  have  been  very 
busy.  I  could  see  ahead  that  I  would  be  busy 
with  that  kind  of  work  which  is  very  distracting; 
there  are  so  many  questions  coming  up  all  the 
time  that  it  is  very  hard  to  concentrate  on  any 
one  subject.  In  the  third  place,  Tdid  not  think, 
and  I  do  not  think  now,  that  I  have  any  very  im- 
portant message  which  would  be  of  great  value 
to  the  persons  who  were  going  to  hear  it. 
However,  I  wrote  out  a  talk.  Ordinarily  I  talk 
without  notes,  but  I  put  them  down  because  I 
might  get  a  case  of  buck-fever. 

Esprit  de  corps  and  morale  are  kindred  sub- 
jects; in  fact,  some  writers  consider  them  as 
synonomous.  This,  however,  is  not  the  case,  as 
esprit  de  corps  is  only  one  of  the  factors  which 
goes  to  constitute  morale. 


Marine  Corps  Gazette  f  JuJy  1979 


E-1 


"Esprit  itself  cannot  be  perceived. ..but  nevertheless  every  leader  of  men  knows 
that  it  does  exist  and  that  it  is. ..necessary  to. ..achieve  victory." 


Morale  is  three-fold  —  physical,  mental  or 
professional,  and  spiritual.  The  physical  condi- 
tion of  troops  has  a  great  influence  on  their 
morale.  Men  whose  bodies  are  untrained 
physically,  who  are  soft  from  leading  sedentary 
lives,  are  unable  to  stand  the  strain  and  stress  of 
long  marches  and  active  campaigning.  Their 
morale  is  rapidly  lowered,  and  they  soon 
become  demoralized. 

The  effect  of  physical  training  is  exemplified 
in  the  case  of  Stonewall  Jackson's  division.  In 
the  fall  campaign  of  '62,  they  made  such  long 
marches  with  so  few  stragglers  that  they  were 
called  the  "Foot  Cavalry."  General  Dick 
Taylor,  who  commanded  one  of  the  brigades, 
writes  very  interestingly  in  his  book  entitled 
"Destruction  and  Reconstruction,"  telling  how 
he  trained  his  brigade  to  march.  He  said  in  '61 
Jackson's  division  marched  very  poorly.  It  was 
composed  largely  of  men  who  were  brought  up 
in  the  country  and  who  were  accustomed  to  ride 


Physical  condition  has  great  effect  on  morale. 


on  horse-back,  or  were  city  men  who  were  ac- 
customed to  riding  in  carriages.  Taylor  took  his 
brigade  and  practiced  it  in  marching  during  the 
winter  of  '61  and  '62,  so  in  the  spring  of  '63  his 
brigade  marched  so  well  that  it  was  adopted  by 
Jackson  as  an  example  for  the  whole  division. 
The  whole  division  was  practiced  in  marching 
with  the  wonderful  results  that  history  tells  us 
about.  The  morale  of  that  division  as  we  know 
was  very  high;  perhaps  the  physical  condition  of 
the  men  had  a  great  effect  on  it. 

Similarly,  troops  whose  professional  or 
military  training  has  been  neglected,  and  who 
are  unskilled  in  the  profession  of  arms,  finding 
themselves  unable  to  cope  on  equal  terms  with  a 
highly  trained  enemy  force  of  equal  numbers, 
have  their  morale  lowered,  and  it  becomes  in- 
creasingly difficult  to  obtain  results  with  such 
troops  until  and  unless  they  shall  have  received 
the  careful  training  and  instruction  which  all 
troops  should  have  before  being  thrown  into 
battle. 

There  are  many  instances  in  history  of  the 
failure  of  untrained  troops.  They  are  particular- 
ly liable  to  panic.  I  think  in  our  own  history  the 
most  notable  example  is  the  Battle  of  Bull  Run, 
where  the  Union  Army  became  panic-stricken  in 
the  afternoon  of  the  battle  and  broke  and  fled  to 
Washington.  General  Grant  tells  us  in  his 
memoirs  of  a  regiment  in  Illinois  which  was  bad- 
ly officered.  Reports  came  into  the  governor's 
office  of  the  depredations  of  the  troops.  They 
seem  to  have  committed  atrocities  all  around 
southern  Illinois,  murders,  robberies,  drunken- 
ness, everything  of  that  kind.  The  governor 
turned  to  General  Grant,  then  Captain  Grant, 
and  said,  "What  are  we  going  to  do?"  Grant 
said,  "Give  me  command  of  the  regiment  and  I 
can  train  them."  He  was  appointed  colonel  and 
took  command  of  this  regiment,  instructed  the 
officers,  trained  the  men,  worked  them  about 
eight  hours  a  day,  and  in  a  few  months  it  was 
the  best  regiment  of  the  Illinois  troops. 

Esprit  de  corps  is  the  third  factor  in  morale, 
affecting,  as  it  does,  ihe  spirit  of  the  troops. 
Like  everything  pertaining  to  the  spirit,  it  is  in- 
tangible, imponderable,  and  invisible.  Esprit 
itself  cannot  be  perceived  by  any  of  the  five 
senses,  but  nevertheless,  every  leader  of  men 
knows  that  it  does  exist  and  that  it  is  the  most 
potent  of  the  forces  which  it  is  necessary  to 
utilize  in  order  to  achieve  victory. 


E-2 


Napoleon  has  said  that,  of  all  the  elements 
that  go  to  make  up  battle  efficiency,  morale 
constitutes  75  per  cent,  or  that  morale  is  to  the 
material  as  three  to  one.  Marshal  Foch,  I  have 
read,  has  increased  the  value  of  morale  over  the 
material  to  four  to  one. 

When  we  consider  the  meaning  of  these  state- 
ments, we  are  at  first  amazed  to  find  that  these 
great  masters  of  the  art  of  war  have  apparently 
gone  on  record  as  believing  that  the  element  of 
morale  in  any  organization  or  army  is  three  of 
four  times  greater  than  the  combination  of  all 
the  material  factors,  such  as  the  weapons  of  the 
infantry,  artillery,  and  cavalry,  and,  in  the  case 
of  Marshal  Foch,  of  the  air  service  as  well.  It  is 
beyond  the  power  of  the  average  man's  com- 
prehension to  fully  visualize  this.  This  version  of 
their  statements  is,  of  course,  an  exaggeration, 
in  that  unarmed  troops,  no  matter  how  high 
their  spirit,  could  not  overcome  troops  fully 
armed  and  equipped  with  modern  weapons, 
unless  they  were  absolutely  lacking  in  morale, 
which  is  practically  inconceivable,  as  even  the 
most  inferior  troops  have  some  spark  of  martial 
spirit,  and  are  not  altogether  cowards. 

What  I  think  was  intended  to  be  conveyed  by 
the  statement  of  Napoleon  was,  that  an  army 
with  high  morale,  and  necessarily  high  spirit, 
could  defeat  an  army  of  low  morale,  and 
necessarily  low  spirit,  which  was  three  times  as 
strong  in  numbers.  A  study  of  history  shows 
that  this  has  happened  over  and  over  again.  In 
fact,  small  forces  have  defeated  armies  much 
greater  than  three  times  their  size.  The  battles  of 
the  Greeks  with  the  Asiatic  armies  alone  are  suf- 
ficient to  establish  the  truth  of  this  statement. 
For  instance,  Alexander's  conquest  of  Asia; 
Xenophon's  successful  retreat  with  10,000  men 
through  the  heart  of  Asia  Minor  although  sur- 
rounded by  hundreds  of  thousands  of  the 
enemy;  the  battles  of  Marathon,  Thermopalae; 
and  many  others. 

The  Roman  armies  also  overcame  forces 
many  times  greater  than  they  in  numbers 
through  their  superiority  in  morale.  A  handful 
of  Roman  citizens  ruled  the  world  until  the 
Roman  Empire  broke  down  through  the  loss  of 
morale  on  the  part  of  its  people,  when  it  then 
became  an  easy  prey  to  the  hordes  of  barbarians 
who  had  continually  pressed  against  its  outer 
circumference  for  centuries. 

Napoleon  verified  the  truth  of  his  belief  by 
winning  many  battles  with  forces  inferior  in 
numbers  to  those  of  his  opponents. 

If  it  be  accepted  then  as  true  that  the  esprit  de 
corps  of  any  body  of  troops  is  of  such  tremen- 

Marine  Corps  Gazette  f  July  1979 


The  author  and  Gen  Butler  with  SecNav  Denby  — 
"some  way  to  'put  it  over'  the  Navy.  " 

dous  value,  evidently  it  is  a  most  important  sub- 
ject for  a  military  officer  to  study.  To  be  able  to 
create  and  maintain  this  living  thing  which  we 
call  "esprit"  in  the  hearts  of  his  troops  is  to  be  a 
great  leader.  Whether  he  be  a  platoon,  a  com- 
pany, battalion,  regimental,  division,  or  army 
commander,  the  subject  is  worthy  of  his  careful 
attention,  and  no  officer  should  rest  satisfied 
until  he  feels  that  he  possesses  that  greatest  of  all 
assets  —  the  ability  to  play  upon  the  emotions  of 
his  men  in  such  a  manner  as  to  produce  that 
most  wonderful  of  all  harmonies  —  the  music  of 
the  human  heart  attuned  to  great  deeds  and 
great  achievements. 

To  be  practical,  then,  how  can  we  produce 
and  cultivate  morale,  and  particularly  that  im- 
portant element  of  morale  —  esprit  —  in  our 
troops?  The  physical  and  mental,  or  profes- 
sional phases  of  morale  are  well  known  to  all  of 
us.  To  acquire  them  it  is  simply  a  matter  of  ap- 
plying practically  and  intelligently  the  rules  laid 
down  for  physical  training  and  military  instruc- 
tion. No  proper  excuse  can  be  made  for  failure 
on  the  part  of  officers  to  bring  their  troops  to 
the  very  finest  physical  condition  and  to  so  in- 
struct them  as  to  make  them  as  skillful  as  the 
best  in  the  profession  of  arms.  These  things  are 
the  manifest  duty  of  every  officer,  including  the 
subaltern,  and  any  officer  who  fails  in  the  per- 
formance of  his  duty  in  these  respects  is  un- 


E-3 


worthy  to  hold  a  commission.  They  are  the  very 
"ABC"  of  his  profession. 

The  third  factor  —  the  spirit  —  is  a  more  or 
less  unknown  field  to  all  of  us  and  a  field  which 
it  is  very  difficult  for  us  to  comprehend  by  the 
exercise  of  our  mental  faculties.  Logic  and 
reasoning  play  but  a  small  part  of  it.  Education 
assists  but  little.  It  is  a  matter  of  dealing  with  the 
emotions,  the  spirit,  the  souls  of  the  troops.  A 
man  successful  in  this  realm  is  a  great  leader, 
and  the  qualities  necessary  to  make  him  success- 
ful are  known  as  the  qualities  of  leadership. 
How,  then,  shall  we  inculcate  and  cultivate  these 
qualities  and  become  creators  of  esprit  and, 
therefore,  successful  leaders  of  men? 

Perhaps  we  can  learn  more  on  this  subject,  as 
on  all  military  subjects,  by  a  study  of  history 
than  by  any  other  method.  By  consulting  his- 
tory, let  us  determine  who  were  some  of  the 
great  leaders  and  then  ascertain,  if  possible,  the 
methods  used  by  them. 

All  of  us  are  familiar  with  the  great  Hebrew 
leader  called  Moses.  All  of  us  know,  in  a  general 
way,  that  he  reorganized  his  people  and  gave 
them  a  system  of  government,  a  body  of  laws, 
and  a  religion,  but  I  do  not  believe  that  the 
average  person  quite  comprehends  the  tremen- 
dous power  of  his  leadership  and  the  causes  of 
his  success. 

Let  us  recall  to  our  minds  the  old  Bible  story 
describing  the  history  of  the  Jews  in  Egypt,  their 
wanderings  in  the  desert,  and  their  entry  into  the 
Promised  Land.  These  people,  after  several  cen- 
turies devoted  to  carrying  out  the  decree  of 
Heaven  to  be  fruitful  and  multiply,  had  become 
a  numerous  people,  so  numerous,  in  fact,  as  to 
make  their  masters,  the  Egyptians,  fear  that 
they  might  rise  and  overthrow  them.  In  conse- 
quence, the  ruler  of  the  Egyptians  enslaved 
them.  He  forced  them  to  live  in  crowded  ghet- 
tos, deprived  them  of  the  use  of  weapons,  com- 
pelled them  to  do  treadmill  work,  make  bricks 
without  straw,  and  did  everything  else  in  his 
power  to  abuse  them  physically,  mentally, 
morally,  and  spiritually.  In  spite  of  this,  the 
ruler  of  the  Egyptians  still  feared  these  people, 
and  in  order  to  prevent  their  rapid  increase  in 
numbers,  he  issued  an  edict  that  the  first  bom 
male  of  each  family  must  be  slain  at  birth.  The 
mother  of  Moses,  in  order  to  save  his  life,  hid 
him  in  the  bullrushes,  and  he  was  found  and 
adopted  by  the  daughter  of  Pharaoh.  He  was 
given  the  high  degree  of  physical  and  mental 
training  reserved  for  the  ruling  classes  of  Egypt. 

Moses,  upon  attaining  manhood,  brooded 
over  the  condition  of  his  people,  and  finally  left 


the  court  of  Egypt  and  went  out  into  the  desert, 
where  he  spent  several  years  preparing  himself 
for  the  great  mission  which  he  had  personally 
assumed  —  that  of  freeing  his  people  and 
leading  them  into  Palestine.  During  this  time,  he 
had  opportunity  to  study  the  lore  of  the  desert, 
to  train  himself  in  the  profession  of  arms,  and  to 
sanctify  his  spirit  to  the  unselfish  service  of  his 
people  and  of  his  God. 

This  great  leader,  upon  his  return  to  Egypt, 
finally,  after  many  vicissitudes,  secured  the  per- 
mission of  Pharaoh  to  remove  the  Hebrews  and 
their  belongings  from  Egypt,  and  actually  suc- 
ceeded in  doing  so.  We  know,  at  the  present 
time,  that  the  march  from  Egypt  to  Palestine  is 
one  of  only  a  few  weeks,  although  the  Bible  tells 
us  that  the  Israelites  were  lost  in  the  wilderness 
and  wandered  about,  apparently  in  an  aimless 
manner,  for  40  years. 

It  is  inconceivable  that  Moses  could  have 
allowed  this  to  be  done  without  purpose.  He 
had  lived  in  the  desert  for  several  years;  he  knew 
where  guides  could  be  found;  and  he  knew  the 
routes  across  the  desert  himself.  A  careful  study 
of  the  Biblical  account  shows  clearly  that  the 
wanderings  of  the  Israelites  in  the  desert  were 
carefully  planned  by  Moses  himself,  and  that  he 
took  advantage  of  this  opportunity  and  of  the 
time  to  build  up  the  morale  of  his  people.  These 
poor  and  feeble  ghetto  dwellers  either  died  from 
exposure  or  became  hardy  by  their  continued 
wanderings,  their  open-air  life,  and  by  the  very 
difficulties  which  they  had  to  surmount.  They 
were  compelled  to  learn  the  use  of  weapons  and 
the  lore  of  the  desert  in  order  to  live.  Moses 
taught  them  how  to  get  food  by  the  chase,  how 
to  find  water  springs,  and  how  to  utilize  the 
fruits  of  the  ground  which  they  found  from  time 
to  time.  All  of  these  things  were  so  marvelous  to 
them  that  they  were  called  miracles. 

Moses  combined  with  this  perfection  of  the 
physical  instruction  and  training,  the  cultivation 
of  the  spirit  of  his  people.  He  did  everything  in 
his  power  to  cause  them  to  lead  virtuous  and 
clean  lives;  he  gave  them  the  Ten  Command- 
ments, under  circumstances  which  powerfully 
impressed  the  imagination  of  the  ignorant 
Israelites,  and  these  Commandments  have  come 
down  to  us  unchanged  and  still  constitute  suides 
in  the  lives  of  all  civilized  people.  He  drew  up 
and  enforced  a  body  of  wise  and  salutary  laws. 
He  organized  them  by  tribes  into  12  fighting 
units.  He  insisted  upon  their  adoption  of  the 
worship  of  the  only  true  God. 

Finally,  after  they  had  lived  for  40  years  in  the 
wilderness,  during  which  time  every  man, 
woman,  and  child  who  had  left  Egypt  —  with 


E-4 


the  exception  of  Moses,  the  civil  ruler,  and 
Joshua,  the  military  leader  —  had  died,  Moses 
was  able  to  look  upon  his  people  and  see,  in 
place  of  the  weak  and  feeble  race  he  had  led 
from  Egypt,  a  warlike  host  of  600,000,  every 
member  of  which  had  been  born,  raised  and 
developed  in  the  desert,  who  were  inured  to 
hardship,  were  vigorous  physically  and  alert 
mentally,  trained  in  the  use  of  warlike  weapons, 


organized  into  a  fighting  force,  filled  with  a 
religious  enthusiasm  which  amounted  to  con- 
trolled fanatacism,  and  determined  to  reconquer 
the  land  which  they  had  been  constantly  taught 
had  been  promised  their  forefather  Abraham  by 
God  himself.  Moses  and  Joshua  therefore  con- 
cluded that  the  time  to  enter  Palestine  had 
come.  Moses  himself,  having  completed  his 
work,  turned  over  the  control  of  this  warlike 
host  to  Joshua,  and  climbing  to  the  top  of  a 
mountain,  saw  the  Promised  Land  in  the 
distance  and  was  gathered  to  his  Fathers. 

Joshua  led  the  troops  into  the  Promised 
Land,  easily  overran  the  country,  conquered 
and  destroyed  the  tribes  occupying  it,  and  his 
people  took  it  for  their  own. 

This  constitutes,  I  believe,  the  greatest  exam- 
ple in  history  of  the  upbuilding  of  the  morale  of 
a  whole  people,  and  the  changing  of  a  race  of 
slaves  into  a  nation  of  mighty  warriors. 

There  are  other  similar  examples  in  history, 
although  not  quite  so  striking.  Hannibal  after 
the  First  Punic  War  prepared  himself  and  the 
Carthagenians,  a  commercial  trades-people,  for 
the  great  war  with  Rome  which  he  saw  could  not 


be  avoided.  The  history  of  the  early  years  of  the 
Second  Punic  War  tells  us  of  his  marvelous  suc- 
cess. Cromwell  led  a  religious  rebellion  against 
the  king,  carrying  the  Puritans  to  victory. 
George  Washington  for  eight  years  led  the 
revolutionary  armies  of  our  own  country  and 
kept  up  the  spirit  of  his  faltering  compatriots. 
Napoleon  seized  the  opportunity  of  a  regene- 
rated France,  whose  people  were  fired  with  ark 
enthusiasm  for  liberty  and  freedom,  to  lead  her 
armies  into  the  path  of  military  glory  and  con- 
quest. Finally,  in  the  World  War  [I]  we  have  the 
example  of  our  own  country  —  a  peaceful  na- 
tion —  suddenly  becoming  filled  with  military 
ardor  and  the  fighting  spirit. 

In  nearly  all  of  these  great  historical  ex- 
amples, we  find  a  great  leader  who,  in  his  own 
character,  was  the  incarnation  of  the  aspirations 
of  his  people  and  who,  in  his  turn,  built  up  their 
morale  and  esprit  and  led  them  to  their  goal. 

Human  nature  is  much  the  same  as  it  has  al- 
ways been,  although  it  has  evolved  with  its  en- 
vironment, and  the  first  essential  of  a  successful 
military  leader  is  to  be  able  to  understand  and 
comprehend  the  emotions  and  the  spirit  which 
lives  in  the  hearts  and  souls  of  the  men  he  com- 
mands. 

The  study  of  leadership  involves,  therefore, 
first  of  all  a  study  of  human  nature.  One  must 
put  himself  in  the  place  of  those  whom  he  would 
lead;  he  must  have  a  full  understanding  of  their 
thoughts,  their  attitude,  their  emotions,  their 
aspirations,  and  their  ideals;  and  he  must  em- 
body in  his  own  character  the  virtues  which  he 
would  instill  into  the  hearts  of  his  followers. 
True  esprit  de  corps  is  founded  on  the  great 
military  virtues  such  as  unselfishness,  self- 
control,  energy,  honor  and  courage. 

In  time  of  peace,  the  cultivation  of  esprit  is 
much  more  difficult  than  in  time  of  war.  The 
men  have  no  great  mission  before  them  and  it  is 
hard  to  convince  them  that  it  is  necessary  to 
train  arduously  and  to  prepare  themselves  for  an 
eventuality  which  does  not  appear  to  be  immi- 
nent. Careful  instruction  in  the  history  and 
traditions  of  their  organization  is  very  helpful  in 
peace  times,  and  the  stirring  up  of  a  spirit  of 
competition  between  organizations  is  of  the  ut- 
most importance. 

The  United  States  Marine  Corps  has  always 
been  noted  for  its  esprit  de  corps.  This  has  been 
largely  due  to  the  fact  that  it  has  always  been  in 
competition  with  some  other  arm  of  the  service. 
It  habitually  serves  side  by  side  with  the  Navy, 
and  every  officer  who  is  worth  his  salt  feels  im- 


E-5 


Cemetery  at  Belleau  Wood  —  even  after  vicU 

pelled  to  have  his  detachment,  company,  or 
other  organization,  win  out  in  every  competi- 
tion, whether  it  be  baseball,  football,  or  other 
athletic  activities,  target  practice,  drills, 
discipline,  appearance,  conduct,  military  eti- 
quette, or  any  of  the  other  many  things  which 
go  to  make  for  efficiency.  This  competitive 
spirit  is  constantly  drilled  into  the  men,  and  as  a 
result,  every  good  Marine  is  ever  on  the  qui  vive 
to  find  some  way  to  "put  it  over"  the  Navy.  The 
same  spirit  exists  when  the  Marines  are  detached 
for  service  with  the  Army,  and  an  appeal  to  it 
always  receives  a  response.  The  esprit  of  the 
Marines  is  that  of  the  Corps,  and  while  there  is 
always  a  regimental  and  company  esprit,  the 
esprit  of  the  Corps  predominates. 

In  peace  times  too,  creature  comforts  have  a 
great  effect  in  keeping  up  the  morale  of  the 
men.  The  officers  must  see  to  it  that  the  men  are 
properly  housed,  clothed,  and  fed  and  that  their 
time  is  taken  up  in  useful  and  interesting  instruc- 
tion and  entertainment.  Idleness  is  the  curse  of 
the  military  life,  but  any  treadmill  instruction  is 
a  poor  substitute.  Officers  must  use  ingenuity 
and  initiative  and  must  have  their  own  minds 
trained  and  developed  so  that  they  can  properly 
train  their  men.  Discipline,  in  its  true  sense, 
should  never  be  neglected.  The  men  should  be 
made  to  realize  its  great  importance,  but  in  en- 
forcing it,  officers  should  never  be  harsh  or  ar- 
rogant in  their  dealings  with  their  men,  but  al- 


the  many  losses  caused  a  depression  in  spirit. 

ways  kind,  humane,  and  just. 

In  time  of  war,  the  leader  must  keep  in  touch 
with  the  current  of  thought  of  his  men.  He  must 
find  out  what  their  grievances  are,  if  any,  and 
not  only  endeavor  to  correct  the  faulty  condi- 
tions, but  also  to  eradicate  any  feeling  of  discon- 
tent from  their  minds.  He  should  mingle  freely 
with  his  men  and  let  them  understand  that  he 
takes  a  personal  interest  in  the  welfare  of  every 
one  of  them.  It  is  not  necessary  for  him  to  iso- 
late himself  in  order  to  retain  their  respect.  On 
the  contrary,  he  should  go  among  them  fre- 
quently so  that  every  man  in  his  organization 
may  know  him  and  feel  that  he  knows  them. 
This  should  be  especially  the  case  before  battle. 

He  should  watch  carefully  the  training  and  in- 
struction of  the  troops,  and  let  them  see  that  he 
is  determined  that  they  shall  be  fully  prepared 
for  battle.  And  if  there  be  no  liability  of  the  in- 
formation reaching  the  enemy,  he  should  take 
his  entire  organization  into  his  confidence  and 
inform  them  of  the  great  events  that  are  taking 
place  in  other  theatres  of  operations,  the  part 
being  played  by  other  units,  and  by  their  allies, 
if  any;  and  give  them  Full  information  on  the  eve 
of  battle  as  to  the  plan  of  operations  and  the 
part  to  be  played  by  each  unit  of  the  organiza- 
tion. Of  course,  that  depends  entirely  whether 
or  not  the  information  can  be  kept  from  the 
enemy,  if  you  are  in  reserve  position,  for  in- 
stance. 


E-6 


It  is  especially  advisable,  whenever  it  can  be 
done,  for  the  commander  to  assemble  his  troops 
by  battalions  and  address  them,  telling  them  of 
the  great  traditions  and  history  of  their 
organization  and  appealing  to  their  patriotism 
and  their  esprit  de  corps.  No  stone  should  be  left 
unturned  to  fill  their  hearts  and  minds  with  a 
determination  to  conquer,  no  matter  what  dif- 
ficulties are  to  be  overcome,  and  what  losses 
they  may  be  called  on  to  suffer.  The  commander 
himself  should  be  the  symbol  of  the  fighting 
spirit  which  he  endeavors  to  foster  and  should 
show  in  himself  a  good  example  of  patriotism, 
honor,  and  courage. 

The  first  words  of  the  Articles  of  Government 
of  the  Navy,  which  correspond  to  the  Articles  of 
War,  require  that  the  commander  of  every  vessel 
should  show  in  himself  an  example  of  virtue, 
honor,  patriotism,  and  subordination.  That  is 
the  preamble  for  the  Articles  of  Government  of 
the  Navy. 

In  the  larger  units,  it  is  frequently  impossible 
for  the  commander  to  address  all  of  the  men  or 
to  come  in  personal  contact  with  them.  In  this 
case,  battle  orders  should  be  issued.  These 
orders  should  be  based  on  a  careful  study  of  the 
problems  involved  and  an  intimate  knowledge 
of  the  thoughts  of  his  men.  Following  the  battle, 
it  is  well,  too,  to  issue  an  order  recounting  the 
exploits  of  the  troops  and  telling  them  of  the  ef- 
fects of  their  efforts.  At  this  time  the  men  are 
exhausted  in  mind  and  body,  and  even  though 
they  may  have  been  victorious,  they  are  depress- 
ed in  spirit  on  account  of  the  many  losses  they 
have  suffered;  their  comrades  have  been  killed 
and  wounded,  they  have  witnessed  many  terrible 
scenes,  and  every  effort  should  be  made  to  cheer 
and  raise  their  spirits.  Praise  and  commendation 
should  be  given  freely;  decorations  should  be 
promptly  awarded  and  delivered  immediately 
after  withdrawal  from  the  front  lines.  Addresses 
to  organizations  which  have  distinguished  them- 
selves should  be  made.  Replacements  should  be 
furnished  promptly,  if  practicable,  and  the 
thoughts  of  the  men  immediately  turned  to 
building  up  their  shattered  organizations  and 
preparing  again  to  strike  the  enemy.  Skulkers 
and  cowards  should  be  promptly  and  publicly 
punished  so  that  all  may  see  the  great  gulf  which 
separates  them  from  the  gallant  men  who  have 
served  faithfully  and  courageously. 

One  is  just  as  important  as  the  other.  The  way 
it  appealed  to  me  overseas  is  that  there  were 
three  classes  of  men.  The  first  class,  [were]  the 
gallant,  courageous  fellows  who  did  not  require 
any  urging  or  any  leadership  practically,  but 
who  from  a  sense  of  duty,  loyalty,  and 

Marine  Corps  Gazette  t  July  J  979 

E 


patriotism  would  stay  up  in  the  front  lines  and 
fight  until  all  hell  froze  over.  And  the  third 
class,  [were]  the  skulkers,  the  white-livered 
fellows  whom  you  could  not  expect  anything  of 
at  all.  Then  there  was  a  great  middle  class  who 
could  be  swayed  either  way,  and  that  was  the 
class  you  had  to  deal  with.  If  the  services  of  the 
men  who  fought  bravely  were  not  promptly  and 
properly  recognized  on  the  one  hand,  and  if  the 
skulkers  and  cowards  were  not  punished  on  the 
other,  the  sentiment  might  grow  that  it  was  just 
as  well  to  skulk.  You  got  nothing  for  doing  your 
duty  and  you  got  nothing  for  not  doing  your  du- 
ty. The  two  go  hand  in  hand,  and  punishments 
should  be  prompt  and  merciless  to  a  real 
coward.  On  the  other  hand,  praise,  commenda- 
tion, and  rewards  should  be  freely  given  and 
promptly  given.  The  French,  I  think,  under- 
stood the  psychology  of  their  people  from  the 
way  they  lined  up  their  troops  and  decorated 
them  immediately  after  they  came  out  of  the 
fight. 

Finally,  the  most  vital  thing  is  to  make  the 
men  feel  that  they  are  invincible,  that  no  power 
can  defeat  them,  and  that  the  success  of  their 
country's  cause  depends  on  the  victory  of  their 
organization. 

I  mentioned  in  reading  this  about  informing 
the  men  beforehand  what  they  were  going  to  do. 
That  policy  was  exemplified  before  the  Second 
Division  went  into  the  battle  of  the  Meuse- 
Argonne.  We  moved  up  in  the  reserve  of  the 
Fifth  Corps.  We  had  the  general  officers  and  the 
chief  of  staff,  who  was  Colonel  Ray,  at  several 
conferences  at  Fifth  Corps  headquarters,  in 
which  General  Summerall  explained  in  the 
greatest  detail  just  what  each  division  of  the 
corps  and  the  whole  army  was  to  do  on  No- 
vember 1st.  I  took  this  back  to  division  head- 
quarters and  had  the  senior  officers  of  the  divi- 
sion together,  and  Colonel  Ray  and  myself  ex- 
plained everything  to  them.  We  were  then  in 
reserve  with  no  opportunity  for  information  to 
seep  through  the  lines.  It  was  directed  that  every 
officer  and  every  man  in  the  division  be  inform- 
ed of  the  part  we  were  going  to  play  and  what 
the  object  of  the  battle  was,  and  what  would  be 
accomplished  if  victory  was  achieved.  A  map 
was  drawn  and  given  to  every  platoon,  and  each 
platoon  leader  had  his  men  up  and  instructed 
every  one  down  to  and  including  the  privates  of 
just  what  his  platoon  was  going  to  do  in  the  bat- 
tle. There  was  plenty  of  time  and  opportunity  to 
have  it  all  worked  out  in  advance  and  the  conse- 
quence was  that  the  whole  division  felt  absolute- 
ly certain  what  it  was  going  through  on  that  day 
and  it  did  go  through.  usJFmc 

Reprinted  with  permission  of 

1  he  Marine  Corps  Gazette 


-  '  "The  old  salts  said  Peleliu  was  the  fiercest  combat  they  had  ever  seen.. .For  us, 
combat  was  a  series  of  changing  events  characterized  by  confusion,  awesome 
violence,  gripping  fear,  physical  stress  and  fatigue,  fierce  hatred  of  the  enemy, 
and  overwhelming  grief  over  the  loss  of  friends...." 


Recollections  Of  A  Pf  c 


Reprinted  with  permission  of 
LEATHERNECK  MAGAZINE. 


Story  by  E.  B.  Sledge 


Official  USMC  Photos 


E.B.  Sledge,  Ph.D.,  is  the  author  of 
the  popular  book,  "With  The  Otd  Breed 
At  Peietiu  And  Okinawa,  "published  by 
Presidio  Press.  The  book  is  available  to 
our  readers  through  the  Marine  Corps 
Association  Bookservice  at  $14.35  for  as- 
sociation members  and  $15.95  for  non- 
members,  plus  SI.  00  for  shipping  Gnd 
handling. 

Sledge  was  a  Marine  Pfc  and  barely  in 
his  twenties  when  he  landed  with  the  First 
Marine  Division  on  the  is/and  of  Peleliu 
in  September  1944.  Following  is  his 
stark,  ground-level  account  of  "one  of 
the  most  fierce,  savage  and  bloody  bat- 
tles of WW  //."- Ed. 


■  ■  he  battle  for  Peietiu  was  a  long,  long 
Ml  time  ago,  and  it  is  not  pleasant  to  set 
forth  the  following  recollections  of  my 
days  there  as  a  Marine  Pfc.  There  is 
neither  nostalgia  nor  wistful  sentimen- 
tality in  recounting  the  suffering,  brutali- 
ty and  horror  that  was  the  reality  I  ex- 
perienced in  one  of  the  most  fierce,  sav- 
age and  bloody  battles  of  WW  li. 

Thirty-nine  years  have  not  dimmed  the 
memory.  However,  if  my  comments  en- 
able ihe  reader  to  visualize  more  clearly 
the  true  nature  of  the  awesome  obstacles 
which  confronted  my  comrades,  and 
how  they  overcame  them,  then  I  am 
amply  rewarded. 


My  experiences  were  typical  of  those 
of  most  Marines  in  a  rifle  company. 
Many  fine  historical  accounts  of  cam- 
paigns—the "big  picture" — clearly  ex- 
piain  what  happened  in  a  battle.  This  is  as 
it  should  be.  However,  one  should  keep 
in  mind  the  very  important  fact  that  the 
infantryman  in  combat  was  totally  im- 
mersed in  the  abyss  of  hell,  fighting  the 
enemy  in  a  desperate  struggle  for  sur- 
vival. 

For  us,  combat  was  a  series  of  chang- 
ing events  characterized  by  confusion, 
awesome  violence,  gripping  fear, 
physical  stress  and  fatigue,  fierce  hatred 
of  the  enemy,  and  overwhelming  grief 


At  full  strength,  "K"  Company,  3rd  Battalion,  5th  Marines.  First  Marine  Division, 
numbered  235  men.  The  bitter  fighting  on  Peleliu  cost  the  company  about  64  percent 
casualties.  Afterwards,  the  weary  survivors  prepared  to  board  ship  tor  Pavtrvu. 


F-2 


PELELIU(cont.) 


"The  battle  for  Peleliu  was  savage  ana  brutal.  Compassion  was  never  extended  to  the 
enemy  and  was  not  expected  in  return.  But  to  our  own— both  wounded  and  dead — a 
mother  tending  her  babe  could  not  have  been  more  gentle." 


over  the  loss  of  friends.  We  endured  vile 
personal  filth  in  a  repulsive  environment, 
saturated  with  the  stench  of  deaih  and 
decay.  The  vital  element  in  our  lives  was 
the  faith  and  trust  we  had  in  each  other. 
Nothing  else  mattered. 

I  have  written  elsewhere  a  detailed  ac- 
count of  many  of  my  experiences  on 
Peleliu.  Here,  I  am  simply  setting  forth 
certain  events  taken  from  the  total  ex- 
perience, and  the  reader  should  not  look 
for  continuity  in  the  sequence  of 
episodes.  Time  had  no  meaning — we  liv- 
ed only  in  the  present  moments  of  each 
event,  for  survival  seemed  less  and  less 
likely  amid  the  violence  and  death  of  the 
present. 

Like  any  other  WW  II  enlisted  Marine 
in  a  rifle,  or  line,  company,  the  company 
was  my  world  and  my  home — the  235 
men  of  K  Company,  3rd  Battalion,  5th 
Marines,  First  Marine  Division,  were  my 
family. 

In  combat  I  saw  little,  knew  little,  and 
understood  still  less  about  anything  that 
occurred  outside  K-3-5.  We  had  our 
hands  full  fighting  and  trying  to  survive 

24 


moment  to  moment.  I  was  assistant  gun- 
ner on  #2  gun  in  the  company's  60-nim. 
mortar  section.  Mcrriel  A.  ("Snafu") 
Shelton,  of  Louisiana,  and  a  veteran  of 
the  Cape  Cloucester  Campaign,  was 
gunner — and  there  wasn't  a  finer  one. 


1stLt  "Stumpy"  Stanley 


F-3 


Our  veteran  company  commander. 
Cap!  Andrew  A.  ("Ack  Ack")  Haldane. 
was  widely  acclaimed  as  one  of  the  very 
best  in  the  Marine  Corps.  He  was  a  large 
man  and  possessed  even-  personal  and 
professional  attribute  of  ability,  leader- 
ship, courage,  compassion  and  dignity 
one  could  possibly  find  in  the  best  of  offi- 
cers. 

Second  in  command  was  the  veteran 
Executive  Officer,  lslLt  Thomas  A. 
("Stumpy")  Stanley.  Short,  muscular, 
equally  as  capable  as  Ack  Ack,  Stumpy 
was  always  on  the  move.  If  Ack  Ack  was 
the  rudder  that  guided  K-3-5,  Stumpy 
was  the  propeller  that  kept  it  mov- 
ing— never  too  fast,  never  loo  slow,  but 
just  the  right  pace  for  the  situation  at 
hand. 

In  my  most  vivid  picture  of  Ack  Ack, 
he  is  studying  a  map,  his  prominent  jaw 
covered  with  a  stubble  of  black  beard,  his 
brow  beneath  the  rim  of  his  helmet  creas- 
ed and  wrinkled  in  concentration,  his 
radio  man  and  a  couple  of  runners  beside 
him,  awaiting  orders. 

Stumpy  seemed  always  on  the  move. 


His  muscular  legs  driving  like  pistons 
across  Peleliu's  rough  terrain  as  he  coor- 
dinated positions,  supervised  removal  of 
die  wounded,  or  checked  the  company's 
flanks.  When  we  had  to  withdraw  from 
some  untenable  position,  Stumpy  always 
seemed  10  be  the  last  man  out — walking 
backwards,  or  running  and  turning  as  he 
fired  bursts  from  his  Thompson  .45  cal. 
submachine  gun  to  cover  our  with- 
drawal. He  always  went  where  there  was 
a  problem  and  squared  things  away.  It 
was  a  miracle  that  he  never  got  hit.  He 
was  constantly  exposed  to  heavy  fire  even 
when  the  rest  of  us  were  ordered  to  take 
cover. 

**•» 

Early  afternoon  on  D-Day  found  the 
three  companies  of  3/5 — I,  K  and 
L — separated  and  out  of  contact  in  the 
thick  scrub  growth  somewhere  south  of 
the  airfield.  The  battalion  CP.  had  been 
knocked  out  by  enemy  shelling  and  most 
of  us  in  K  Company  were  pinned  down 
by  small  arms  and  shell  lire.  Visibility 
was  poor  through  the  scrub,  smoke  and 
dust.  Ammunition  was  low,  water  was 
short,  and  the  heat  was  unbearable.  I 
feared  we  would  all  be  lost,  but  the 
veterans,  though  obviously  afraid,  re- 
mained calm  and  confident. 

Sgt  Henry  A.  "Hank"  Boyes  con- 
tacted a  tank ,  climbed  onto  the  turret  and 
directed  the  gunner's  fire.  He  spotted  and 
directed  the  knockout  of  four  strongly 
held  Japanese  artillery  positions.  Hank 
clung  to  the  turret  of  that  tank  amidst  a 
storm  of  enemy  fire  of  every  kind  and 
caliber.  The  enemy  was  all  around  us,  so 
the  tanker  rotated  his  turret  and  fired  his 
.30  caliber  machine  guns  and  75-mm. 
cannon  in  a  complete  360-degree  circle. 

A  Japanese  75-mm.  field  gun  was 
knocked  out  about  30  yards  from  my 
squad  around  a  bend  in  a  trail.  We  could 
hear  the  terrifying,  thundering  reports  of 
the  enemy  gun  firing,  but  couldn't  see  it. 
Hank  emerged  unscratched,  and  the  op- 
position was  almost  wiped  out  in  our 
area.  Why  he  wasn't  shot  to  pieces  I'll 
never  understand.  We  were  able  to  fall 
back  and  later  tie  in  with  the  Division  line 
at  the  edge  of  the  airfield  after  dark. 

Hank  Boyes  was  later  awarded  the  Sil- 
ver Star  Medal  on  Stumpy  Stanley's  re- 
commendation. Hank  single-handedly 
saved  K-3-5  that  day.  Stumpy  said  years 
later  that  it  was  the  only  medal  he  ever  re- 
commended in  K-3-5  throughout  Peleiiu 
and  Okinawa.  It  is  his  conviction  that 
every  man  in  the  company  at  one  time  or 
another  did  something  deserving  of  a 
decoration,  but  Hank's  heroism  that  day 
saved  us  all.  On  this  all  the  survivors 
heartily  agree. 

*••• 

ItAlllI  RNFCh  •  IfPlfMBCR  '983 


(ABOVE)  On  September  28, 1944,  the  weary  Marines  of  K/3/5  moved  inland 
after  hitting  the  beach  on  Ngesebus  Island.  (BELOW)  During  the  first  week 
of  October  1944,  K/3/5  attacked  through  "Death  Valley"  on  Peleiiu,  receiving 
fire  from  all  directions.  (BOTTOM)  Marines  carried  their  wounded  to  safety 
through  a  ravine  on  Peleiiu. 


PELELIU  (copt.) 

On  the  morning  of  September  16, 
1 944,  as  we  took  up  positions  to  make  the 
costly  attack  across  the  open  airfield  un- 
der heavy  fire,  1  passed  a  Marine  machine 
gun  position  in  a  company  of  2/5  that 
had  killed  about  15  Japanese  during  a 
pre-dawn  counterattack.  The  dead  were 
strung  out  in  front  of  the  gun  and  all  had 
one  or  more  disc-shaped  mines  tied  to 
their  bodies.  The  Japanese  closest  to  the 
gun  position  had  an  unexploded  grenade 
in  his  right  hand,  plus  a  mine  tied  on  his 
pack  above  his  shoulders  and  one  on 
each  hip. 

"With  all  our  flares  and  star  shells,  ' 
managed  to  see  this  bunch  and  rack  'em 
up  before  they  rushed  us  in  the  dark  and 
set  off  those  mines,"  the  gunner  told  me. 
"I  guess  that  first  one  was  going  to  set  ofi 
his  mines  with  the  grenade,"  1  replied. 
"You  said  that  right,"  remarked  the 
gunner,  "and  it  would  have  played  hell 
with  this  part  of  our  line  if  he  had." 

"Let's  go,  Sledgehammer,"  someone 
veiled. 

I  passed  a  small  crater  with  a  man  in 
Marine  battle  dress  sitting  in  it  with  a 
small  portable  typewriter  on  his  knees. 
We  halted  nearby  and  I  watched  in  ad- 
miration as  the  correspondent  typed  furi- 
ously away  with  shells  whistling  over  and 
bursting  with  increasing  frequency  in  our 
area. 

We  were  filled  with  dread  as  we  lay  on 
the  scorching  hot  coral  and  looked  north 
across  the  open  toward  Bloody  Nose 
Ridge.  Snafu  and  I  were  in  the  area  where 
the  upright  and  the  horizontal  runways 
intersected  to  form  a  figure  4.  The  hori- 
zontal runway  ran  roughly  northeast.  As 
we  moved  forward,  1  clenched  my  teeth, 
prayed  and  squeezed  my  carbine  stock. 

Enemy  artillery  shells  came  in  scream- 
ing or  whistling.  The  smaller  the  caliber, 
the  higher  the  pitch.  Our  75's  went 
swishing  over  on  their  deadly  mission, 
joined  by  big  naval  shells  which  rumbled 
along  like  locomotives  in  the  distance. 
Enemy  mortar  shells,  mostly  the  big 
81 -mm.  and  90-mrn.,  emitted  an  almost 
inaudible,  soft  whisper — whissh-shh- 
shh,  whissh-shh-shh — as  they  approach- 
ed. So  soft  was  the  sound  of  their  ap- 
proach that  the  shell  was  almost  upon  us 
without  warning. 

The  sound  of  the  explosion  seemed  to 
be  in  two  parts  and  began  with  a  grinding 
and  crunching  noise  like  some  demon 
clawing  its  way  to  freedom  from  inside 
the  shell,  followed  by  a  loud,  dull 
BANG.  Steel  fragments  rushed  out  and 
tore  through  the  air  with  a  whirring,  rip- 
ping sound  that  caused  even  the  most 
stout-hearted  to  cringe.  That  terrible 


Pfc  Bill  Leyden,  of  New  York,  was 
one  of  the  many  unsung  heroes  of 
the  Peleliu  campaign.  He  was  badly 
wounded  by  a  Japanese  grenade  on 
Ngesebus  Island. 

murmuring  voice  of  an  incoming  mortar 
shell,  so  intimate  and  insidious,  seemed, 
like  the  ghostly  summons  of  some 
ghoulish  witch,  to  enter  into  oblivion  on 
the  wings  of  violent  explosion.  Each  shell 
seemed  alive  to  me  and  to  be  whispering, 
"Maybe  next  time." 

We  got  across  unhurt  except  for  a 
bruise  Snafu  received  on  his  side  from  a 
spent  fragment.  Many  others  weren't  so 
lucky.  To  be  shelled  in  the  open  as  we  ran 
was  a  terrifying  experience — one  of  my 
most  horrid  and  vivid  memories. 

One  day  we  were  read  an  "inspiring 
message"  from  the  Division  Command- 
ing General  to  the  effect  that  we  didn't 
need  Army  help  to  finish  Peleliu.  This 
was  met  with  curses  and  profound  ex- 
pressions of  hope  from  the  troops  that 
unprintable  things  should  be  in  the  gen- 
eral's future.  We  had  given  our  all,  lost  a 
majority  of  our  buddies,  endured  the 
horrors  of  hell,  and  we  were  in  no  mood 
for  messages  of  cheer  from  way  back  at 
the  Division  CP. 

**•• 

On  September  28,  after  two  weeks  of 
24-hour-a-day  combat,  the  weary  men  of 
depleted  3/5  boarded  amtracs  and  at- 
tacked Ngesebus  Island  to  capture  the 
fighter  strip.  Despite  our  fears,  the  lan- 
ding was  easy,  thanks  to  the  magnificent 
support  of  Corsairs  and  naval  gunfire.  A 
ridge  honeycombed  with  caves  gave 
K-3-5  a  lot  of  trouble,  however.  Official 
reports  said  opposition  was  "meager," 
"light,"  or  "slight."  Possibly  so  in  Divi- 
sion CP.  On  the  line  it  was  a  bloody 


fierce  fight.  There  was  ample  evidence  of 
the  enemy's  willingness  to  die  fighting. 

Pfc  Bill  Leyden,  of  New  York,  saw 
four  enemy  soldiers  run  down  into  a 
cave,  so  he  tossed  a  grenade  in  after 
them.  It  exploded  and  an  enemy  soldier 
immediately  jumped  out,  threw  a 
grenade,  and  yelled  in  perfect  English, 
"Here  I  am  Marine!  Kill  me!  Kill  me!" 
Leyden  fired  from  the  hip — all  eight 
rounds  from  his  Ml,  killing  the  soldier 
instantly.  The  grenade  exploded  in  the 
air,  shrapnel  struck  Leyden  in  the  left  eye 
and  the  concussion  knocked  him  out.  He 
came  to  in  a  moment,  just  in  time  to 
reload  his  rifle  and  shoot  an  enemy 
soldier  crawling  along  in  front  of  him. 

Leyden  was  carried  on  a  stretcher  to  an 
amtrac  for  evacuation.  Dazed  and  in 
pain,  he  looked  up  as  a  Marine  asked, 
"How  is  it  up  there,  son?" 

In  that  fury  all  front-line  Marines 
reserved  for  anyone  not  on  the  line, 
Leyden  retorted,  "Get  off  your  ass  and 
go  inland  about  200  yards  and  you  can 
find  out." 

Astonished,  the  man  replied,  "Don't 
worry,  son.  You'll  be  all  right,"  as  he 
moved  away. 

Another  casualty  on  the  amtrac  in- 
formed Leyden  he  had  just  addressed 
LtCol  Lew  Walt,  the  Executive  Officer 
of  the  5th  Marines. 

(Leyden  recovered  and  returned  to 
K-3-5  after  Pddiu.  On  his  19th  birthday, 
on  Okinawa,  he  was  blown  into  the  air 
and  seriously  wounded  by  the  terrific 
blast  and  concussion  of  an  artillery  shell 
landing  in  his  foxhole.  Years  later,  at  a 
Marine  Corps  reunion,  Lew  Walt  re- 
minded Leyden  of  the  incident  at 
Ngesebus.  The  intrepid  Walt  had  been  so 
astounded  at  the  insubordination  of  the 
young  casualty  that  he  had  backed  off 
the  amtrac  ramp  and  nearly  broken  his 
ankle.) 

We  were  exhausted  after  the  day-and- 
a-half  fight  on  Ngesebus.  Over  470 
Japanese  troops  were  killed.  K-3-5  alone 
lost  eight  killed  and  24  wounded — hardly 
"meager"  opposition.  We  had  already 
fought  for  two  terrible  weeks  on  Peleliu, 
but  rest  and  relief  were  not  yet  to  be  our 
reward. 

•••• 

On  October  1 ,  1944,  3/5  was  attached 
to  the  7th  Marines.  We  made  hopeless  at- 
tacks on  the  Five  Sisters  ridges,  K-3-5  los- 
ing eight  killed  and  22  wounded.  For  15 
more  grueling  days  and  nights  we  fought 
in  the  valleys  and  on  the  ridges  of  the 
Umurbrogol  Pocket,  blasted  and  burned 
as  barren  as  the  surface  of  the  moon .  Our 
intense  hatred  of  the  enemy  grew  as  they 
shot  our  helpless  wounded  and  the 
dedicated  corps  men  who  were  struggling 


26 


F-5 


If A7HCTWFCK  •  SFPTEI0BEH  1983 


"On  the  line  in  the  ridges  o(  Peleliu  I  saw  men 
from  Division  Headquarters,  Amtracs,  Artillery. 
Engineers.  Weapons  Company,  etc  .  —  Marines 
one  and  all—and  that's  why  we  won."  —  E.B 


to  give  what  aid  and  comfort  they  could 
on  the  battlefield. 

No  amount  of  shelling,  bombing, 
napalm,  or  satchel  charges  seemed  to  do 
much  damage  to  the  coral  rock  which 
protected  the  enemy  in  his  caves.  Every 
night  they  raided  and  tried  to  infiltrate 
our  lines.  We  were  so  weary  1  often  had 
to  hold  the  eyelid  of  one  eye  open  to  stay 
awake  while  Snafu  tried  to  sleep.  One 
man  had  to  be  awake  all  night  in  each 
foxhole — or  "position," — because  it 
was  impossible  to  dig  into  the  rock.  We 
frequently  fired  illumination  shells 
and/or  H.E.  ail  night.  The  muzzle  flash 
of  the  monar  was  attractive  to  infiltra- 
tors. 

War  as  we  knew  it  was  savage  and 
brutal.  Compassion  was  never  extended 
10  the  enemy  and  was  not  expected  in  re- 
turn. But  to  our  own — both  wounded 
and  dead — a  mother  tending  her  babe 

could  not  have  been  more  gentle. 
**»* 

After  exactly  one  month  on  the  line  we 
were  relieved  by  Army  troops  who 


fought  five  more  weeks  to  knock  out  the 
last  enemy  position. 

We  lost  about  64%  casualties  in  K-3-5. 
Statistics  to  historians,  but  fine,  trust- 
worthy buddies  and  leaders  to  the  grief- 
stricken  survivors.  The  old  salts  said  Pe- 
leliu  was  the  fiercest  combat  they  had 
ever  seen. 

How  were  we  able  to  win  such  a  fierce 
fight?  I'll  leave  the  "big  picture"  to  the 
historians.  But,  it  should  be  remember- 
ed, in  the  Pacific,  for  every  infantryman 
on  the  line,  18  men  were  required  in  sup- 
port {The  Sharp  End  by  John  Ellis). 
Therefore,  one  man  out  of  every  19  knew 
war  at  its  worst.  The  infantryman  was 
called  on  to  put  his  life  on  the  line  time 
after  time  beyond  hope  of  survival,  and 
to  the  point  of  near-collapse. 

i  believe,  from  personal  experience  in 
two  campaigns  and  over  30  years  of  stu- 
dying the  Pacific  War,  that  Marines  were 
the  finest  troops  in  WW  II.  Their  record 
bears  out  my  conclusion.  A  combination 
of  ingredients  went  into  the  production 
of  such  crack  troops:  strict  discipline; 
thorough,  tough  training  beginning  with 


boot  camp,  and  emphasis  on  hand-to- 
hand  combat  (which  built  confidence) 
and  on  weapons  skill  and  physical 
fitness;  superb  leadership  from  corporals 
on  up;  esprit  de  corps — in  the  USMC, 
and  in  each  unit  itself;  confidence,  faith 
and  trust  in  each  other;  the  will  to  win 
and  not  to  quit.  Much  of  this  can  be  sum- 
med up  as  pride  and  morale.  It  was  not  a 
smug  cockiness,  but  genuine  self- 
confidence  at  both  the  individual  and  the 
unit  levels.  It  was  simply  unthinkable  to 
let  another  Marine  down. 

Frankly,  I  didn't  like  much  of  my 
training— I  thought  it  was  going  to  kill 
me,  and  sometimes  it  just  seemed 
pointless.  In  retrospect,  I  realize  it  all  had 
a  purpose  and  it  was  all  essential — it 
made  me  a  Marine.  Every  Marine  is  first 
an  infantryman  and  a  specialist  secon- 
darily. 

On  the  line  in  the  ridges  of  Peleliu  I 
saw  men  from  Division  Headquarters, 
Amtracs,  Artillery,  Engineers,  Weapons 
Company,  etc. — Marines  one  and 
ail — and  that's  why  we  won. 


it  A  rHERNSC*  •  SfPHMBfR  1993 


F-6 


27 


i 


UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS 
Marine  Corps  University 
User's  Guide  to  Marine  Corps  Values 

PROFILES  IN  COURAGE 

1.  Introduction .     Courage,   both  physical  and  moral,    is  in  the 
heart  and  soul  of  every  Marine.     It  is  the  motivating  force  that 
makes  Marines  special,   a  cut  above  those  in  society  who  think  of 
themselves  first.     Courage  is  the  state  of  mind  and  spirit  that 
enables  Marines  to  face  the  fear  of  combat  with  the  utmost 
confidence,   and  resolution  to  fight  unreserved  for  what  is  right. 

Adhering  to  a  personal  honor  code  is  not  quite  the  same  as 
being  law-abiding  or  following  regulations.     An  honorable  Marine, 
for  example,   will  truthfully  admit  not  cleaning  his  or  her 
weapon,   admitting  violation  of  regulations  requiring  their 
cleaning . 

Such  an  admission  requires  moral  courage.     It  also  means  that 
the  honorable  Marine  can  be  trusted  to  report  things  accurately. 
This  is  fundamental  to  trust,    teamwork,   and  success  on  the 
battlefield . 

Moral  courage  takes  many  forms.     It  could  mean  remaining  at 
one's  post  under  extremely  difficult  conditions.     Dr.   Craig  M. 
Cameron  described  instances  of  this  in  his  analysis  of  the  1st 
Marine  Division's  combat  experience.     On  Guadalcanal,   when  there 
were  no  replacements  for  casualties,   many  1st  Division  Marines 
would  not  go  to  sick  call  even  though  they  should  have  been  in 
the  hospital  for  malaria  and  other  tropical  diseases.     In  their 
view  it  was  more  important  to  stay  and  protect  their  fellow 
Marines.     Going  to  the  hospital  would  have  been  tantamount  to 
abandoning  their  friends . 

The  distinction  between  moral  and  physical  courage  is  usually 
blurred.     Many  times,    strength  of  character  may  manifest  itself 
as  physical  courage.     A  good  example  occurred  during  the  World 
War  I  battle  of  Soissons.     A  heavy  German  counterattack  left 
First  Lieutenant  Clifton  B.   Cates,    later  Commandant  of  the  Marine 
Corps,   and  a  handful  of  Marines  in  a  dangerously  exposed 
position.     Given  the  size  of  his  force,   he  could  have  ordered  a 
withdrawal.     Instead,   he  sent  the  following  message  to  his 
battalion  commander: 

"I  am  in  an  old  abandoned  French  trench  bordering  on  road 
leading  from  your  CP  and  350  yards  from  an  old  mill.  I  have  only 
two  men  left  out  of  my  company  and  20  out  of  other  companies.  We 
need  support  but  it  is  almost  suicide  to  try  to  get  it  here  as 
we  are  swept  by  machine  gun  fire  and  a  constant  artillery  barrage 
is  upon  us.  I  have  no  one  on  my  left  and  only  a  few  on  my  right. 
I  will  hold. " 

2.  Overview .     The  purpose  of  this  period  of  introspection  is  to 
study  examples  of  Marine  courage,   appreciate  the  sacrifices  made 
by  fellow  Marines  to  strengthen  your  own  courage,   and  in  some 
examples,    further  your  own  warfighting  expertise. 


22-1 


3 .  References 


Wise,   Colonel  Frederick  M. ,   and  Frost,   Meigs  0. 

A  Marine  Tells  It  to  You.     New  York,   NY,   J.H.   Sears  & 
Company,    Inc.,    1929,   pp.  201-239. 

Fehrenbach,   T.R.   This  Kind  of  War.     New  York,   NY,  The 
Macmillan  Company,    1963,   pp.  189-197. 

United  States  Marine  Corps.     Guidebook  for  Marines, 
Fourteenth  Revised  Edition,    1  July  1984,   pp.  33-35. 

4.  Discussion  Leader  Notes.     Have  each  seminar  member  read  the 
following  profiles  in  courage.     At  the  completion  of  each 
reading,    there  will  be  a  list  of   "recommended"  points  of 
discussion  to  assist  the  group  in  identifying  and  appreciating 
the  courageous  acts  of  the  subject (s)  presented. 

5 .  Discussion . 

a.     World  War  I--From  Colonel  Frederick  May  Wise's 
description  of  Bois  De  Belleau   (the  Battle  of  Belleau  Woods) 

"Just  past  noon,   a  runner  came  up  the  road  with  orders  from 
Colonel  Neville.     We  were  to  proceed  to  the  northeast  edge  of  the 
woods,   which  were  northwest  of  LucyleBocage ,   and  await  orders. 

By  two  o'clock  that  afternoon  we  were  under  way,   going  across 
open  fields.     High  in  the  air  I  saw  several  German  sausages 
(observation  balloons) .     I  knew  those  woods  were  going  to  catch 
hell  shortly.   In  about  an  hour  we  were  newly  established  on  their 
edge.     This  time  I  had  the  men  scatter  well  among  the  trees.  I 
warned  them  especially  against  bunching  up.     We  settled  down 
again  to  wait  for  orders. 

Along  toward  ten  o ' clock  that  night  the  German  shelling 
started.   They  gave  those  woods  hell.     The  Germans  were  pouring 
everything  they  had  into  that  ridge.     It  didn't  take  any  urging 
for  the  Marines  to  get  into  fox  holes  the  minute  they  knew  we 
were  going  to  hold  it.     But  though  the  Germans  didn't  launch  any 
infantry  attack,    they  kept  up  a  continuous  shelling  with  all  the 
artillery  in  range,   and  poured  an  unceasing  stream  of  machine-gun 
and  rifle  fire  against  that  ridge.     Everywhere  up  and  down  the 
line,   masses  of  earth,    chunks  of  rock,    splinters  of  trees,  leaped 
into  the  air  as  the  shells  exploded.     Machine-gun  and  rifle 
bullets  thudded  into  the  earth  unendingly.     That  place  was 
getting  warm. 

About  nine  o ' clock  that  morning  Colonel  Feland  came  up  behind 
the  ridge  on  foot.     He  told  me  the  First  Battalion  was  just  a 
little  on  my  left.     But  the  Third,   he  said,   had  been  badly  cut  up 
and  the  rest  of  it  was  around  LucyleBocage. 

Clinging  to  the  crest  of  that  ridge,   we  found  the  German 
shells  bad  enough.     But  there  was  worse  to  come.     They  had  trench 
mortars  in  the  Bois  de  Belleau,   and  presently  they  began  to  cut 
loose  on  us  with  them.     Those  aerial  torpedoes,   nearly  four  feet 
long,   packed  with  T.N.T.,   would  come  sailing  through  the  air  and 


22-2 


land  on  the  ridge.     That  whole  ridge  literally  shook  every  time 
one  of  them  exploded. 

All  that  day  the  bombardment  kept  up.     It  was  the  most  terri- 
fic fire  I  had  ever  experienced.     At  night  it  slackened  somewhat, 
only  to  resume  next  morning.     It  kept  up  all  next  day.   Some  gas 
shells  fell,    too,   but  the  gas  wasn't  bad  enough  to  make  us  put  on 
our  masks . 

Why  the  Germans  didn't  attack  and  break  through  that  line  of 
ours  I  never  will  be  able  to  understand.     All  that  second  day  we 
took  the  shelling  in  our  faces  and  held  the  line.     That  night, 
thank  God,    it  slackened  again. 

But  it  began  all  over  again  with  daybreak  on  the  third 
morning.     We  stayed  there  and  took  it  and  held  our  fire.  There 
was  nothing  in  sight  but  trees  to  shoot  at.     That  third  day 
passed  with  surprisingly  few  casualties.     It  proved  to  me  that 
artillery  can't  drive  infantry  out  of  any  place  if  the  infantry 
scatter  and  stick.     The  way  we  were  scattered,    the  worst  a  shell 
could  do  was  kill  one  man. 

We  settled  down  for  the  third  night.     Cold  food  and  ammuni- 
tion were  plentiful.     On  the  morning  of  the  fourth  day  a  runner 
came  up  with  a  message  that  a  side  car  was  waiting  for  me  back  at 
the  foot  of  the  ridge;   that  Brigadier  General  Harbord  wanted  to 
see  me  at  brigade  headquarters .     I  found  him  in  a  farm  house 
several  miles  back. 

"Wise,   he  said,    the  Sixth  Marines  have  made  two  attacks  on 
the  Bois  de  Belleau.     The  first  one  failed.     The  second  made  a 
little  headway  on  the  southern  edge  of  the  woods.     You're  on  the 
ground,    there.     You  know  the  conditions.     It's  up  to  you  to  clean 
it  up.   Go  ahead  and  make  your  own  plans  and  do  the  job."  "Very 
well,    sir."      "Do  you  want  some  artillery  assistance?"  he  asked. 
"No  sir, "   I  told  him.      "With  the  small  amount  of  artillery  we 
have,    it  only  warns  the  Germans  when  the  attack  is  to  take 
place . " 

I  left  him  and  took  the  side  car  over  to  regimental  headquar- 
ters in  a  house  at  La  Voie  du  Chatel,   about  halfway  to  the  ridge. 
There  I  found  Colonel  Neville.     I  told  him  what  orders  I  had 
received.      "May  I  have  my  other  company?"     I  asked.     He  said  he'd 
order  it  back. 

General  Harbord ' s  order  had  given  me  carte  blanche.     I  didn't 
see  any  use  following  the  same  line  of  attack  which  had  failed 
with  the  Sixth  Marines,   as  the  Germans  evidently  had  their  lines 
of  defense  worked  out  to  receive  attacks  from  that  direction.  It 
was  common  sense  to  hit  them  where  they  weren't  looking  for  it. 
So  I  determined  to  risk  everything  on  the  unexpected  and  attack 
them  from  their  rear.     Thus  I  would  get  in  between  them  and  their 
lines  of  support,   which  were  along  the  railroad  in  front  of  the 
northern  edge  of  the  Bois  de  Belleau. 

I  got  back  to  the  ridge  and  sent  for  my  company  commanders . 
The  Germans  were  still  hammering  us  with  drum  fire.  Captain 
Wass,   Captain  Williams,   Captain  Durlbeck  and  Lieutenant  Cook 
presently  appeared.     They  were  red-eyed,   dirty,   unshaven.     We  sat 
down  under  a  tree . 


22-3 


I  explained  to  them  what  our  mission  was  and  how  it  was  to  be 
accomplished.     I  told  them  it  was  a  hell  of  a  risk,   but  that  I 
had  a  hunch  that  if  we  caught  the  Germans  in  the  rear  of  their 
defenses,   we  would  have  much  more  of  a  chance  of  succeeding  than 
in  trying  to  attack  over  ground  on  which  two  earlier  efforts  had 
not  been  successful.     I  asked  for  any  opinions.     They  all  agreed 
with  me.     I  set  zero  hour  at  four  A.M.   and  told  them  we  would  get 
ready  for  the  attack  before  daybreak;   that  after  we  got  to  the 
northern  edge  of  the  woods,   any  German  shelling  would  hit  among 
the  Germans  as  well  as  us,   and  I  doubted  very  much  if  we'd  be 
annoyed  by  any  shell  fire. 

From  where  we  sat  we  could  see  the  ground  where  the  attack 
was  to  be  formed,   and  they'd  have  plenty  of  time  to  explain  to 
the  junior  officers  and  men  exactly  what  was  to  be  done.  The 
whole  thing  depended  on  getting  across  the  Lucy-Torcy  road  before 
daybreak  and  making  a  rapid  advance  to  the  northern  edge  of  the 
woods . 

The  First  Battalion  was  to  relieve  us  at  midnight.     I  had 
seen  Major  Turrill  about  it  personally,    so  that  the  relief  would 
be  made  rapidly  and  without  noise. 

I  ordered  that  each  man,    in  addition  to  his  ammunition  belt 
carrying  one  hundred  rounds,   was  to  be  issued  two  extra  bando- 
leers,  giving  him  one  hundred  and  twenty  rounds  more. 

I  also  designated  where  my  P.C.  would  be,   both  at  the  jump 
off  and  during  the  attack.     Both  places  were  in  plain  sight. 
They  went  back  to  their  companies.     The  battalion  was  made  ready 
for  the  attack.     Down  to  the  last  man  in  the  ranks,  everybody 
knew  every  detail  of  the  plan. 

All  the  rest  of  the  afternoon  we  stuck  by  our  fox  holes  while 
the  German  drum  fire  continued.  The  men  showed  no  excitement.  By 
now  they  had  been  through  enough  to  qualify  them  as  veterans. 

Late  that  afternoon  I  walked  over  and  saw  Major  Turrill,  who 
was  with  the  First  Battalion  about  two  miles  over  on  my  left.  He 
was  all  set  to  relieve  us.     I  also  went  over  and  saw  Major  John 
A.   Hughes,    commanding  the  First  Battalion  of  the  Sixth  Marines, 
who  had  made  the  last  attack  on  the  southern  edge  of  Bois  de 
Belleau  and  was  still  holding  it.     Major  Hughes  confirmed  my  idea 
that  it  was  almost  an  impossible  task  to  take  that  position  by 
frontal  attack.     He  told  me  a  lot,    too,   about  what  the  German 
defenses  were.     In  that  clump  of  woods  covering  a  knoll  a  mile 
long  and  a  half  mile  wide,   rising  sharply  from  the  fields  that 
surrounded  it,   was  an  outcrop  of  huge  boulders  cut  with  gullies 
and  ravines,   and  with  underbrush  so  thick  in  it  that  men  could 
pass  a  few  feet  from  each  other,   unseen.    In  that  tangle  were 
machine-guns  camouflaged  behind  brush  heaps  and  woodpiles,  back 
of  boulders  and  in  shell  proof  pits  under  boulders.   Snipers  on 
the  ground  and  in  the  tree  tops .     Picked  German  veterans  who  were 
fighting  desperately. 

I  went  back  to  the  ridge  after  my  talk  with  him,  thankful 
that  I  had  a  free  hand  and  could  hit  them  from  the  rear  instead 
of  having  to  make  a  frontal  attack." 

I 


22-4 


"Night  came  on.     I  sat  there  under  the  trees,   going  over  all 
the  details  in  my  mind,   waiting  for  four  A.M.    to  come. 

Through  the  dark  a  runner  showed  up,   asking  for  me.  "A 
message,    sir, "  he  said,   when  I  called  to  him.     I  looked  at  my 
wrist  watch.  Midnight.   Four  hours  more  to  wait.     I  unfolded  the 
message  he  handed  me,    crouched  down,   and  turned  the  light  of  my 
electric  torch  on  the  paper.     I  read  those  typewritten  lines.  I 
couldn't  believe  my  eyes.     It  was  an  attack  order. 

My  battalion  was  ordered  to  attack  the  Bois  de  Belleau  FROM 
THE  SOUTHERN  EDGE  at  four  o'clock  that  morning,    behind  a  rolling 
barrage.     It  was  signed  "Harbord. "     I  was  dumfounded.     All  my 
plans  were  up  in  the  air.     I  knew  that  piece  of  paper  I  held  in 
my  hand  meant  the  needless  death  of  most  of  my  battalion.  Some 
of  them  would  have  died  in  the  attack  I  had  planned.     But  now, 
instead  of  hitting  the  Germans  from  the  rear,    I  had  to  take  that 
battalion  to  a  frontal  attack  against  a  prepared  position. 

I  did  the  only  thing  left  to  do.     I  sent  runners  out  and 
called  my  company  commanders  in  again.     In  about  an  hour  they 
came  stumbling  through  the  dark. 

"The  plans  have  been  changed,"   I  told  them.      "We're  to  make 
an  attack  starting  from  the  southern  edge,    following  a  rolling 
barrage.     The  front  assigned  us  to  attack  on  is  so  wide  that  I'm 
going  to  risk  putting  all  four  companies  in  the  front  line.  We 
won't  have  any  supports  or  reserves.     So  it's  no  good  sending 
back  word  for  reinforcements.      'H'   hour  is  four  o'clock." 

I  explained  to  them  which  companies  would  be  formed  from 
right  to  left,    told  them  the  point  designated  as  the  jumping-off 
place,    the  pace  of  the  barrage,   and  where  my  P.C.  would  be. 

When  they  left  I  felt  sick.     I  sent  a  runner  off  to  Major 
Hughes,    informing  him  of  the  change  in  plans. 

I  sat  there  thinking  it  over.     There  was  nothing  more  to  do. 
The  order  had  said  that  Hughes  battalion  of  the  Sixth  Marines 
would  advance  simultaneously  with  us  on  our  right.     Days  later  I 
was  to  learn  that  Major  Hughes  never  got  any  such  order. 

About  three  o'clock  that  morning  the  companies  began  to  pull 
out.     I  went  on  down  to  my  new  P.C.     I  wasn't  sick  any  more.  The 
attack  had  to  be  made.     That  was  all  a  man  could  think  of,  then. 

I  stood  there  under  some  trees  by  a  ditch  on  the  southern 
edge  of  the  Bois  de  Belleau,    and  in  the  growing  light  watched  my 
battalion  march  into  position.     It  was  getting  lighter  every 
minute.     Suddenly  the  barrage  dropped,    several  hundred  yards  in 
front  of  our  lines.     Half  a  mile  in  front  of  us,  cultivated 
fields  stretched  up  in  a  gentle  rise  to  meet  the  thick  wall  of 
the  woods.     Earth  flew  in  air  as  the  barrage  dropped  into  those 
fields.     Fifty  paces  ahead  in  the  next  two  minutes  the  barrage 
crawled.     Amid  the  explosions  of  the  bursting  shells  we  could 
hear  the  German  machine  guns  in  the  woods  come  to  life.  They 
couldn't  see  us  yet,   but  they  knew  from  the  barrage  that  the 
attack  was  coming." 

"The  barrage  lifted  and  crawled  ahead.     The  whistles  of  our 
platoon  leaders  sounded  up  and  down  the  line.     The  battalion  rose 


22-5 


to  its  feet.     Bayonets  fixed,   rifles  at  the  ready,    the  men 
started  their  slow  advance. 

I  stood  there  watching  them  go  forward.     The  Germans  could 
see  us  now.     They  had  the  range.     Here  and  there  men  were 
dropping.     But  the  line  went  steadily  on.     The  Germans  couldn't 
have  had  better  targets  if  they  had  ordered  the  attack 
themselves . 

The  barrage  kept  crawling  on.     About  two  hundred  and  fifty 
yards  behind  it  the  battalion  went  on,   men  dropping,  men 
dropping,   men  dropping.     Yard  by  yard  they  advanced.  Minutes 
after,    I  saw  them  disappear  into  the  woods.     Those  woods  seemed 
to  have  swallowed  up  the  barrage  without  an  effort.     Now  they 
swallowed  up  the  battalion. 

As  the  Marines  vanished  into  the  undergrowth  beneath  the 
trees,    the  German  machine-gun  fire  slackened.     The  detonations  of 
the  barrage  had  ceased.     Across  those  fields  from  the  woods  I 
could  distinguish  machine-gun  fire,   rifle  fire.     A  sudden  ripping 
burst  of  machine-gun  fire  would  break  out.     That  meant  the 
Marines  were  advancing  on  a  nest.     It  would  die  down.     That  meant 
the  nest  was  taken. 

Back  across  that  open  field  wounded  men  began  crawling  to  the 
rear.     There  was  a  dressing  station  at  Lucy,   about  a  mile  away. 

Company  runners  began  to  come  back  out  of  the  woods  with 
reports.     Messages  hastily  scrawled  in  pencil.     This  objective 
attained.     That  objective  attained.     Heavy  casualties. 

Prisoners  commenced  to  come  back.     Convoys  of  twenty,  thirty, 
fifty  Germans,   herded  along  by  some  single  Marine  —  generally  a 
wounded  one  at  that . 

They  were  brought  to  my  P.C.    for  questioning.     From  my  inter- 
preter I  learned  they  were  the  Twenty-sixth  Jaeger  Division, 
veteran  Alpine  troops.     Also  that  there  were  more  than  eighteen 
hundred  Germans  defending  Bois  de  Belleau.     We  were  attacking 
with  about  nine  hundred 

We  cut  their  shoe  strings  and  shooed  them  back  toward  Lucy! 
They  went  contentedly  enough.     All  of  them  said  they  were  damned 
tired  of  the  war. 

From  time  to  time  company  runners  kept  coming  out  of  the 
woods  with  reports  of  objectives  gained  and  held,  about 
mid-afternoon  I  figured  it  was  time  for  me  to  go  and  take  a  look- 
see.     I  left  Legendre  at  the  P.C,    took  Coutra  with  me,   and  went 
over  to  the  edge  of  the  woods.     There  were  paths  I  could  follow 
through  the  undergrowth. 

Just  inside  the  edge  of  the  woods  I  came  upon  one  of  those 
German  machine-guns  camouflaged  behind  a  brush  pile.  Dead 
Marines  lay  in  front  of  it.     Dead  Germans  lay  about  it.  A 
strange  silence  held  in  the  woods. 

I  got  out  to  the  right  of  my  line,   where  Captain  Lloyd 
Williams'    company  had  gone  in.     They  were  in  fox  holes  on  the  far 
side  of  the  woods.   Some  junior  was  in  command.     Captain  Williams 
had  been  shot  early  in  the  day,    I  learned.     He  died  that  night. 
The  youngster  in  command  told  me  of  the  terrific  fighting  they'd 
had.     Foot  by  foot  they  had  pushed  their  way  through  the  under- 
brush in  the  face  of  a  continuous  machine-gun  and  rifle  fire. 


22-6 


Snipers  had  shot  them  from  brush  piles  on  the  ground;  from 
perches  high  in  the  trees .     Germans  they  had  left  sprawled  on  the 
ground  for  dead  as  they  went  on,   had  risen  and  shot  them  in  the 
back . 

I  went  on  down  the  line.     Lieutenant  Cook  was  unwounded,  but 
he  had  lost  several  of  his  juniors  and  a  lot  of  his  men.     He  told 
me  the  same  story  I  had  learned  from  what  was  left  of  Captain 
Williams'   company.     And  more. 

"Whenever  we  took  a  machine-gun  nest,"  he  said,    "another  one 
opened  up  on  their  flank.     That  happened  many  times.     The  second 
one  would  never  fire  a  shot  until  we  had  taken  the  first.  Then 
they  opened  up  on  us . " 

His  outfit,    too,   were  in  fox  holes  and  waiting  for  the 
expected  German  counterattack. 

Farther  down  the  line  I  found  Captain  Dunbeck  and  what  was 
left  of  his  outfit.     The  same  story  all  over  again. 

In  his  line,    along  the  edge  of  the  woods  toward  Germany,  the 
men  were  mounting  captured  German  machine-guns  against  the 
expected  counterattack.     There  was  plenty  of  ammunition  for  them. 
They  had  even  found  baby  carriages  and  wheelbarrows  filled  with 
it  beside  the  guns  they  had  captured.     Several  of  the  juniors  of 
this  outfit  were  gone,   and  the  losses  in  men  had  been  heavy. 

Captain  Dunbeck  told  me  how  Lieutenant  Heiser  had  died. 
Leading  an  attack  on  a  German  machine-gun  nest,   Heiser  had  been 
literally  decapitated.     His  head  had  been  cut  clean  from  his  body 
by  a  stream  of  machine-gun  bullets  that  caught  him  in  the  throat. 

Down  on  the  left  flank  I  found  Captain  Wass.     Most  of  his 
juniors  were  gone,   and  half  his  men.     What  was  left  of  his 
company  had  dug  in,    too,   on  the  German  edge  of  the  woods. 

Every  one  of  those  fou